Health care

  • Article | | open

    Here, the authors explore the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and inflammation in a multi-cohort study and show that educational attainment is most strongly related to inflammation, suggesting that socioeconomic disadvantage in young adulthood is independently associated with later life inflammation.

    • Eloïse Berger
    • , Raphaële Castagné
    • , Marc Chadeau-Hyam
    • , Murielle Bochud
    • , Angelo d’Errico
    • , Martina Gandini
    • , Maryam Karimi
    • , Mika Kivimäki
    • , Vittorio Krogh
    • , Michael Marmot
    • , Salvatore Panico
    • , Martin Preisig
    • , Fulvio Ricceri
    • , Carlotta Sacerdote
    • , Andrew Steptoe
    • , Silvia Stringhini
    • , Rosario Tumino
    • , Paolo Vineis
    • , Cyrille Delpierre
    •  & Michelle Kelly-Irving
  • Article | | open

    Electroencephalography (EEG) allows the measurement of electrical signals associated with brain activity, but it is unclear if EEG can accurately measure subcortical activity. Here, the authors show that source dynamics, reconstructed from scalp EEG, correlate with activity recorded from human thalamus and nucleus accumbens.

    • Martin Seeber
    • , Lucia-Manuela Cantonas
    • , Mauritius Hoevels
    • , Thibaut Sesia
    • , Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
    •  & Christoph M. Michel
  • Article | | open

    Sex-stratified medicine is an important and understudied field. Here the authors investigate in a systematic study of the Danish population differences in incidence, risk, and several aspects of diagnoses between sexes and find differences across all areas of disease.

    • David Westergaard
    • , Pope Moseley
    • , Freja Karuna Hemmingsen Sørup
    • , Pierre Baldi
    •  & Søren Brunak
  • Article | | open

    It is unclear whether the sequence and timing of early life neurodevelopment varies across human populations, excluding the effects of disease or malnutrition. Here, the authors show that children of healthy, urban, educated mothers show very similar development across five geographically diverse populations.

    • José Villar
    • , Michelle Fernandes
    • , Manorama Purwar
    • , Eleonora Staines-Urias
    • , Paola Di Nicola
    • , Leila Cheikh Ismail
    • , Roseline Ochieng
    • , Fernando Barros
    • , Elaine Albernaz
    • , Cesar Victora
    • , Naina Kunnawar
    • , Sophie Temple
    • , Francesca Giuliani
    • , Tamsin Sandells
    • , Maria Carvalho
    • , Eric Ohuma
    • , Yasmin Jaffer
    • , Alison Noble
    • , Michael Gravett
    • , Ruyan Pang
    • , Ann Lambert
    • , Enrico Bertino
    • , Aris Papageorghiou
    • , Cutberto Garza
    • , Alan Stein
    • , Zulfiqar Bhutta
    •  & Stephen Kennedy
  • Article | | open

    Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) are being developed for gene therapy of skeletal muscle, but it is a challenge to achieve robust gene expression. Here, the authors identify muscle-specific cisregulatory elements that lead to a substantial increase in micro-dystrophin and follistatin expression, resulting in a safe and sustainable rescue of the dystrophic phenotype in mouse models.

    • S. Sarcar
    • , W. Tulalamba
    • , M. Y. Rincon
    • , J. Tipanee
    • , H. Q. Pham
    • , H. Evens
    • , D. Boon
    • , E. Samara-Kuko
    • , M. Keyaerts
    • , M. Loperfido
    • , E. Berardi
    • , S. Jarmin
    • , P. In’t Veld
    • , G. Dickson
    • , T. Lahoutte
    • , M. Sampaolesi
    • , P. De Bleser
    • , T. VandenDriessche
    •  & M. K. Chuah
  • Article | | open

    Seasonal malaria chemoprevention provides substantial benefit for young children, but resistance to used drugs will likely develop. Here, Chotsiri et al. evaluate the use of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine as a regimen in 179 children, and population-based simulations suggest that small children would benefit from a higher and extended dosage.

    • Palang Chotsiri
    • , Issaka Zongo
    • , Paul Milligan
    • , Yves Daniel Compaore
    • , Anyirékun Fabrice Somé
    • , Daniel Chandramohan
    • , Warunee Hanpithakpong
    • , François Nosten
    • , Brian Greenwood
    • , Philip J. Rosenthal
    • , Nicholas J. White
    • , Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo
    •  & Joel Tarning
  • Article | | open

    Organs from donors with transmissible viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are not offered for transplantation due to a high risk of transmission. Here, Galasso et al. develop a method for treatment of HCV-infected human donor lungs that is safe and prevents HCV transmission in the pig model.

    • Marcos Galasso
    • , Jordan J. Feld
    • , Yui Watanabe
    • , Mauricio Pipkin
    • , Cara Summers
    • , Aadil Ali
    • , Robert Qaqish
    • , Manyin Chen
    • , Rafaela V. P. Ribeiro
    • , Khaled Ramadan
    • , Layla Pires
    • , Vanderlei S. Bagnato
    • , Cristina Kurachi
    • , Vera Cherepanov
    • , Gray Moonen
    • , Anajara Gazzalle
    • , Thomas K. Waddell
    • , Mingyao Liu
    • , Shaf Keshavjee
    • , Brian C. Wilson
    • , Atul Humar
    •  & Marcelo Cypel
  • Article | | open

    The delivery of single therapeutic microRNAs in brain cancers is challenging. Here, the authors engineer three neuronal microRNAs (miR-124, 128 and 137) into a cluster that, targeting oncogenic chromatin repressors, increases survival of GBM-bearing mice when combined with chemotherapy.

    • Vivek Bhaskaran
    • , Michal O. Nowicki
    • , Mahmoud Idriss
    • , Miguel A. Jimenez
    • , Gianmarco Lugli
    • , Josie L. Hayes
    • , Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud
    • , Rachel E. Zane
    • , Carmela Passaro
    • , Keith L. Ligon
    • , Daphne Haas-Kogan
    • , Agnieszka Bronisz
    • , Jakub Godlewski
    • , Sean E. Lawler
    • , E. Antonio Chiocca
    •  & Pierpaolo Peruzzi
  • Article | | open

    Similarities in cancers can be studied to interrogate their etiology. Here, the authors use genome-wide association study summary statistics from six cancer types based on 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, showing that solid tumours arising from different tissues share a degree of common germline genetic basis.

    • Xia Jiang
    • , Hilary K. Finucane
    • , Fredrick R. Schumacher
    • , Stephanie L. Schmit
    • , Jonathan P. Tyrer
    • , Younghun Han
    • , Kyriaki Michailidou
    • , Corina Lesseur
    • , Karoline B. Kuchenbaecker
    • , Joe Dennis
    • , David V. Conti
    • , Graham Casey
    • , Mia M. Gaudet
    • , Jeroen R. Huyghe
    • , Demetrius Albanes
    • , Melinda C. Aldrich
    • , Angeline S. Andrew
    • , Irene L. Andrulis
    • , Hoda Anton-Culver
    • , Antonis C. Antoniou
    • , Natalia N. Antonenkova
    • , Susanne M. Arnold
    • , Kristan J. Aronson
    • , Banu K. Arun
    • , Elisa V. Bandera
    • , Rosa B. Barkardottir
    • , Daniel R. Barnes
    • , Jyotsna Batra
    • , Matthias W. Beckmann
    • , Javier Benitez
    • , Sara Benlloch
    • , Andrew Berchuck
    • , Sonja I. Berndt
    • , Heike Bickeböller
    • , Stephanie A. Bien
    • , Carl Blomqvist
    • , Stefania Boccia
    • , Natalia V. Bogdanova
    • , Stig E. Bojesen
    • , Manjeet K. Bolla
    • , Hiltrud Brauch
    • , Hermann Brenner
    • , James D. Brenton
    • , Mark N. Brook
    • , Joan Brunet
    • , Hans Brunnström
    • , Daniel D. Buchanan
    • , Barbara Burwinkel
    • , Ralf Butzow
    • , Gabriella Cadoni
    • , Trinidad Caldés
    • , Maria A. Caligo
    • , Ian Campbell
    • , Peter T. Campbell
    • , Géraldine Cancel-Tassin
    • , Lisa Cannon-Albright
    • , Daniele Campa
    • , Neil Caporaso
    • , André L. Carvalho
    • , Andrew T. Chan
    • , Jenny Chang-Claude
    • , Stephen J. Chanock
    • , Chu Chen
    • , David C. Christiani
    • , Kathleen B. M. Claes
    • , Frank Claessens
    • , Judith Clements
    • , J. Margriet Collée
    • , Marcia Cruz Correa
    • , Fergus J. Couch
    • , Angela Cox
    • , Julie M. Cunningham
    • , Cezary Cybulski
    • , Kamila Czene
    • , Mary B. Daly
    • , Anna deFazio
    • , Peter Devilee
    • , Orland Diez
    • , Manuela Gago-Dominguez
    • , Jenny L. Donovan
    • , Thilo Dörk
    • , Eric J. Duell
    • , Alison M. Dunning
    • , Miriam Dwek
    • , Diana M. Eccles
    • , Christopher K. Edlund
    • , Digna R Velez Edwards
    • , Carolina Ellberg
    • , D. Gareth Evans
    • , Peter A. Fasching
    • , Robert L. Ferris
    • , Triantafillos Liloglou
    • , Jane C. Figueiredo
    • , Olivia Fletcher
    • , Renée T. Fortner
    • , Florentia Fostira
    • , Silvia Franceschi
    • , Eitan Friedman
    • , Steven J. Gallinger
    • , Patricia A. Ganz
    • , Judy Garber
    • , José A. García-Sáenz
    • , Simon A. Gayther
    • , Graham G. Giles
    • , Andrew K. Godwin
    • , Mark S. Goldberg
    • , David E. Goldgar
    • , Ellen L. Goode
    • , Marc T. Goodman
    • , Gary Goodman
    • , Kjell Grankvist
    • , Mark H. Greene
    • , Henrik Gronberg
    • , Jacek Gronwald
    • , Pascal Guénel
    • , Niclas Håkansson
    • , Per Hall
    • , Ute Hamann
    • , Freddie C. Hamdy
    • , Robert J. Hamilton
    • , Jochen Hampe
    • , Aage Haugen
    • , Florian Heitz
    • , Rolando Herrero
    • , Peter Hillemanns
    • , Michael Hoffmeister
    • , Estrid Høgdall
    • , Yun-Chul Hong
    • , John L. Hopper
    • , Richard Houlston
    • , Peter J. Hulick
    • , David J. Hunter
    • , David G. Huntsman
    • , Gregory Idos
    • , Evgeny N. Imyanitov
    • , Sue Ann Ingles
    • , Claudine Isaacs
    • , Anna Jakubowska
    • , Paul James
    • , Mark A. Jenkins
    • , Mattias Johansson
    • , Mikael Johansson
    • , Esther M. John
    • , Amit D. Joshi
    • , Radka Kaneva
    • , Beth Y. Karlan
    • , Linda E. Kelemen
    • , Tabea Kühl
    • , Kay-Tee Khaw
    • , Elza Khusnutdinova
    • , Adam S. Kibel
    • , Lambertus A. Kiemeney
    • , Jeri Kim
    • , Susanne K. Kjaer
    • , Julia A. Knight
    • , Manolis Kogevinas
    • , Zsofia Kote-Jarai
    • , Stella Koutros
    • , Vessela N. Kristensen
    • , Jolanta Kupryjanczyk
    • , Martin Lacko
    • , Stephan Lam
    • , Diether Lambrechts
    • , Maria Teresa Landi
    • , Philip Lazarus
    • , Nhu D. Le
    • , Eunjung Lee
    • , Flavio Lejbkowicz
    • , Heinz-Josef Lenz
    • , Goska Leslie
    • , Davor Lessel
    • , Jenny Lester
    • , Douglas A. Levine
    • , Li Li
    • , Christopher I. Li
    • , Annika Lindblom
    • , Noralane M. Lindor
    • , Geoffrey Liu
    • , Fotios Loupakis
    • , Jan Lubiński
    • , Lovise Maehle
    • , Christiane Maier
    • , Arto Mannermaa
    • , Loic Le Marchand
    • , Sara Margolin
    • , Taymaa May
    • , Lesley McGuffog
    • , Alfons Meindl
    • , Pooja Middha
    • , Austin Miller
    • , Roger L. Milne
    • , Robert J. MacInnis
    • , Francesmary Modugno
    • , Marco Montagna
    • , Victor Moreno
    • , Kirsten B. Moysich
    • , Lorelei Mucci
    • , Kenneth Muir
    • , Anna Marie Mulligan
    • , Katherine L. Nathanson
    • , David E. Neal
    • , Andrew R. Ness
    • , Susan L. Neuhausen
    • , Heli Nevanlinna
    • , Polly A. Newcomb
    • , Lisa F. Newcomb
    • , Finn Cilius Nielsen
    • , Liene Nikitina-Zake
    • , Børge G. Nordestgaard
    • , Robert L. Nussbaum
    • , Kenneth Offit
    • , Edith Olah
    • , Ali Amin Al Olama
    • , Olufunmilayo I. Olopade
    • , Andrew F. Olshan
    • , Håkan Olsson
    • , Ana Osorio
    • , Hardev Pandha
    • , Jong Y. Park
    • , Nora Pashayan
    • , Michael T. Parsons
    • , Tanja Pejovic
    • , Kathryn L. Penney
    • , Wilbert H M. Peters
    • , Catherine M. Phelan
    • , Amanda I. Phipps
    • , Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska
    • , Miranda Pring
    • , Darya Prokofyeva
    • , Paolo Radice
    • , Kari Stefansson
    • , Susan J. Ramus
    • , Leon Raskin
    • , Gad Rennert
    • , Hedy S. Rennert
    • , Elizabeth J. van Rensburg
    • , Marjorie J. Riggan
    • , Harvey A. Risch
    • , Angela Risch
    • , Monique J. Roobol
    • , Barry S. Rosenstein
    • , Mary Anne Rossing
    • , Kim De Ruyck
    • , Emmanouil Saloustros
    • , Dale P. Sandler
    • , Elinor J. Sawyer
    • , Matthew B. Schabath
    • , Johanna Schleutker
    • , Marjanka K. Schmidt
    • , V. Wendy Setiawan
    • , Hongbing Shen
    • , Erin M. Siegel
    • , Weiva Sieh
    • , Christian F. Singer
    • , Martha L. Slattery
    • , Karina Dalsgaard Sorensen
    • , Melissa C. Southey
    • , Amanda B. Spurdle
    • , Janet L. Stanford
    • , Victoria L. Stevens
    • , Sebastian Stintzing
    • , Jennifer Stone
    • , Karin Sundfeldt
    • , Rebecca Sutphen
    • , Anthony J. Swerdlow
    • , Eloiza H. Tajara
    • , Catherine M. Tangen
    • , Adonina Tardon
    • , Jack A. Taylor
    • , M. Dawn Teare
    • , Manuel R. Teixeira
    • , Mary Beth Terry
    • , Kathryn L. Terry
    • , Stephen N. Thibodeau
    • , Mads Thomassen
    • , Line Bjørge
    • , Marc Tischkowitz
    • , Amanda E. Toland
    • , Diana Torres
    • , Paul A. Townsend
    • , Ruth C. Travis
    • , Nadine Tung
    • , Shelley S. Tworoger
    • , Cornelia M. Ulrich
    • , Nawaid Usmani
    • , Celine M. Vachon
    • , Els Van Nieuwenhuysen
    • , Ana Vega
    • , Miguel Elías Aguado-Barrera
    • , Qin Wang
    • , Penelope M. Webb
    • , Clarice R. Weinberg
    • , Stephanie Weinstein
    • , Mark C. Weissler
    • , Jeffrey N. Weitzel
    • , Catharine M. L. West
    • , Emily White
    • , Alice S. Whittemore
    • , H-Erich Wichmann
    • , Fredrik Wiklund
    • , Robert Winqvist
    • , Alicja Wolk
    • , Penella Woll
    • , Michael Woods
    • , Anna H. Wu
    • , Xifeng Wu
    • , Drakoulis Yannoukakos
    • , Wei Zheng
    • , Shanbeh Zienolddiny
    • , Argyrios Ziogas
    • , Kristin K. Zorn
    • , Jacqueline M. Lane
    • , Richa Saxena
    • , Duncan Thomas
    • , Rayjean J. Hung
    • , Brenda Diergaarde
    • , James McKay
    • , Ulrike Peters
    • , Li Hsu
    • , Montserrat García-Closas
    • , Rosalind A. Eeles
    • , Georgia Chenevix-Trench
    • , Paul J. Brennan
    • , Christopher A. Haiman
    • , Jacques Simard
    • , Douglas F. Easton
    • , Stephen B. Gruber
    • , Paul D. P. Pharoah
    • , Alkes L. Price
    • , Bogdan Pasaniuc
    • , Christopher I. Amos
    • , Peter Kraft
    •  & Sara Lindström
  • Article | | open

    Some perinatally HIV infected children who have received early antiretroviral therapy (ART) show long-term sustained virological control after ART cessation. Here the authors describe a case who, at age 9.5 years, shows normal CD4:CD8 T cell ratios and has no detectable levels of replication-competent virus.

    • Avy Violari
    • , Mark F. Cotton
    • , Louise Kuhn
    • , Diana B. Schramm
    • , Maria Paximadis
    • , Shayne Loubser
    • , Sharon Shalekoff
    • , Bianca Da Costa Dias
    • , Kennedy Otwombe
    • , Afaaf Liberty
    • , James McIntyre
    • , Abdel Babiker
    • , Diana Gibb
    •  & Caroline T. Tiemessen
  • Article | | open

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with cartilage degeneration, and no effective therapy exists. Here, the authors show that the HPIP protein modulates OA progression by regulating Wnt signaling, and that its knockdown in joints via AAV-mediated gene silencing attentuates pathology.

    • Quanbo Ji
    • , Xiaojie Xu
    • , Lei Kang
    • , Yameng Xu
    • , Jingbo Xiao
    • , Stuart B. Goodman
    • , Xiang Zhu
    • , Wenchao Li
    • , Juan Liu
    • , Xu Gao
    • , Zhifeng Yan
    • , Yuxuan Zheng
    • , Zheng Wang
    • , William J. Maloney
    • , Qinong Ye
    •  & Yan Wang
  • Article | | open

    It has proven difficult to measure the release of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, in the human brain. Here, the authors introduce and validate a new method that infers dopamine release based on minute-by-minute fluctuations of the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [11C]raclopride.

    • Rachel N. Lippert
    • , Anna Lena Cremer
    • , Sharmili Edwin Thanarajah
    • , Clio Korn
    • , Thomas Jahans-Price
    • , Lauren M. Burgeno
    • , Marc Tittgemeyer
    • , Jens C. Brüning
    • , Mark E. Walton
    •  & Heiko Backes
  • Article | | open

    Population structure can bias the results of genetic and epidemiological analysis. Here, Haworth et al. report that fine-scale structure is detectable in apparently homogeneous samples such as ALSPAC when measured very precisely, and remains detectable in UK Biobank despite conventional approaches to account for it.

    • Simon Haworth
    • , Ruth Mitchell
    • , Laura Corbin
    • , Kaitlin H. Wade
    • , Tom Dudding
    • , Ashley Budu-Aggrey
    • , David Carslake
    • , Gibran Hemani
    • , Lavinia Paternoster
    • , George Davey Smith
    • , Neil Davies
    • , Daniel J. Lawson
    •  & Nicholas J. Timpson
  • Article | | open

    There are currently no validated methods for the diagnosis of prion disease at the preclinical stage. Here the authors show that serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification and real-time quaking-induced conversion can be used to detect prions in the skin of prion-inoculated hamsters and humanized transgenic mice at early preclinical stages.

    • Zerui Wang
    • , Matteo Manca
    • , Aaron Foutz
    • , Manuel V. Camacho
    • , Gregory J. Raymond
    • , Brent Race
    • , Christina D. Orru
    • , Jue Yuan
    • , Pingping Shen
    • , Baiya Li
    • , Yue Lang
    • , Johnny Dang
    • , Alise Adornato
    • , Katie Williams
    • , Nicholas R. Maurer
    • , Pierluigi Gambetti
    • , Bin Xu
    • , Witold Surewicz
    • , Robert B. Petersen
    • , Xiaoping Dong
    • , Brian S. Appleby
    • , Byron Caughey
    • , Li Cui
    • , Qingzhong Kong
    •  & Wen-Quan Zou
  • Article | | open

    FRET sensors hardly achieve visualization of spatiotemporal dynamics of protein activity in vivo. Here the authors present intensiometric small GTPase biosensors based on dimerization-dependent fluorescent proteins that enable monitoring of activity of small GTPases in the brains of behaving mice at a single spine resolution.

    • Jihoon Kim
    • , Sangkyu Lee
    • , Kanghoon Jung
    • , Won Chan Oh
    • , Nury Kim
    • , Seungkyu Son
    • , YoungJu Jo
    • , Hyung-Bae Kwon
    •  & Won Do Heo
  • Article | | open

    Cancer patients are at an increased risk of suicide: elderly, white, unmarried males with localized disease are at highest risk vs other cancer patients. Among those diagnosed at < 50 years of age, the plurality of suicides is from hematologic and testicular tumors; if > 50, from prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer patients.

    • Nicholas G. Zaorsky
    • , Ying Zhang
    • , Leonard Tuanquin
    • , Shirley M. Bluethmann
    • , Henry S. Park
    •  & Vernon M. Chinchilli
  • Article | | open

    Real-time disease surveillance can aid mitigation of outbreaks. Here, Lu et al. combine an approach using Google search and EHR data with an approach leveraging spatiotemporal synchronicities of influenza activity across states to improve state-level influenza activity estimates in the US.

    • Fred S. Lu
    • , Mohammad W. Hattab
    • , Cesar Leonardo Clemente
    • , Matthew Biggerstaff
    •  & Mauricio Santillana
  • Article | | open

    Current experimental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for Ebola virus (EBOV) post-exposure immunotherapy are ineffective against Sudan (SUDV) or Marburg virus (MARV). Here, authors develop cocktails of mAbs that protect nonhuman primates against EBOV, SUDV, and MARV infection when given four days post infection.

    • Jennifer M. Brannan
    • , Shihua He
    • , Katie A. Howell
    • , Laura I. Prugar
    • , Wenjun Zhu
    • , Hong Vu
    • , Sergey Shulenin
    • , Shweta Kailasan
    • , Henna Raina
    • , Gary Wong
    • , Md Niaz Rahim
    • , Logan Banadyga
    • , Kevin Tierney
    • , Xuelian Zhao
    • , Yuxing Li
    • , Frederick W. Holtsberg
    • , John M. Dye
    • , Xiangguo Qiu
    •  & M. Javad Aman
  • Article | | open

    Relevance of indirect protection of household members of vaccinees is unclear. Here, Tsang et al. quantify the direct and indirect protection of vaccination in a randomized controlled trial and show that benefits of individual vaccination remain important even when other household members are vaccinated.

    • Tim K. Tsang
    • , Vicky J. Fang
    • , Dennis K. M. Ip
    • , Ranawaka A. P. M. Perera
    • , Hau Chi So
    • , Gabriel M. Leung
    • , J. S. Malik Peiris
    • , Benjamin J. Cowling
    •  & Simon Cauchemez
  • Article | | open

    While human lifespan is only moderately heritable, “getting old” runs in families. Here, van den Berg et al. study mortality data from three-generation cohorts to define a threshold for longevity and find that individuals have an increasing survival advantage with each additional relative in the top 10% survivors of their birth cohort.

    • Niels van den Berg
    • , Mar Rodríguez-Girondo
    • , Ingrid K. van Dijk
    • , Rick J. Mourits
    • , Kees Mandemakers
    • , Angelique A. P. O. Janssens
    • , Marian Beekman
    • , Ken R. Smith
    •  & P. Eline Slagboom
  • Article | | open

    Parasitic nematodes causing onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis rely on a bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia, which is a validated therapeutic target. Here, Clare et al. perform a high-throughput screen of 1.3 million compounds and identify 5 chemotypes with faster kill rates than existing anti-Wolbachia drugs.

    • Rachel H. Clare
    • , Catherine Bardelle
    • , Paul Harper
    • , W. David Hong
    • , Ulf Börjesson
    • , Kelly L. Johnston
    • , Matthew Collier
    • , Laura Myhill
    • , Andrew Cassidy
    • , Darren Plant
    • , Helen Plant
    • , Roger Clark
    • , Darren A. N. Cook
    • , Andrew Steven
    • , John Archer
    • , Paul McGillan
    • , Sitthivut Charoensutthivarakul
    • , Jaclyn Bibby
    • , Raman Sharma
    • , Gemma L. Nixon
    • , Barton E. Slatko
    • , Lindsey Cantin
    • , Bo Wu
    • , Joseph Turner
    • , Louise Ford
    • , Kirsty Rich
    • , Mark Wigglesworth
    • , Neil G. Berry
    • , Paul M. O’Neill
    • , Mark J. Taylor
    •  & Stephen A. Ward
  • Article | | open

    Robust surveillance methods are needed for trachoma control and recrudescence monitoring, but existing methods have limitations. Here, Pinsent et al. analyse data from nine trachoma-endemic populations and provide operational thresholds for interpretation of serological data in low transmission and post-elimination settings.

    • Amy Pinsent
    • , Anthony W. Solomon
    • , Robin L. Bailey
    • , Rhiannon Bid
    • , Anaseini Cama
    • , Deborah Dean
    • , Brook Goodhew
    • , Sarah E. Gwyn
    • , Kelvin R. Jack
    • , Ram Prasad Kandel
    • , Mike Kama
    • , Patrick Massae
    • , Colin Macleod
    • , David C. W. Mabey
    • , Stephanie Migchelsen
    • , Andreas Müller
    • , Frank Sandi
    • , Oliver Sokana
    • , Raebwebwe Taoaba
    • , Rabebe Tekeraoi
    • , Diana L. Martin
    •  & Michael. T. White
  • Article | | open

    Developing new technologies for the neuromodulation of the vagus nerve can enable therapeutic strategies for body weight control in obese patients. Here, the authors present a battery-free self-powered implantable vagus nerve stimulation system that electrically responds to stomach movement.

    • Guang Yao
    • , Lei Kang
    • , Jun Li
    • , Yin Long
    • , Hao Wei
    • , Carolina A. Ferreira
    • , Justin J. Jeffery
    • , Yuan Lin
    • , Weibo Cai
    •  & Xudong Wang
  • Article | | open

    While nanocarrier-based drug delivery is a promising therapeutic approach, in situ characterization of drug nanocarriers in blood remains difficult. Here, the authors demonstrate how the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy can be used to directly characterize drug nanocarriers in flowing blood.

    • Inka Negwer
    • , Andreas Best
    • , Meike Schinnerer
    • , Olga Schäfer
    • , Leon Capeloa
    • , Manfred Wagner
    • , Manfred Schmidt
    • , Volker Mailänder
    • , Mark Helm
    • , Matthias Barz
    • , Hans-Jürgen Butt
    •  & Kaloian Koynov
  • Article | | open

    Nutritional experience can have phenotypic consequences in subsequent generations, as is evident from studies in animals and plants. Here, Vågerö et al. find in a large three-generation cohort that access to food in the paternal grandfather associates with all-cause and cancer mortality in male grandchildren.

    • Denny Vågerö
    • , Pia R. Pinger
    • , Vanda Aronsson
    •  & Gerard J. van den Berg
  • Article | | open

    Studying the genetic underpinnings of physical activity and sleep duration can be confounded by self-reporting. Here, Doherty et al. use data from 91,105 UK Biobank participants, whose activity had been monitored for a week by a wearable device, for genome-wide association analysis and identify 14 loci.

    • Aiden Doherty
    • , Karl Smith-Byrne
    • , Teresa Ferreira
    • , Michael V. Holmes
    • , Chris Holmes
    • , Sara L. Pulit
    •  & Cecilia M. Lindgren
  • Article | | open

    Biomedical image analysis challenges have increased in the last ten years, but common practices have not been established yet. Here the authors analyze 150 recent challenges and demonstrate that outcome varies based on the metrics used and that limited information reporting hampers reproducibility.

    • Lena Maier-Hein
    • , Matthias Eisenmann
    • , Annika Reinke
    • , Sinan Onogur
    • , Marko Stankovic
    • , Patrick Scholz
    • , Tal Arbel
    • , Hrvoje Bogunovic
    • , Andrew P. Bradley
    • , Aaron Carass
    • , Carolin Feldmann
    • , Alejandro F. Frangi
    • , Peter M. Full
    • , Bram van Ginneken
    • , Allan Hanbury
    • , Katrin Honauer
    • , Michal Kozubek
    • , Bennett A. Landman
    • , Keno März
    • , Oskar Maier
    • , Klaus Maier-Hein
    • , Bjoern H. Menze
    • , Henning Müller
    • , Peter F. Neher
    • , Wiro Niessen
    • , Nasir Rajpoot
    • , Gregory C. Sharp
    • , Korsuk Sirinukunwattana
    • , Stefanie Speidel
    • , Christian Stock
    • , Danail Stoyanov
    • , Abdel Aziz Taha
    • , Fons van der Sommen
    • , Ching-Wei Wang
    • , Marc-André Weber
    • , Guoyan Zheng
    • , Pierre Jannin
    •  & Annette Kopp-Schneider
  • Article | | open

    Signaling and transcriptional regulation of MDSC activity remains largely undefined. Here the authors show that monocytic MDSC immunosuppression is triggered by c-FLIP and requires NFκB, implicate this axis in cancer prognosis and response to therapy, and employ ectopic FLIP to treat immunopathology.

    • Alessandra Fiore
    • , Stefano Ugel
    • , Francesco De Sanctis
    • , Sara Sandri
    • , Giulio Fracasso
    • , Rosalinda Trovato
    • , Silvia Sartoris
    • , Samantha Solito
    • , Susanna Mandruzzato
    • , Fulvia Vascotto
    • , Keli L. Hippen
    • , Giada Mondanelli
    • , Ursula Grohmann
    • , Geny Piro
    • , Carmine Carbone
    • , Davide Melisi
    • , Rita T. Lawlor
    • , Aldo Scarpa
    • , Alessia Lamolinara
    • , Manuela Iezzi
    • , Matteo Fassan
    • , Silvio Bicciato
    • , Bruce R. Blazar
    • , Ugur Sahin
    • , Peter J. Murray
    •  & Vincenzo Bronte
  • Article | | open

    Anemia has a global prevalence of over 2 billion people and is diagnosed via blood-based laboratory test. Here the authors describe a smartphone app that can estimate hemoglobin levels and detect anemia by analyzing pictures of fingernail beds taken with a smartphone and without the need of any external equipment.

    • Robert G. Mannino
    • , David R. Myers
    • , Erika A. Tyburski
    • , Christina Caruso
    • , Jeanne Boudreaux
    • , Traci Leong
    • , G. D. Clifford
    •  & Wilbur A. Lam
  • Article | | open

    Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. Here, Park et al. analyse the genomes of 249 S. Typhi isolates from 11 sub-Saharan African countries, identifying genes and plasmids associated with antibiotic resistance and showing that multi-drug resistance is highly pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa.

    • Se Eun Park
    • , Duy Thanh Pham
    • , Christine Boinett
    • , Vanessa K. Wong
    • , Gi Deok Pak
    • , Ursula Panzner
    • , Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza
    • , Vera von Kalckreuth
    • , Justin Im
    • , Heidi Schütt-Gerowitt
    • , John A. Crump
    • , Robert F. Breiman
    • , Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
    • , Ellis Owusu-Dabo
    • , Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy
    • , Abdramane Bassiahi Soura
    • , Abraham Aseffa
    • , Nagla Gasmelseed
    • , Karen H. Keddy
    • , Jürgen May
    • , Amy Gassama Sow
    • , Peter Aaby
    • , Holly M. Biggs
    • , Julian T. Hertz
    • , Joel M. Montgomery
    • , Leonard Cosmas
    • , Beatrice Olack
    • , Barry Fields
    • , Nimako Sarpong
    • , Tsiriniaina Jean Luco Razafindrabe
    • , Tiana Mirana Raminosoa
    • , Leon Parfait Kabore
    • , Emmanuel Sampo
    • , Mekonnen Teferi
    • , Biruk Yeshitela
    • , Muna Ahmed El Tayeb
    • , Arvinda Sooka
    • , Christian G. Meyer
    • , Ralf Krumkamp
    • , Denise Myriam Dekker
    • , Anna Jaeger
    • , Sven Poppert
    • , Adama Tall
    • , Aissatou Niang
    • , Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen
    • , Sandra Valborg Løfberg
    • , Hye Jin Seo
    • , Hyon Jin Jeon
    • , Jessica Fung Deerin
    • , Jinkyung Park
    • , Frank Konings
    • , Mohammad Ali
    • , John D. Clemens
    • , Peter Hughes
    • , Juliet Nsimire Sendagala
    • , Tobias Vudriko
    • , Robert Downing
    • , Usman N. Ikumapayi
    • , Grant A. Mackenzie
    • , Stephen Obaro
    • , Silvia Argimon
    • , David M. Aanensen
    • , Andrew Page
    • , Jacqueline A. Keane
    • , Sebastian Duchene
    • , Zoe Dyson
    • , Kathryn E. Holt
    • , Gordon Dougan
    • , Florian Marks
    •  & Stephen Baker
  • Article | | open

    Radiotherapy is the main treatment for most cancer, but it is unclear if targeting tumour vasculature can enhance tumour radiosensitivity. Here, the authors show that tumour endothelial-mesenchymal transition after radiotherapy leads to proliferation of radioresistant CSCs and tumour associated macrophages polarization.

    • Seo-Hyun Choi
    • , A-Ram Kim
    • , Jae-Kyung Nam
    • , Jin-Mo Kim
    • , Jee-Youn Kim
    • , Haeng Ran Seo
    • , Hae-June Lee
    • , Jaeho Cho
    •  & Yoon-Jin Lee
  • Article | | open

    The effects of caesarean section delivery on mother-to-neonate transmission of microbiota are unclear. Here the authors show that caesarean section delivery can affect the transmission of specific microbial strains and the immunomodulatory potential of the microbiota.

    • Linda Wampach
    • , Anna Heintz-Buschart
    • , Joëlle V. Fritz
    • , Javier Ramiro-Garcia
    • , Janine Habier
    • , Malte Herold
    • , Shaman Narayanasamy
    • , Anne Kaysen
    • , Angela H. Hogan
    • , Lutz Bindl
    • , Jean Bottu
    • , Rashi Halder
    • , Conny Sjöqvist
    • , Patrick May
    • , Anders F. Andersson
    • , Carine de Beaufort
    •  & Paul Wilmes
  • Article | | open

    Pulmonary infections constitute a substantial health problem worldwide. Here the authors show that phagocytes similar to primitive macrophages can be generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells, by the use of industry-compatible, stirred-tank bioreactors, and applied as a cell-based therapy to treat acute bacterial infections in mice.

    • Mania Ackermann
    • , Henning Kempf
    • , Miriam Hetzel
    • , Christina Hesse
    • , Anna Rafiei Hashtchin
    • , Kerstin Brinkert
    • , Juliane Wilhelmine Schott
    • , Kathrin Haake
    • , Mark Philipp Kühnel
    • , Silke Glage
    • , Constanca Figueiredo
    • , Danny Jonigk
    • , Katherina Sewald
    • , Axel Schambach
    • , Sabine Wronski
    • , Thomas Moritz
    • , Ulrich Martin
    • , Robert Zweigerdt
    • , Antje Munder
    •  & Nico Lachmann
  • Article | | open

    Photodynamic therapy is usually ineffective against deeply seated metastatic tumors due to poor penetration of the excitation light. Here, the authors design a biomimetic nanoreactor which can convert nutriment glucose into toxic singlet oxygen via chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer with no light excitation and demonstrate its high efficacy in a mouse lung metastatic model.

    • Zhengze Yu
    • , Ping Zhou
    • , Wei Pan
    • , Na Li
    •  & Bo Tang
  • Article | | open

    The side effects of cancer drugs limit their utility. Here, the authors developed a method in which an inactive (prodrug) version of the cancer drug doxorubicin enters tumour cells and then gets activated inside the cells upon a trigger facilitated by enzyme-instructed supramolecular self-assembly.

    • Qingxin Yao
    • , Feng Lin
    • , Xinyuan Fan
    • , Yanpu Wang
    • , Ye Liu
    • , Zhaofei Liu
    • , Xingyu Jiang
    • , Peng R. Chen
    •  & Yuan Gao
  • Article | | open

    Indoor residual spraying is a commonly used method for mosquito, and malaria, control and there are a number of available insecticides that are available for this. Here, the authors evaluate the efficacy of widely-used and novel insecticides against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

    • Ellie Sherrard-Smith
    • , Jamie T. Griffin
    • , Peter Winskill
    • , Vincent Corbel
    • , Cédric Pennetier
    • , Armel Djénontin
    • , Sarah Moore
    • , Jason H. Richardson
    • , Pie Müller
    • , Constant Edi
    • , Natacha Protopopoff
    • , Richard Oxborough
    • , Fiacre Agossa
    • , Raphael N’Guessan
    • , Mark Rowland
    •  & Thomas S. Churcher
  • Article | | open

    Treatment-seeking for fever is widely used to estimate treatment of childhood infections, but cross-country comparisons are problematic. Here, the authors estimate the probability of seeking treatment for fever at public facilities across 29 countries by quantifying person-level latent variables.

    • Victor A. Alegana
    • , Joseph Maina
    • , Paul O. Ouma
    • , Peter M. Macharia
    • , Jim Wright
    • , Peter M. Atkinson
    • , Emelda A. Okiro
    • , Robert W. Snow
    •  & Andrew J. Tatem
  • Article | | open

    Therapeutic genome engineering relies on the development of reliable, robust and versatile tools. Here the authors develop Cas9-Cas9 chimeras with high target site activity that generate predictable deletions.

    • Mehmet Fatih Bolukbasi
    • , Pengpeng Liu
    • , Kevin Luk
    • , Samantha F. Kwok
    • , Ankit Gupta
    • , Nadia Amrani
    • , Erik J. Sontheimer
    • , Lihua Julie Zhu
    •  & Scot A. Wolfe
  • Article | | open

    IL-2 is used systemically for cancer therapy but it is associated with severe toxicity. Here, the authors design a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing membrane-bound IL-2 that shows therapeutic efficacy alone or in combination with checkpoint inhibitors in colon cancer-bearing mice.

    • Zuqiang Liu
    • , Yan Ge
    • , Haiyan Wang
    • , Congrong Ma
    • , Mathilde Feist
    • , Songguang Ju
    • , Z. Sheng Guo
    •  & David L. Bartlett
  • Article | | open

    Treatment for eye injuries and diseases is most efficient when delivered directly into the eye. Here, the authors developed a patient-friendly eye patch equipped with an array of detachable microneedles, through which drugs can be delivered through the cornea for an extended period of time.

    • Aung Than
    • , Chenghao Liu
    • , Hao Chang
    • , Phan Khanh Duong
    • , Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung
    • , Chenjie Xu
    • , Xiaomeng Wang
    •  & Peng Chen
  • Article | | open

    The efficacy of nanoparticles can be significantly inhibited by serum proteins binding to them. Here, the author developed a supramolecularly constructed protein corona on nanoparticles, which minimises interactions with serum proteins to prevent the clearance of these particles by macrophages.

    • Jun Yong Oh
    • , Han Sol Kim
    • , L. Palanikumar
    • , Eun Min Go
    • , Batakrishna Jana
    • , Soo Ah Park
    • , Ho Young Kim
    • , Kibeom Kim
    • , Jeong Kon Seo
    • , Sang Kyu Kwak
    • , Chaekyu Kim
    • , Sebyung Kang
    •  & Ja-Hyoung Ryu
  • Article | | open

    Nanoparticle applications are limited by insufficient understanding of physiochemical properties on in vivo disposition. Here, the authors explore the influence of size, surface chemistry and administration on the biodisposition of mesoporous silica nanoparticles using image-based pharmacokinetics.

    • Prashant Dogra
    • , Natalie L. Adolphi
    • , Zhihui Wang
    • , Yu-Shen Lin
    • , Kimberly S. Butler
    • , Paul N. Durfee
    • , Jonas G. Croissant
    • , Achraf Noureddine
    • , Eric N. Coker
    • , Elaine L. Bearer
    • , Vittorio Cristini
    •  & C. Jeffrey Brinker
  • Article | | open

    Therapeutic alteration of protein expression using modified mRNA is limited by immunogenicity and instability in vivo. Here the authors use antibody-coated lipid nanoparticles to deliver mRNA to leukocytes and drive expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines in an inflammatory bowel disease mouse model.

    • Nuphar Veiga
    • , Meir Goldsmith
    • , Yasmin Granot
    • , Daniel Rosenblum
    • , Niels Dammes
    • , Ranit Kedmi
    • , Srinivas Ramishetti
    •  & Dan Peer
  • Article | | open

    Chronic inflammation often involves reactivation of memory adaptive immune. Here the authors show, using non-human primate models, that a single dose of anti-IL-7 receptor monoclonal antibody that exhibits antagonist but not agonist properties can reduce the frequency of antigen-specific T cell to help repress chronic skin inflammation.

    • Lyssia Belarif
    • , Caroline Mary
    • , Lola Jacquemont
    • , Hoa Le Mai
    • , Richard Danger
    • , Jeremy Hervouet
    • , David Minault
    • , Virginie Thepenier
    • , Veronique Nerrière-Daguin
    • , Elisabeth Nguyen
    • , Sabrina Pengam
    • , Eric Largy
    • , Arnaud Delobel
    • , Bernard Martinet
    • , Stéphanie Le Bas-Bernardet
    • , Sophie Brouard
    • , Jean-Paul Soulillou
    • , Nicolas Degauque
    • , Gilles Blancho
    • , Bernard Vanhove
    •  & Nicolas Poirier
  • Article | | open

    Direct electrical brain stimulation can induce widespread changes in neural activity, offering a means to modulate network-wide activity and treat disease. Here, the authors show that the low-frequency functional connectivity profile of a stimulation target predicts where induced theta activity occurs.

    • E. A. Solomon
    • , J. E. Kragel
    • , R. Gross
    • , B. Lega
    • , M. R. Sperling
    • , G. Worrell
    • , S. A. Sheth
    • , K. A. Zaghloul
    • , B. C. Jobst
    • , J. M. Stein
    • , S. Das
    • , R. Gorniak
    • , C. S. Inman
    • , S. Seger
    • , D. S. Rizzuto
    •  & M. J. Kahana
  • Article | | open

    The transcription factor SOX17 is important for uterine gland formation, fertility, and embryo implantation in mouse. Here the authors show that SOX17 is upstream of Indian hedgehog to regulate mouse uterine receptivity, and their analysis of uterine tissue from endometriosis patients suggests the same function in humans.

    • Xiaoqiu Wang
    • , Xilong Li
    • , Tianyuan Wang
    • , San-Pin Wu
    • , Jae-Wook Jeong
    • , Tae Hoon Kim
    • , Steven L. Young
    • , Bruce A. Lessey
    • , Rainer B. Lanz
    • , John P. Lydon
    •  & Francesco J. DeMayo
  • Article | | open

    Interfering RNA have a range of therapeutic and research based applications, issues with delivery have made systems that make siRNA in situ of interest. Here, the author report on the creation of a DNA hydrogel with improved stability and transcription efficiency over plasmid DNA.

    • Jaejung Song
    • , Minhyuk Lee
    • , Taeyoung Kim
    • , Jeongkyeong Na
    • , Yebin Jung
    • , Gyoo Yeol Jung
    • , Sungjee Kim
    •  & Nokyoung Park
  • Article | | open

    The decision when to stop an intervention is a critical component of parasite elimination programmes, but reliance on surveillance data alone can be inaccurate. Here, Michael et al. combine parasite transmission model predictions with disease survey data to more reliably determine when interventions can be stopped.

    • Edwin Michael
    • , Morgan E. Smith
    • , Moses N. Katabarwa
    • , Edson Byamukama
    • , Emily Griswold
    • , Peace Habomugisha
    • , Thomson Lakwo
    • , Edridah Tukahebwa
    • , Emmanuel S. Miri
    • , Abel Eigege
    • , Evelyn Ngige
    • , Thomas R. Unnasch
    •  & Frank O. Richards
  • Article | | open

    Photosensitizers delivered to mitochondria of cancer cells can enhance photodynamic therapy. Here, the authors report mitochondria-targeted radiation therapy and radiodynamic therapy of colorectal cancer models with a cationic nanoscale metal-organic framework to overcome shallow light penetration of Ru-based photosensitizers.

    • Kaiyuan Ni
    • , Guangxu Lan
    • , Samuel S. Veroneau
    • , Xiaopin Duan
    • , Yang Song
    •  & Wenbin Lin