Extinction

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Unexpected omission of aversive outcome is encoded as reward via activation of reward-encoding dopaminergic neurons in animals. The authors identify the Drosophila neural circuit through which reward-encoding dopaminergic neurons are activated when an olfactory cue is no longer paired with punishment.

    • Li Yan McCurdy
    • , Preeti Sareen
    •  & Michael N. Nitabach
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The precise role of the thalamic reticular nucleus in fear is not understood. Here, the authors report that the rostroventral part of the reticular nucleus is involved in the extinction of tone conditioned fear memory through its inhibitory projections to the dorsal midline thalamus.

    • Joon-Hyuk Lee
    • , Charles-Francois V. Latchoumane
    •  & Hee-Sup Shin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Previous work has shown that the thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is involved in memory and emotion. Here the authors report that the RE and its inputs from the medial prefrontal cortex are indispensable for the top-down inhibition of fear memories after extinction.

    • Karthik R. Ramanathan
    • , Jingji Jin
    •  & Stephen Maren
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The success of extinction learning is not predictive of long-term retrieval of an extinction memory. Using fMRI to study consolidation of fear extinction in human subjects, the authors show that reactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during memory retrieval predicts extinction memory retrieval, and that increasing dopaminergic signaling increases the number of these activations.

    • A. M. V. Gerlicher
    • , O. Tüscher
    •  & R. Kalisch
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Zona incerta (ZI) is an inhibitory subthalamic nucleus with diverse connectivity yet its functional importance has not been extensively studied. Here the authors report that ZI receives mPFC input and can modulate both innate and learned defensive behaviors via its inhibitory projection to the PAG.

    • Xiao-lin Chou
    • , Xiyue Wang
    •  & Huizhong Whit Tao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There are two forms of extinction learning, which are vital for adaptive behaviour: simple extinction, when an expected outcome fails to occur, and overexpectation, when an exaggerated expectation is in conflict with the actual outcome. Iordanova et al.show that both forms of extinction learning have a common neural substrate in the amygdala.

    • Mihaela D. Iordanova
    • , Mickael L. D. Deroche
    •  & Geoffrey Schoenbaum