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Measurements of the composition-dependent viscosity of rhyolitic magma reveal a tipping point that changes the physical properties of the melt and controls the transition between effusive and explosive eruptions.
Collisions of large differentiated impactors during the late stages of Earth’s accretion may have heterogeneously mixed projectile material into the Earth, explaining observed chemical and isotopic heterogeneities in mantle materials.
The supercontinent Rodinia has been hypothesised to have formed in a different manner from other supercontinents. Here, the authors report geochemical and mineralogical evidence for prevalence of non-arc magmatism and enhanced erosion of volcanic arcs and orogens during Rodinian assembly.
Ancient lavas reveal the presence of deep mantle reservoirs with anomalously light oxygen signatures. These lavas fingerprint heterogeneous mantle domains in early Earth that may have since been mixed away.