Hydrology

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Floods are an important natural disaster on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, but their driving mechanisms are not well understood. Here, the authors utilize data from twitter messages and local newspaper reports to show that convectively coupled Kelvin waves play a key role in promoting floods on Sumatra.

    • Dariusz B. Baranowski
    • , Maria K. Flatau
    • , Piotr J. Flatau
    • , Dwikorita Karnawati
    • , Katarzyna Barabasz
    • , Michal Labuz
    • , Beata Latos
    • , Jerome M. Schmidt
    • , Jaka A. I. Paski
    •  & Marzuki
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The impacts of power plant water shortage during drought on electricity prices are understudied. Here the authors show that on extreme days, almost 50% (7 GWe) of the freshwater thermal capacity is unavailable in the Great Britain and annualized cumulative costs on electricity prices are in the range of £29-95m per year.

    • Edward A. Byers
    • , Gemma Coxon
    • , Jim Freer
    •  & Jim W. Hall
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Generally it is thought that confining clay layers provide protection to low-arsenic groundwaters against intrusion of shallower, high-arsenic groundwater bodies. Here, the authors show that impermeable clay layers can increase arsenic input to underlying groundwater systems due to reduction of iron oxides coupled to carbon oxidation.

    • Ivan Mihajlov
    • , M. Rajib H. Mozumder
    • , Benjamín C. Bostick
    • , Martin Stute
    • , Brian J. Mailloux
    • , Peter S. K. Knappett
    • , Imtiaz Choudhury
    • , Kazi Matin Ahmed
    • , Peter Schlosser
    •  & Alexander van Geen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Siberian Arctic permafrost contains vast stores of carbon, the fate of which is dependent on the climate. Here the authors use models of future scenarios to show that under the direst climate changes up to 2/3 of the stored organic carbon could thaw.

    • Jan Nitzbon
    • , Sebastian Westermann
    • , Moritz Langer
    • , Léo C. P. Martin
    • , Jens Strauss
    • , Sebastian Laboor
    •  & Julia Boike
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many inland waters seasonally or permanently dry up, thus exposing sediments to the atmosphere. Here the authors show that a substantial amount of CO2 is emitted from these dry sediments, increasing current inland water carbon flux estimates by 6%.

    • P. S. Keller
    • , N. Catalán
    • , D. von Schiller
    • , H.-P. Grossart
    • , M. Koschorreck
    • , B. Obrador
    • , M. A. Frassl
    • , N. Karakaya
    • , N. Barros
    • , J. A. Howitt
    • , C. Mendoza-Lera
    • , A. Pastor
    • , G. Flaim
    • , R. Aben
    • , T. Riis
    • , M. I. Arce
    • , G. Onandia
    • , J. R. Paranaíba
    • , A. Linkhorst
    • , R. del Campo
    • , A. M. Amado
    • , S. Cauvy-Fraunié
    • , S. Brothers
    • , J. Condon
    • , R. F. Mendonça
    • , F. Reverey
    • , E.-I. Rõõm
    • , T. Datry
    • , F. Roland
    • , A. Laas
    • , U. Obertegger
    • , J.-H. Park
    • , H. Wang
    • , S. Kosten
    • , R. Gómez
    • , C. Feijoó
    • , A. Elosegi
    • , M. M. Sánchez-Montoya
    • , C. M. Finlayson
    • , M. Melita
    • , E. S. Oliveira Junior
    • , C. C. Muniz
    • , L. Gómez-Gener
    • , C. Leigh
    • , Q. Zhang
    •  & R. Marcé
  • Article
    | Open Access

    River avulsions are dramatic events that can cause the loss of many human lives. The authors here investigate how river avulsion style changes with river morphology, and how these changes impact flooding and stratigraphy.

    • J. M. Valenza
    • , D. A. Edmonds
    • , T. Hwang
    •  & S. Roy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tropical cyclones can cause severe flooding when making landfall, but these water flows can often only be forecasted a few hours before. Here, the authors present a new approach using self-organizing maps and flow characteristic curves to predict tropical cyclone related runoff up to two days in advance.

    • Li-Chiu Chang
    • , Fi-John Chang
    • , Shun-Nien Yang
    • , Fong-He Tsai
    • , Ting-Hua Chang
    •  & Edwin E. Herricks
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors investigate the infiltration potential of more than 500 vacant lots in the City of Buffalo, NY, USA. They found that the expanding footprint of pervious cover as urban vacant land provides stormwater volume retention benefits on an event and annual basis.

    • Christa Kelleher
    • , Heather E. Golden
    • , Sean Burkholder
    •  & William Shuster
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In this study, the authors show that water flowing through thawed soils below the tundra surface (supra-permafrost groundwater) can be a major source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to Arctic coastal waters during the summer. This DOM contains leachates from old soil carbon stocks, including potential contributions from thawing permafrost.

    • Craig T. Connolly
    • , M. Bayani Cardenas
    • , Greta A. Burkart
    • , Robert G. M. Spencer
    •  & James W. McClelland
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Economic estimates of flood damages rely on depth–damage functions that are inadequately verified. Here, the authors assessed flood vulnerability in the US and found that current depth–damage functions consist of disparate relationships that match poorly with observations which better follow a bimodal beta distribution.

    • Oliver E. J. Wing
    • , Nicholas Pinter
    • , Paul D. Bates
    •  & Carolyn Kousky
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors here combine a range of geophysical data, numerical modelling and borehole data to present a high resolution map of an offshore freshened groundwater system in the Canterbury Bight, New Zealand. The study shows the extensions of the offshore freshened groundwater system to be controlled by high permeability shelf sediments, buried paleochannels and onshore rivers.

    • Aaron Micallef
    • , Mark Person
    • , Amir Haroon
    • , Bradley A. Weymer
    • , Marion Jegen
    • , Katrin Schwalenberg
    • , Zahra Faghih
    • , Shuangmin Duan
    • , Denis Cohen
    • , Joshu J. Mountjoy
    • , Susanne Woelz
    • , Carl W. Gable
    • , Tanita Averes
    •  & Ashwani Kumar Tiwari
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors compared the performance of a range of rural water supply types during drought in Ethiopia. They show that prioritising access to groundwater via multiple improved water sources and technologies, such as hand-pumped and motorised boreholes, supported by monitoring and proactive operation and maintenance increases rural water supply resilience.

    • D. J. MacAllister
    • , A. M. MacDonald
    • , S. Kebede
    • , S. Godfrey
    •  & R. Calow
  • Article
    | Open Access

    New hydrological simulations show for the first time how sensitive groundwater and surface water connections are to systematic warming across the continental United States. The authors here show a clear reduction in subsurface water storage under a warming climate and intensified aridification of north America.

    • Laura E. Condon
    • , Adam L. Atchley
    •  & Reed M. Maxwell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The effect of soil structure is not included in most Earth System Models. The authors here introduce and evaluate the consequences at local and global scale of modifying hydraulic properties of soils in response to biological activity—a process significantly changing soil structure.

    • Simone Fatichi
    • , Dani Or
    • , Robert Walko
    • , Harry Vereecken
    • , Michael H. Young
    • , Teamrat A. Ghezzehei
    • , Tomislav Hengl
    • , Stefan Kollet
    • , Nurit Agam
    •  & Roni Avissar
  • Article
    | Open Access

    How the effects of irrigation on the climate conditions compare to other anthropogenic forcings is not well known. Observational and model evidence show that expanding irrigation has dampened historical anthropogenic warming during hot days, an effect that is particularly strong over South Asia.

    • Wim Thiery
    • , Auke J. Visser
    • , Erich M. Fischer
    • , Mathias Hauser
    • , Annette L. Hirsch
    • , David M. Lawrence
    • , Quentin Lejeune
    • , Edouard L. Davin
    •  & Sonia I. Seneviratne
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In this study, a new analytical technique is employed to measure Kr and Xe isotopes in groundwater at high precision. These measurements indicate that gravitational signals of past water-table depth are preserved in ancient groundwater, representing a novel proxy for past terrestrial hydroclimate.

    • Alan M. Seltzer
    • , Jessica Ng
    • , Wesley R. Danskin
    • , Justin T. Kulongoski
    • , Riley S. Gannon
    • , Martin Stute
    •  & Jeffrey P. Severinghaus
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The variations in overbank flow from rivers onto floodplains from regional to continental scales are understudied. Here, the authors investigate this variation as a function of hydroclimatic parameters and channel size in the conterminous U.S. and find that the timing of floodplain inundation is largely controlled by regional factors, while the frequency, duration and magnitude of these inundations vary consistently with channel size.

    • Durelle T. Scott
    • , Jesus D. Gomez-Velez
    • , C. Nathan Jones
    •  & Judson W. Harvey
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The role of solar and wind energy (SWE) in management of water-food-energy (WFE) nexus is largely neglected. Here the authors developed a trade-off frontier framework to quantify the water sustainability value of SWE and applied it in California, where they found that SWE penetration creates beneficial feedback for the WFE nexus by enhancing drought resilience and benefits groundwater sustainability over long run.

    • Xiaogang He
    • , Kairui Feng
    • , Xiaoyuan Li
    • , Amy B. Craft
    • , Yoshihide Wada
    • , Peter Burek
    • , Eric F. Wood
    •  & Justin Sheffield
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There still lacks a forecast system that inform end-users regarding the drought impacts, which will be however important for drought management. Here the authors assess the feasibility of forecasting drought impacts using machine-learning and confirm that models, which were built with sufficient amount of reported drought impacts in a certain sector, are able to forecast drought impacts a few months ahead.

    • Samuel J. Sutanto
    • , Melati van der Weert
    • , Niko Wanders
    • , Veit Blauhut
    •  & Henny A. J. Van Lanen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Flash droughts are widely discussed in the scientific community since the rapid onset of the 2012 drought in the USA. Here, the authors model the temporal frequency of potential flash drought events and the exposure risk over China for the next 80 years.

    • Xing Yuan
    • , Linying Wang
    • , Peili Wu
    • , Peng Ji
    • , Justin Sheffield
    •  & Miao Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Remote sensing observations of mountain snow depth are still lacking for the Northern Hemisphere mountains. Here authors use Sentinel-1 satellite radar measurements to assess the snow depth in mountainous areas at 1 km² resolution and show that the Sentinel-1 retrievals capture the spatial variability between and within mountain ranges, as well as their inter-annual differences.

    • Hans Lievens
    • , Matthias Demuzere
    • , Hans-Peter Marshall
    • , Rolf H. Reichle
    • , Ludovic Brucker
    • , Isis Brangers
    • , Patricia de Rosnay
    • , Marie Dumont
    • , Manuela Girotto
    • , Walter W. Immerzeel
    • , Tobias Jonas
    • , Edward J. Kim
    • , Inka Koch
    • , Christoph Marty
    • , Tuomo Saloranta
    • , Johannes Schöber
    •  & Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    “Reconstruction of precipitation variability from oxygen isotopes in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean region is made difficult by the occurrence of tropical cyclones. Here, the isotopic evolution of a tropical cyclone is studied in detail which helps disentangle the key processes governing rainfall isotope variability in the region.”

    • Ricardo Sánchez-Murillo
    • , Ana M. Durán-Quesada
    • , Germain Esquivel-Hernández
    • , Daniela Rojas-Cantillano
    • , Christian Birkel
    • , Kristen Welsh
    • , Minerva Sánchez-Llull
    • , Carlos M. Alonso-Hernández
    • , Doerthe Tetzlaff
    • , Chris Soulsby
    • , Jan Boll
    • , Naoyuki Kurita
    •  & Kim M. Cobb
  • Article
    | Open Access

    δ18O of speleothems are a widely used paleoclimate proxy. Here, the authors conduct a global analysis of cave drip water δ18O compositions and find that drip waters from warmer climates have a seasonal bias toward precipitation δ18O of recharge periods, unlike in cooler climates where drip waters match well with recharge-weighted δ18O.

    • Andy Baker
    • , Andreas Hartmann
    • , Wuhui Duan
    • , Stuart Hankin
    • , Laia Comas-Bru
    • , Mark O. Cuthbert
    • , Pauline C. Treble
    • , Jay Banner
    • , Dominique Genty
    • , Lisa M. Baldini
    • , Miguel Bartolomé
    • , Ana Moreno
    • , Carlos Pérez-Mejías
    •  & Martin Werner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Subglacial lakes can influence basal hydrology and ice flow in Antarctica, but are poorly constrained in Greenland. Here the authors provide the first ice sheet-wide inventory of subglacial lakes beneath GrIS, including 54 uncharted lakes.

    • J. S. Bowling
    • , S. J. Livingstone
    • , A. J. Sole
    •  & W. Chu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The spread of flood-induced failures in critical infrastructure systems is understudied. Here the authors apply the CaMa-Flood global river flood simulation model to estimate the flood-induced failures and their spread in China and the US and find that the number of flood-induced total failures is in-between that of random and localized damage given the same intensity.

    • Weiping Wang
    • , Saini Yang
    • , H. Eugene Stanley
    •  & Jianxi Gao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The freshwater surface layer from the south China seas weakens the Indonesian throughflow during boreal winter, but the impact of the monsoon water cycle of the maritime continent on this freshwater plug is unknown. Here the authors use satellite observations to show a direct link between the regional water cycle in the maritime continent and the freshwater plug.

    • Tong Lee
    • , Séverine Fournier
    • , Arnold L. Gordon
    •  & Janet Sprintall
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The impacts of forest fire activity in the western US on snow melt are poorly quantified. Here the authors use satellite and field-based observations to document a four-fold increase in the solar forcing on snow in western burned forests from 1999 to 2018.

    • Kelly E. Gleason
    • , Joseph R. McConnell
    • , Monica M. Arienzo
    • , Nathan Chellman
    •  & Wendy M. Calvin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There is a growing consensus that groundwater inflow supplies most of the C load to streams, but the sources and timescales generating this flux are still unknown. Here, the authors demonstrate that soil respiration, derived from current forest carbon fixation, fuels stream CO2 emissions.

    • A. Campeau
    • , K. Bishop
    • , N. Amvrosiadi
    • , M. F. Billett
    • , M. H. Garnett
    • , H. Laudon
    • , M. G. Öquist
    •  & M. B. Wallin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    For the first time, climate change experiments with a convection-permitting model have been carried out over an Africa-wide domain. These show more severe future changes in both wet and dry extremes over Africa compared to a traditional coarser resolution climate model.

    • Elizabeth J. Kendon
    • , Rachel A. Stratton
    • , Simon Tucker
    • , John H. Marsham
    • , Ségolène Berthou
    • , David P. Rowell
    •  & Catherine A. Senior
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Water isotope modelling is an important tool in climate reconstructions, but there remain gaps in our understanding of the effects upon oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation, and thus the source of the deposited signal. Here, the authors present a dataset assembled over two years that shows deuterium excess is controlled by humidity and sea surface temperature, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes as well as deuterium excess are controlled by sublimation of snow in sea-ice regions.

    • Jean-Louis Bonne
    • , Melanie Behrens
    • , Hanno Meyer
    • , Sepp Kipfstuhl
    • , Benjamin Rabe
    • , Lutz Schönicke
    • , Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
    •  & Martin Werner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Forecasting drought and its impact on agriculture and ecosystems is challenged by a lack of knowledge of vegetation access to deep moisture. Here the authors show that combining vegetation and water storage remote sensing can be used to infer this knowledge, allowing drought impact forecasts months in advance.

    • Siyuan Tian
    • , Albert I. J. M. Van Dijk
    • , Paul Tregoning
    •  & Luigi J. Renzullo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The underlying mechanisms structuring dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and reactivity in rivers remain poorly quantified. Here, the authors pair mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy to show that hydrology and river geomorphology both shape molecular patterns in DOM composition.

    • Laurel M. Lynch
    • , Nicholas A. Sutfin
    • , Timothy S. Fegel
    • , Claudia M. Boot
    • , Timothy P. Covino
    •  & Matthew D. Wallenstein
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ocean warming contributes to the thinning of the Antarctic ice shelves, however, lack of observations has prevented a quantification of this contribution. Here the authors use geological records to show that 0.3–1.5 °C ocean warming has played a central role on regional ice shelf instability over the last 9000 years.

    • Johan Etourneau
    • , Giovanni Sgubin
    • , Xavier Crosta
    • , Didier Swingedouw
    • , Verónica Willmott
    • , Loïc Barbara
    • , Marie-Noëlle Houssais
    • , Stefan Schouten
    • , Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
    • , Hugues Goosse
    • , Carlota Escutia
    • , Julien Crespin
    • , Guillaume Massé
    •  & Jung-Hyun Kim
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Storm runoff extremes dominate flash flood formation and generation, posing a grand threat to ecosystems and communities across the world. Here the authors show that current projected response of these storm runoff extremes to climate and anthropogenic changes are underestimated.

    • Jiabo Yin
    • , Pierre Gentine
    • , Sha Zhou
    • , Sylvia C. Sullivan
    • , Ren Wang
    • , Yao Zhang
    •  & Shenglian Guo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The atmospheric response to subseasonal variability of Tibetan Plateau snow cover has been largely ignored. Here the authors show that the fast subseasonal variability of Tibetan Plateau snow cover is closely related to the subsequent East Asian atmospheric circulation at medium-range time scales.

    • Wenkai Li
    • , Weidong Guo
    • , Bo Qiu
    • , Yongkang Xue
    • , Pang-Chi Hsu
    •  & Jiangfeng Wei
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The interaction between seasonally-induced non-tectonic and tectonic deformation along the Himalayan plate boundary is still debated. Here, the authors propose that seasonal hydrological loading can influence tectonic deformation along this plate boundary using continuous GPS measurements and satellite data.

    • Dibyashakti Panda
    • , Bhaskar Kundu
    • , Vineet K. Gahalaut
    • , Roland Bürgmann
    • , Birendra Jha
    • , Renuhaa Asaithambi
    • , Rajeev Kumar Yadav
    • , Naresh Krishna Vissa
    •  & Amit Kumar Bansal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Reinjection of saltwater, co-produced with oil, has the potential to trigger damaging earthquakes. Here, using Oklahoma and Kansas as an example, the authors present a new physics-based methodology to forecast future probabilities of potentially damaging induced-earthquakes in space and time.

    • Cornelius Langenbruch
    • , Matthew Weingarten
    •  & Mark D. Zoback
  • Article
    | Open Access

    River networks worldwide follow the emblematic Hack’s Law, which expresses the length of a stream as a function of its watershed area. Here the authors show this law does not depend on lithology or rainfall, but on the shape of watersheds and confirms the self-similarity of river networks.

    • Timothée Sassolas-Serrayet
    • , Rodolphe Cattin
    •  & Matthieu Ferry
  • Article
    | Open Access

    River capture acts as one river steals the neighboring headwaters, which is a dramatic natural process for mountain landscapes evolution. Here the authors show a stream piracy reversed flow in a major river resulting in waterfall formation, bedrock gorge incision, and widespread topographic disequilibrium.

    • Niannian Fan
    • , Zhongxin Chu
    • , Luguang Jiang
    • , Marwan A. Hassan
    • , Michael P. Lamb
    •  & Xingnian Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The partitioning of drought-induced water deficits into blue-water runoff and green-water evapotranspiration is critical, as the respective anomalies threaten different societal sectors. Here the authors show that drought reduces runoff much faster and stronger than it reduces evapotranspiration across European climates.

    • René Orth
    •  & Georgia Destouni
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The populous global land monsoon region has been suffering from extreme precipitation. Here, the authors show that limiting global warming to 1.5 °C instead of 2 °C could reduce areal and population exposures to baseline once-in-20-year rainfall extremes by 25% (18–41%) and 36% (22–46%), respectively.

    • Wenxia Zhang
    • , Tianjun Zhou
    • , Liwei Zou
    • , Lixia Zhang
    •  & Xiaolong Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Earthquakes rarely affect hydrothermal systems in non-magmatic context. Here the authors report outbursts of CO2 and hydrothermal disturbances triggered by the 2015 Nepal earthquake, revealing high sensitivity of Himalayan hydrothermal systems to co-, post- and possibly pre- seismic deformation.

    • Frédéric Girault
    • , Lok Bijaya Adhikari
    • , Christian France-Lanord
    • , Pierre Agrinier
    • , Bharat P. Koirala
    • , Mukunda Bhattarai
    • , Sudhan S. Mahat
    • , Chiara Groppo
    • , Franco Rolfo
    • , Laurent Bollinger
    •  & Frédéric Perrier
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Rivers and streams are important sources of carbon dioxide and methane; however, the drivers of these streambed gas fluxes are poorly understood. Here, the authors show that temperature sensitivity of streambed greenhouse gas emissions varies with substrate, organic matter content and geological origin.

    • Sophie A. Comer-Warner
    • , Paul Romeijn
    • , Daren C. Gooddy
    • , Sami Ullah
    • , Nicholas Kettridge
    • , Benjamin Marchant
    • , David M. Hannah
    •  & Stefan Krause
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lakes, reservoirs, and other ponded waters are common in large river basins yet their influence on nitrogen budgets is often indistinct. Here, the authors show how a ponded waters’ relative size, shape, and degree of connectivity to the river network control nitrogen removal.

    • Noah M. Schmadel
    • , Judson W. Harvey
    • , Richard B. Alexander
    • , Gregory E. Schwarz
    • , Richard B. Moore
    • , Ken Eng
    • , Jesus D. Gomez-Velez
    • , Elizabeth W. Boyer
    •  & Durelle Scott