Mathematics and computing

  • Perspective |

    Standards and recommendations for transitioning organizations to quantum-secure cryptographic protocols are outlined, including a discussion of transition timelines and the leading strategies to protect systems against quantum attacks.

    • David Joseph
    • , Rafael Misoczki
    •  & Royal Hansen
  • Perspective |

    The benefits and future prospects of neuromorphic, or bio-inspired, computing technologies are discussed, as is the need for a global, coordinated approach to funding, research and collaboration.

    • A. Mehonic
    •  & A. J. Kenyon
  • Article |

    A dandelion-inspired wireless solar-powered sensing device weighing 30 milligrams that transmits data through radio backscatter achieves dispersal over a wide area by travelling on the breeze, and successfully lands upright.

    • Vikram Iyer
    • , Hans Gaensbauer
    •  & Shyamnath Gollakota
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ithaca—a deep neural network for textual restoration, geographical attribution and dating of ancient Greek inscriptions—collaboratively aids historians’ study of damaged texts.

    • Yannis Assael
    • , Thea Sommerschield
    •  & Nando de Freitas
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A hybrid algorithm that applies backpropagation is used to train layers of controllable physical systems to carry out calculations like deep neural networks, but accounting for real-world noise and imperfections.

    • Logan G. Wright
    • , Tatsuhiro Onodera
    •  & Peter L. McMahon
  • Article |

    An analysis of three surveys of COVID-19 vaccine behaviour shows that larger surveys overconfidently overestimated vaccine uptake, a demonstration of how larger sample sizes can paradoxically lead to less accurate estimates.

    • Valerie C. Bradley
    • , Shiro Kuriwaki
    •  & Seth Flaxman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A framework through which machine learning can guide mathematicians in discovering new conjectures and theorems is presented and shown to yield mathematical insight on important open problems in different areas of pure mathematics.

    • Alex Davies
    • , Petar Veličković
    •  & Pushmeet Kohli
  • Article |

    A zero-knowledge proof, which can be used to verify secret information, is reported here with security that is enforced by the laws of special relativity.

    • Pouriya Alikhani
    • , Nicolas Brunner
    •  & Hugo Zbinden
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Modelling highlights international travel as the main driver of the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 to Europe and the USA, and suggests that introductions and local transmission may have begun in January 2020.

    • Jessica T. Davis
    • , Matteo Chinazzi
    •  & Alessandro Vespignani
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A biologically informed, interpretable deep learning model has been developed to evaluate molecular drivers of resistance to cancer treatment, predict clinical outcomes and guide hypotheses on disease progression.

    • Haitham A. Elmarakeby
    • , Justin Hwang
    •  & Eliezer M. Van Allen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Principles from the field of fair division are used to develop selection algorithms for citizens’ assemblies that produce panels that are representative of the population while simultaneously selecting individuals with near-equal probabilities.

    • Bailey Flanigan
    • , Paul Gölz
    •  & Ariel D. Procaccia
  • Article |

    Machine learning tools are used to greatly accelerate chip layout design, by posing chip floorplanning as a reinforcement learning problem and using neural networks to generate high-performance chip layouts.

    • Azalia Mirhoseini
    • , Anna Goldie
    •  & Jeff Dean
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective discusses how high-energy-density physics could tap the potential of AI-inspired algorithms for extracting relevant information and how data-driven automatic control routines may be used for optimizing high-repetition-rate experiments.

    • Peter W. Hatfield
    • , Jim A. Gaffney
    •  & Ben Williams
  • Article |

    A deep-learning-based algorithm uses routinely acquired histology slides to provide a differential diagnosis for the origin of the primary tumour for complicated cases of metastatic tumours and cancers of unknown primary origin.

    • Ming Y. Lu
    • , Tiffany Y. Chen
    •  & Faisal Mahmood
  • Article |

    The pressure dependence and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat of a quantum magnet, SrCu2(BO3)2, demonstrate that its phase diagram contains a line of first-order transitions terminating at a critical point, in analogy with water.

    • J. Larrea Jiménez
    • , S. P. G. Crone
    •  & F. Mila
  • Article |

    A theoretical study of non-reciprocity in collective phenomena reveals the emergence of time-dependent phases heralded by exceptional points in contexts ranging from synchronization and flocking to pattern formation.

    • Michel Fruchart
    • , Ryo Hanai
    •  & Vincenzo Vitelli
  • Article |

    An artificial intelligence system that can engage in a competitive debate with humans is presented.

    • Noam Slonim
    • , Yonatan Bilu
    •  & Ranit Aharonov
  • Article |

    A reinforcement learning experiment using a programmable integrated nanophotonic processor shows that a quantum communication channel with the environment speeds up the learning process of an agent.

    • V. Saggio
    • , B. E. Asenbeck
    •  & P. Walther
  • Article |

    A reinforcement learning algorithm that explicitly remembers promising states and returns to them as a basis for further exploration solves all as-yet-unsolved Atari games and out-performs previous algorithms on Montezuma’s Revenge and Pitfall.

    • Adrien Ecoffet
    • , Joost Huizinga
    •  & Jeff Clune
  • Article |

    Bayesian optimization is applied in chemical synthesis towards the optimization of various organic reactions and is found to outperform scientists in both average optimization efficiency and consistency.

    • Benjamin J. Shields
    • , Jason Stevens
    •  & Abigail G. Doyle
  • Article |

    An integrated photonic processor, based on phase-change-material memory arrays and chip-based optical frequency combs, which can operate at speeds of trillions of multiply-accumulate (MAC) operations per second, is demonstrated.

    • J. Feldmann
    • , N. Youngblood
    •  & H. Bhaskaran
  • Article |

    A reinforcement-learning algorithm that combines a tree-based search with a learned model achieves superhuman performance in high-performance planning and visually complex domains, without any knowledge of their underlying dynamics.

    • Julian Schrittwieser
    • , Ioannis Antonoglou
    •  & David Silver
  • Article |

    An epidemiological model that integrates fine-grained mobility networks illuminates mobility-related mechanisms that contribute to higher infection rates among disadvantaged socioeconomic and racial groups, and finds that restricting maximum occupancy at locations is especially effective for curbing infections.

    • Serina Chang
    • , Emma Pierson
    •  & Jure Leskovec
  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    NumPy is the primary array programming library for Python; here its fundamental concepts are reviewed and its evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.

    • Charles R. Harris
    • , K. Jarrod Millman
    •  & Travis E. Oliphant
  • Review Article |

    Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence and low-cost, contactless sensors have given rise to an ambient intelligence that can potentially improve the physical execution of healthcare delivery, if used in a thoughtful manner.

    • Albert Haque
    • , Arnold Milstein
    •  & Li Fei-Fei
  • Article |

    A video-based deep learning algorithm—EchoNet-Dynamic—accurately identifies subtle changes in ejection fraction and classifies heart failure with reduced ejection fraction using information from multiple cardiac cycles.

    • David Ouyang
    • , Bryan He
    •  & James Y. Zou
  • Article |

    A theoretical framework describing the hydrodynamic interactions between a passive particle and an active medium in out-of-equilibrium systems predicts long-range Lévy flights for the diffusing particle driven by the density of the active component.

    • Kiyoshi Kanazawa
    • , Tomohiko G. Sano
    •  & Adrian Baule
  • Perspective |

    The authors discuss the potential for sex and gender analysis to foster scientific discovery, improve experimental efficiency and enable social equality.

    • Cara Tannenbaum
    • , Robert P. Ellis
    •  & Londa Schiebinger
  • Letter |

    A probabilistic computer utilizing probabilistic bits, or p-bits, is implemented with stochastic nanomagnetic devices in a neural-network-inspired electrical circuit operating at room temperature and demonstrates integer factorization up to 945.

    • William A. Borders
    • , Ahmed Z. Pervaiz
    •  & Supriyo Datta
  • Letter |

    A statistical forecast model using a deep-learning approach produces useful forecasts of El Niño/Southern Oscillation events with lead times of up to one and a half years.

    • Yoo-Geun Ham
    • , Jeong-Hwan Kim
    •  & Jing-Jia Luo
  • Letter |

    Human scientists make unrepresentative chemical reagent and reaction condition choices, and machine-learning algorithms trained on human-selected experiments are less capable of successfully predicting reaction outcomes than those trained on randomly generated experiments.

    • Xiwen Jia
    • , Allyson Lynch
    •  & Joshua Schrier