Immunological memory

Immunological memory refers to the ability of the immune system to respond more rapidly and effectively to a pathogen that has been encountered previously.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research
    | Open Access

    Human memory B cells differentiate from naïve B cells and can express different immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes resulted from class-switch recombination. Here the authors describe, using transcriptional and epigenetic data from human memory B cells and integrated multi-omics analyses, the differentiation regulation and trajectory of IgG+, IgA+ and IgD+ memory B cells.

    • Justin B. Moroney
    • , Anusha Vasudev
    • , Alexander Pertsemlidis
    • , Hong Zan
    •  & Paolo Casali
  • Research |

    T cell memory formation is often described as occurring during the chronic phases of infection. Buchholz and colleagues use the phenomenon of ‘memory inflation’ following cytomegalovirus infection to show that a tiny subset of self-renewing T cells branch off early from the bulk population to generate memory.

    • Simon Grassmann
    • , Lorenz Mihatsch
    • , Jonas Mir
    • , Atefeh Kazeroonian
    • , Roza Rahimi
    • , Sophie Flommersfeld
    • , Kilian Schober
    • , Inge Hensel
    • , Justin Leube
    • , Ludwig O. Pachmayr
    • , Lorenz Kretschmer
    • , Qin Zhang
    • , Adrien Jolly
    • , M. Zeeshan Chaudhry
    • , Matthias Schiemann
    • , Luka Cicin-Sain
    • , Thomas Höfer
    • , Dirk H. Busch
    • , Michael Flossdorf
    •  & Veit R. Buchholz
  • Research
    | Open Access

    Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug that has shown promise to reduce M. tuberculosis susceptibility. Here the authors show that this effect is a result of metformin-mediated activation of anti-mycobacterial memory-like antigen-inexperienced CD8+CXCR3+ T cells, an effect that also boosts response to BCG vaccination.

    • Julia Böhme
    • , Nuria Martinez
    • , Shamin Li
    • , Andrea Lee
    • , Mardiana Marzuki
    • , Anteneh Mehari Tizazu
    • , David Ackart
    • , Jessica Haugen Frenkel
    • , Alexandra Todd
    • , Ekta Lachmandas
    • , Josephine Lum
    • , Foo Shihui
    • , Tze Pin Ng
    • , Bernett Lee
    • , Anis Larbi
    • , Mihai G. Netea
    • , Randall Basaraba
    • , Reinout van Crevel
    • , Evan Newell
    • , Hardy Kornfeld
    •  & Amit Singhal
  • Research |

    The identity of stem-cell memory progenitor cells has been unclear. Lugli and colleagues use high-dimensional approaches to identify two new progenitor populations of human T cells—one giving rise to a functional lineage, the other to an exhausted-like one.

    • Giovanni Galletti
    • , Gabriele De Simone
    • , Emilia M. C. Mazza
    • , Simone Puccio
    • , Claudia Mezzanotte
    • , Timothy M. Bi
    • , Alexey N. Davydov
    • , Maria Metsger
    • , Eloise Scamardella
    • , Giorgia Alvisi
    • , Federica De Paoli
    • , Veronica Zanon
    • , Alice Scarpa
    • , Barbara Camisa
    • , Federico S. Colombo
    • , Achille Anselmo
    • , Clelia Peano
    • , Sara Polletti
    • , Domenico Mavilio
    • , Luca Gattinoni
    • , Shannon K. Boi
    • , Benjamin A. Youngblood
    • , Rhiannon E. Jones
    • , Duncan M. Baird
    • , Emma Gostick
    • , Sian Llewellyn-Lacey
    • , Kristin Ladell
    • , David A. Price
    • , Dmitriy M. Chudakov
    • , Evan W. Newell
    • , Monica Casucci
    •  & Enrico Lugli
  • Research |

    CD4+ T cells are critical for effective responses to infection with the malaria parasite. Haque and colleagues use single-cell RNA sequencing and computational modeling to track T cell memory development during experimental Plasmodium infection of mice.

    • Megan S. F. Soon
    • , Hyun Jae Lee
    • , Jessica A. Engel
    • , Jasmin Straube
    • , Bryce S. Thomas
    • , Clara P. S. Pernold
    • , Lachlan S. Clarke
    • , Pawat Laohamonthonkul
    • , Rohit N. Haldar
    • , Cameron G. Williams
    • , Lianne I. M. Lansink
    • , Marcela L. Moreira
    • , Michael Bramhall
    • , Lambros T. Koufariotis
    • , Scott Wood
    • , Xi Chen
    • , Kylie R. James
    • , Tapio Lönnberg
    • , Steven W. Lane
    • , Gabrielle T. Belz
    • , Christian R. Engwerda
    • , David S. Khoury
    • , Miles P. Davenport
    • , Valentine Svensson
    • , Sarah A. Teichmann
    •  & Ashraful Haque
  • Reviews |

    How does the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive T cells in unexposed individuals change our understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic? In this Perspective, the authors provide a thought experiment to explain why the discovery of cross-reactive T cells may affect disease severity in individuals, but is unlikely to change our estimate of the herd immunity threshold.

    • Marc Lipsitch
    • , Yonatan H. Grad
    • , Alessandro Sette
    •  & Shane Crotty

News and Comment

  • News & Views |

    The presence of central memory precursor cells during the acute response to cytomegalovirus infection is the best predictor of whether a T cell family will contribute to the inflationary memory pool.

    • Matthew A. Huggins
    •  & Sara E. Hamilton
  • News & Views |

    In contrast with the classical dogma that the pathways generating either memory or ‘exhausted’ T cells are strictly segregated, data now identify a clonally distinct hybrid memory T cell subpopulation with an exhausted phenotype.

    • Talyn Chu
    • , Jacqueline Berner
    •  & Dietmar Zehn
  • News & Views |

    Two studies reveal a role for the transcriptional regulator BATF3 as a T cell–intrinsic factor mediating effective memory responses. This finding opens future avenues of investigation and opportunities to enhance cellular immunotherapy.

    • Caleb A. Lareau
    •  & Ansuman T. Satpathy
    Nature Immunology 21, 1309-1310
  • News & Views |

    The combination of single-cell RNA-seq and in vivo CRISPR–Cas9 screens reveal a new circuit that directs germinal center B cells toward a memory B cell phenotype during viral infection.

    • Kim L. Good-Jacobson
    •  & Joanna R. Groom
    Nature Immunology 21, 968-969