Human behaviour

  • Article |

    The results obtained by seventy different teams analysing the same functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset show substantial variation, highlighting the influence of analytical choices and the importance of sharing workflows publicly and performing multiple analyses.

    • Rotem Botvinik-Nezer
    • , Felix Holzmeister
    • , Colin F. Camerer
    • , Anna Dreber
    • , Juergen Huber
    • , Magnus Johannesson
    • , Michael Kirchler
    • , Roni Iwanir
    • , Jeanette A. Mumford
    • , R. Alison Adcock
    • , Paolo Avesani
    • , Blazej M. Baczkowski
    • , Aahana Bajracharya
    • , Leah Bakst
    • , Sheryl Ball
    • , Marco Barilari
    • , Nadège Bault
    • , Derek Beaton
    • , Julia Beitner
    • , Roland G. Benoit
    • , Ruud M. W. J. Berkers
    • , Jamil P. Bhanji
    • , Bharat B. Biswal
    • , Sebastian Bobadilla-Suarez
    • , Tiago Bortolini
    • , Katherine L. Bottenhorn
    • , Alexander Bowring
    • , Senne Braem
    • , Hayley R. Brooks
    • , Emily G. Brudner
    • , Cristian B. Calderon
    • , Julia A. Camilleri
    • , Jaime J. Castrellon
    • , Luca Cecchetti
    • , Edna C. Cieslik
    • , Zachary J. Cole
    • , Olivier Collignon
    • , Robert W. Cox
    • , William A. Cunningham
    • , Stefan Czoschke
    • , Kamalaker Dadi
    • , Charles P. Davis
    • , Alberto De Luca
    • , Mauricio R. Delgado
    • , Lysia Demetriou
    • , Jeffrey B. Dennison
    • , Xin Di
    • , Erin W. Dickie
    • , Ekaterina Dobryakova
    • , Claire L. Donnat
    • , Juergen Dukart
    • , Niall W. Duncan
    • , Joke Durnez
    • , Amr Eed
    • , Simon B. Eickhoff
    • , Andrew Erhart
    • , Laura Fontanesi
    • , G. Matthew Fricke
    • , Shiguang Fu
    • , Adriana Galván
    • , Remi Gau
    • , Sarah Genon
    • , Tristan Glatard
    • , Enrico Glerean
    • , Jelle J. Goeman
    • , Sergej A. E. Golowin
    • , Carlos González-García
    • , Krzysztof J. Gorgolewski
    • , Cheryl L. Grady
    • , Mikella A. Green
    • , João F. Guassi Moreira
    • , Olivia Guest
    • , Shabnam Hakimi
    • , J. Paul Hamilton
    • , Roeland Hancock
    • , Giacomo Handjaras
    • , Bronson B. Harry
    • , Colin Hawco
    • , Peer Herholz
    • , Gabrielle Herman
    • , Stephan Heunis
    • , Felix Hoffstaedter
    • , Jeremy Hogeveen
    • , Susan Holmes
    • , Chuan-Peng Hu
    • , Scott A. Huettel
    • , Matthew E. Hughes
    • , Vittorio Iacovella
    • , Alexandru D. Iordan
    • , Peder M. Isager
    • , Ayse I. Isik
    • , Andrew Jahn
    • , Matthew R. Johnson
    • , Tom Johnstone
    • , Michael J. E. Joseph
    • , Anthony C. Juliano
    • , Joseph W. Kable
    • , Michalis Kassinopoulos
    • , Cemal Koba
    • , Xiang-Zhen Kong
    • , Timothy R. Koscik
    • , Nuri Erkut Kucukboyaci
    • , Brice A. Kuhl
    • , Sebastian Kupek
    • , Angela R. Laird
    • , Claus Lamm
    • , Robert Langner
    • , Nina Lauharatanahirun
    • , Hongmi Lee
    • , Sangil Lee
    • , Alexander Leemans
    • , Andrea Leo
    • , Elise Lesage
    • , Flora Li
    • , Monica Y. C. Li
    • , Phui Cheng Lim
    • , Evan N. Lintz
    • , Schuyler W. Liphardt
    • , Annabel B. Losecaat Vermeer
    • , Bradley C. Love
    • , Michael L. Mack
    • , Norberto Malpica
    • , Theo Marins
    • , Camille Maumet
    • , Kelsey McDonald
    • , Joseph T. McGuire
    • , Helena Melero
    • , Adriana S. Méndez Leal
    • , Benjamin Meyer
    • , Kristin N. Meyer
    • , Glad Mihai
    • , Georgios D. Mitsis
    • , Jorge Moll
    • , Dylan M. Nielson
    • , Gustav Nilsonne
    • , Michael P. Notter
    • , Emanuele Olivetti
    • , Adrian I. Onicas
    • , Paolo Papale
    • , Kaustubh R. Patil
    • , Jonathan E. Peelle
    • , Alexandre Pérez
    • , Doris Pischedda
    • , Jean-Baptiste Poline
    • , Yanina Prystauka
    • , Shruti Ray
    • , Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz
    • , Richard C. Reynolds
    • , Emiliano Ricciardi
    • , Jenny R. Rieck
    • , Anais M. Rodriguez-Thompson
    • , Anthony Romyn
    • , Taylor Salo
    • , Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin
    • , Emilio Sanz-Morales
    • , Margaret L. Schlichting
    • , Douglas H. Schultz
    • , Qiang Shen
    • , Margaret A. Sheridan
    • , Jennifer A. Silvers
    • , Kenny Skagerlund
    • , Alec Smith
    • , David V. Smith
    • , Peter Sokol-Hessner
    • , Simon R. Steinkamp
    • , Sarah M. Tashjian
    • , Bertrand Thirion
    • , John N. Thorp
    • , Gustav Tinghög
    • , Loreen Tisdall
    • , Steven H. Tompson
    • , Claudio Toro-Serey
    • , Juan Jesus Torre Tresols
    • , Leonardo Tozzi
    • , Vuong Truong
    • , Luca Turella
    • , Anna E. van ‘t Veer
    • , Tom Verguts
    • , Jean M. Vettel
    • , Sagana Vijayarajah
    • , Khoi Vo
    • , Matthew B. Wall
    • , Wouter D. Weeda
    • , Susanne Weis
    • , David J. White
    • , David Wisniewski
    • , Alba Xifra-Porxas
    • , Emily A. Yearling
    • , Sangsuk Yoon
    • , Rui Yuan
    • , Kenneth S. L. Yuen
    • , Lei Zhang
    • , Xu Zhang
    • , Joshua E. Zosky
    • , Thomas E. Nichols
    • , Russell A. Poldrack
    •  & Tom Schonberg
  • Article |

    In contrast to a previous study in which only bankers showed increased dishonesty when reminded of their profession, this study found that such reminders induced some dishonesty in bankers, although the effect was not significant, and that this effect was not unique to bankers.

    • Zoe Rahwan
    • , Erez Yoeli
    •  & Barbara Fasolo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A US national experiment showed that a short, online, self-administered growth mindset intervention can increase adolescents’ grades and advanced course-taking, and identified the types of school that were poised to benefit the most.

    • David S. Yeager
    • , Paul Hanselman
    • , Gregory M. Walton
    • , Jared S. Murray
    • , Robert Crosnoe
    • , Chandra Muller
    • , Elizabeth Tipton
    • , Barbara Schneider
    • , Chris S. Hulleman
    • , Cintia P. Hinojosa
    • , David Paunesku
    • , Carissa Romero
    • , Kate Flint
    • , Alice Roberts
    • , Jill Trott
    • , Ronaldo Iachan
    • , Jenny Buontempo
    • , Sophia Man Yang
    • , Carlos M. Carvalho
    • , P. Richard Hahn
    • , Maithreyi Gopalan
    • , Pratik Mhatre
    • , Ronald Ferguson
    • , Angela L. Duckworth
    •  & Carol S. Dweck
  • Review Article |

    A Review of advances in memory-editing techniques in humans suggests that these techniques are advancing beyond science fiction and could hold promise for translation into clinical practice.

    • Elizabeth A. Phelps
    •  & Stefan G. Hofmann
  • Review Article |

    Understanding the behaviour of the machines powered by artificial intelligence that increasingly mediate our social, cultural, economic and political interactions is essential to our ability to control the actions of these intelligent machines, reap their benefits and minimize their harms.

    • Iyad Rahwan
    • , Manuel Cebrian
    • , Nick Obradovich
    • , Josh Bongard
    • , Jean-François Bonnefon
    • , Cynthia Breazeal
    • , Jacob W. Crandall
    • , Nicholas A. Christakis
    • , Iain D. Couzin
    • , Matthew O. Jackson
    • , Nicholas R. Jennings
    • , Ece Kamar
    • , Isabel M. Kloumann
    • , Hugo Larochelle
    • , David Lazer
    • , Richard McElreath
    • , Alan Mislove
    • , David C. Parkes
    • , Alex ‘Sandy’ Pentland
    • , Margaret E. Roberts
    • , Azim Shariff
    • , Joshua B. Tenenbaum
    •  & Michael Wellman
  • Article |

    Responses from more than two million people to an internet-based survey of attitudes towards moral dilemmas that might be faced by autonomous vehicles shed light on similarities and variations in ethical preferences among different populations.

    • Edmond Awad
    • , Sohan Dsouza
    • , Richard Kim
    • , Jonathan Schulz
    • , Joseph Henrich
    • , Azim Shariff
    • , Jean-François Bonnefon
    •  & Iyad Rahwan
  • Letter |

    A field study and three experiments demonstrate that people who engage in rare (non-normative) prosocial behaviours will be more effective advocates for those behaviours than people who merely praise the virtues of these prosocial behaviours.

    • Gordon T. Kraft-Todd
    • , Bryan Bollinger
    • , Kenneth Gillingham
    • , Stefan Lamp
    •  & David G. Rand
  • Letter |

    Using estimates of metabolic costs of the brain and body, mathematical predictions suggest that the evolution of adult Homo sapiens-sized brains and bodies is driven by ecological rather than social challenges and is perhaps strongly promoted by culture.

    • Mauricio González-Forero
    •  & Andy Gardner
  • Letter |

    The wisdom of the crowd can be improved by using an algorithm that selects the answer that is more popular than people predict, rather than the answer that is most popular.

    • Dražen Prelec
    • , H. Sebastian Seung
    •  & John McCoy
  • Review Article |

    A review into the complex effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system, examining data from animal and human studies and discussing the necessary future direction of research.

    • Michael A. P. Bloomfield
    • , Abhishekh H. Ashok
    • , Nora D. Volkow
    •  & Oliver D. Howes
  • Letter |

    A native Amazonian society rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant, whereas Bolivian city- and town-dwellers preferred consonance, indicating that preference for consonance over dissonance is not universal and probably develops from exposure to particular types of polyphonic music.

    • Josh H. McDermott
    • , Alan F. Schultz
    • , Eduardo A. Undurraga
    •  & Ricardo A. Godoy
  • Letter |

    To test whether there is a relationship between the level of national corruption and the intrinsic honesty of individuals, a behavioural test of the honesty of people from 23 countries was conducted; the authors found that high national scores on an index of rule-breaking are linked with reduced personal honesty.

    • Simon Gächter
    •  & Jonathan F. Schulz
  • Letter |

    Using economic games, the authors examine the role of religion in the persistence of human cooperation; individuals who claim that their gods are moralizing, punitive and knowledgeable about human affairs are more likely to play fairly towards geographically distant co-religionists.

    • Benjamin Grant Purzycki
    • , Coren Apicella
    • , Quentin D. Atkinson
    • , Emma Cohen
    • , Rita Anne McNamara
    • , Aiyana K. Willard
    • , Dimitris Xygalatas
    • , Ara Norenzayan
    •  & Joseph Henrich
  • Letter |

    An analysis of when children develop a sense of fairness (receiving less or more than a peer) is compared across seven different societies; aversion to receiving less emerges early in childhood in all societies, whereas aversion to receiving more emerges later in childhood and only in three of the seven societies studied.

    • P. R. Blake
    • , K. McAuliffe
    • , J. Corbit
    • , T. C. Callaghan
    • , O. Barry
    • , A. Bowie
    • , L. Kleutsch
    • , K. L. Kramer
    • , E. Ross
    • , H. Vongsachang
    • , R. Wrangham
    •  & F. Warneken
  • Letter |

    Initially weak episodic memories in humans can be selectively enhanced and consolidated following later emotional learning involving conceptually related information, suggesting a mechanism for how we can remember initially inconsequential information after a relevant later experience.

    • Joseph E. Dunsmoor
    • , Vishnu P. Murty
    • , Lila Davachi
    •  & Elizabeth A. Phelps