Evolution

  • Article | | open

    Group membership can inform individuals’ decisions on whether to cooperate. Here, the authors show how cooperative groups themselves can emerge and change due to use of reputation heuristics (such as “the enemy of a friend is an enemy”), and how this destabilizes cooperation over time.

    • Jörg Gross
    •  & Carsten K. W. De Dreu
  • Article | | open

    Negative selection removes deleterious genetic variation, and can influence genetic architectures and evolution of complex traits. Here, the authors analyze data from 25 UK Biobank diseases and complex traits, and quantify frequency-dependent genetic architectures which suggests actions of negative selection.

    • Armin P. Schoech
    • , Daniel M. Jordan
    • , Po-Ru Loh
    • , Steven Gazal
    • , Luke J. O’Connor
    • , Daniel J. Balick
    • , Pier F. Palamara
    • , Hilary K. Finucane
    • , Shamil R. Sunyaev
    •  & Alkes L. Price
  • Article | | open

    The diurnal cycle exerts influences on various aspects of plant biology. Here, the authors generate and compare diurnal transcriptomics data from nine members of Archaeplastida representing major clades.

    • Camilla Ferrari
    • , Sebastian Proost
    • , Marcin Janowski
    • , Jörg Becker
    • , Zoran Nikoloski
    • , Debashish Bhattacharya
    • , Dana Price
    • , Takayuki Tohge
    • , Arren Bar-Even
    • , Alisdair Fernie
    • , Mark Stitt
    •  & Marek Mutwil
  • Article | | open

    Transposable element (TE) bursts shape genome evolution but their origin remains unclear. Here, the authors show that a burst is restricted to only a few domesticated rice accessions and is associated with the acquisition of two TE variants, Ping16A and Ping16A_Stow, not the loss of TE silencing.

    • Jinfeng Chen
    • , Lu Lu
    • , Jazmine Benjamin
    • , Stephanie Diaz
    • , C. Nathan Hancock
    • , Jason E. Stajich
    •  & Susan R. Wessler
  • Article | | open

    The pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes complex trait adaptation within cystic fibrosis patients. Here, Bartell, Sommer, and colleagues use statistical modeling of longitudinal isolates to characterize the joint genetic and phenotypic evolutionary trajectories of P. aeruginosa within hosts.

    • Jennifer A. Bartell
    • , Lea M. Sommer
    • , Janus A. J. Haagensen
    • , Anne Loch
    • , Rocio Espinosa
    • , Søren Molin
    •  & Helle Krogh Johansen
  • Article | | open

    Development of bacterial resistance to an antibiotic can lead to collateral sensitivity to another drug. Here, the authors study collateral sensitivity conferred by mutations in the horizontally acquired β-lactamase CTX-M-15, and identify antibiotic combinations that constrain the evolution of resistance.

    • Carola E. H. Rosenkilde
    • , Christian Munck
    • , Andreas Porse
    • , Marius Linkevicius
    • , Dan I. Andersson
    •  & Morten O. A. Sommer
  • Article | | open

    The Caucasus mountain range has impacted on the culture and genetics of the wider region. Here, the authors generate genome-wide SNP data for 45 Eneolithic and Bronze Age individuals across the Caucasus, and find distinct genetic clusters between mountain and steppe zones as well as occasional gene-flow.

    • Chuan-Chao Wang
    • , Sabine Reinhold
    • , Alexey Kalmykov
    • , Antje Wissgott
    • , Guido Brandt
    • , Choongwon Jeong
    • , Olivia Cheronet
    • , Matthew Ferry
    • , Eadaoin Harney
    • , Denise Keating
    • , Swapan Mallick
    • , Nadin Rohland
    • , Kristin Stewardson
    • , Anatoly R. Kantorovich
    • , Vladimir E. Maslov
    • , Vladimira G. Petrenko
    • , Vladimir R. Erlikh
    • , Biaslan Ch. Atabiev
    • , Rabadan G. Magomedov
    • , Philipp L. Kohl
    • , Kurt W. Alt
    • , Sandra L. Pichler
    • , Claudia Gerling
    • , Harald Meller
    • , Benik Vardanyan
    • , Larisa Yeganyan
    • , Alexey D. Rezepkin
    • , Dirk Mariaschk
    • , Natalia Berezina
    • , Julia Gresky
    • , Katharina Fuchs
    • , Corina Knipper
    • , Stephan Schiffels
    • , Elena Balanovska
    • , Oleg Balanovsky
    • , Iain Mathieson
    • , Thomas Higham
    • , Yakov B. Berezin
    • , Alexandra Buzhilova
    • , Viktor Trifonov
    • , Ron Pinhasi
    • , Andrej B. Belinskij
    • , David Reich
    • , Svend Hansen
    • , Johannes Krause
    •  & Wolfgang Haak
  • Article | | open

    Reversible phenotypic plasticity is expected to be favoured by long lifespan, as this increases the environmental variation individuals experience. Here, the authors develop a model showing how phenotypic plasticity can drive selection on lifespan, leading to coevolution of these traits.

    • Irja I. Ratikainen
    •  & Hanna Kokko
  • Article | | open

    It is unclear whether the sequence and timing of early life neurodevelopment varies across human populations, excluding the effects of disease or malnutrition. Here, the authors show that children of healthy, urban, educated mothers show very similar development across five geographically diverse populations.

    • José Villar
    • , Michelle Fernandes
    • , Manorama Purwar
    • , Eleonora Staines-Urias
    • , Paola Di Nicola
    • , Leila Cheikh Ismail
    • , Roseline Ochieng
    • , Fernando Barros
    • , Elaine Albernaz
    • , Cesar Victora
    • , Naina Kunnawar
    • , Sophie Temple
    • , Francesca Giuliani
    • , Tamsin Sandells
    • , Maria Carvalho
    • , Eric Ohuma
    • , Yasmin Jaffer
    • , Alison Noble
    • , Michael Gravett
    • , Ruyan Pang
    • , Ann Lambert
    • , Enrico Bertino
    • , Aris Papageorghiou
    • , Cutberto Garza
    • , Alan Stein
    • , Zulfiqar Bhutta
    •  & Stephen Kennedy
  • Article | | open

    The Salkhit skull from Mongolia was initially suggested to have archaic hominin characters. Here, Devièse and colleagues date the skull to approximately 34–35 thousand years ago and reconstruct its mitochondrial genome, finding that it falls within modern human haplogroup N found across Eurasia.

    • Thibaut Devièse
    • , Diyendo Massilani
    • , Seonbok Yi
    • , Daniel Comeskey
    • , Sarah Nagel
    • , Birgit Nickel
    • , Erika Ribechini
    • , Jungeun Lee
    • , Damdinsuren Tseveendorj
    • , Byambaa Gunchinsuren
    • , Matthias Meyer
    • , Svante Pääbo
    •  & Tom Higham
  • Article | | open

    The structure and distribution of strain-level diversity in host-associated bacterial communities is largely unexplored. Here, Ellegaard and Engel analyze strain level diversity of the honey bee gut microbiota, showing that bees from the same colony differ in strain but not phylotype composition.

    • Kirsten M. Ellegaard
    •  & Philipp Engel
  • Article | | open

    The continental record of the end Permian mass extinction is limited, especially from high paleolatitudes. Here, Fielding et al. report a multi-proxy Permo-Triassic record from Australia, resolving the timing of local terrestrial plant extinction and the relationship with environmental changes.

    • Christopher R. Fielding
    • , Tracy D. Frank
    • , Stephen McLoughlin
    • , Vivi Vajda
    • , Chris Mays
    • , Allen P. Tevyaw
    • , Arne Winguth
    • , Cornelia Winguth
    • , Robert S. Nicoll
    • , Malcolm Bocking
    •  & James L. Crowley
  • Article | | open

    It has been thought that land plants suffered a mass extinction along with animals at the end of the Permian. Here, Nowak et al. show that the apparent plant mass extinction is a result of biases in the fossil record and their reanalysis suggests a lower magnitude and more selective plant extinction.

    • Hendrik Nowak
    • , Elke Schneebeli-Hermann
    •  & Evelyn Kustatscher
  • Article | | open

    The utility of UV vision for visualizing habitat structure is poorly known. Here, the authors use optical models and multispectral imaging to show that UV vision reveals sharp visual contrasts between leaf surfaces, potentially an advantage in navigating forest environments.

    • Cynthia Tedore
    •  & Dan-Eric Nilsson
  • Article | | open

    Pigmentation variation in humans is influenced by complex genetic architecture in different populations. Here, the authors perform a genome-wide association analysis involving > 6,000 Latin Americans for pigmentation of skin and eyes, and identify known and novel genetic associations.

    • Kaustubh Adhikari
    • , Javier Mendoza-Revilla
    • , Anood Sohail
    • , Macarena Fuentes-Guajardo
    • , Jodie Lampert
    • , Juan Camilo Chacón-Duque
    • , Malena Hurtado
    • , Valeria Villegas
    • , Vanessa Granja
    • , Victor Acuña-Alonzo
    • , Claudia Jaramillo
    • , William Arias
    • , Rodrigo Barquera Lozano
    • , Paola Everardo
    • , Jorge Gómez-Valdés
    • , Hugo Villamil-Ramírez
    • , Caio C. Silva de Cerqueira
    • , Tábita Hunemeier
    • , Virginia Ramallo
    • , Lavinia Schuler-Faccini
    • , Francisco M. Salzano
    • , Rolando Gonzalez-José
    • , Maria-Cátira Bortolini
    • , Samuel Canizales-Quinteros
    • , Carla Gallo
    • , Giovanni Poletti
    • , Gabriel Bedoya
    • , Francisco Rothhammer
    • , Desmond J. Tobin
    • , Matteo Fumagalli
    • , David Balding
    •  & Andrés Ruiz-Linares
  • Article | | open

    The evolution of resistance to an antibiotic can render bacteria more susceptible, or more resistant, to a second antibiotic. Here, Nichol et al. provide evidence that the final outcome can be fairly stochastic and depends on the shape of the evolutionary fitness landscape.

    • Daniel Nichol
    • , Joseph Rutter
    • , Christopher Bryant
    • , Andrea M. Hujer
    • , Sai Lek
    • , Mark D. Adams
    • , Peter Jeavons
    • , Alexander R. A. Anderson
    • , Robert A. Bonomo
    •  & Jacob G. Scott
  • Article | | open

    Hydra regenerate various body parts on amputation by activation of the appropriate organiser, but how head formation is controlled is unclear. Here, the authors identify the transcription factor Sp5 as restricting head formation, by being activated by beta-catenin and then acting as a repressor of Wnt3.

    • Matthias C. Vogg
    • , Leonardo Beccari
    • , Laura Iglesias Ollé
    • , Christine Rampon
    • , Sophie Vriz
    • , Chrystelle Perruchoud
    • , Yvan Wenger
    •  & Brigitte Galliot
  • Article | | open

    Researchers can make use of a variety of computational tools to prioritize genetic variants and predict their pathogenicity. Here, the authors evaluate the performance of six of these tools in three typical biological tasks and find generally low concordance of predictions and experimental confirmation.

    • Li Liu
    • , Maxwell D. Sanderford
    • , Ravi Patel
    • , Pramod Chandrashekar
    • , Greg Gibson
    •  & Sudhir Kumar
  • Article | | open

    Population structure can bias the results of genetic and epidemiological analysis. Here, Haworth et al. report that fine-scale structure is detectable in apparently homogeneous samples such as ALSPAC when measured very precisely, and remains detectable in UK Biobank despite conventional approaches to account for it.

    • Simon Haworth
    • , Ruth Mitchell
    • , Laura Corbin
    • , Kaitlin H. Wade
    • , Tom Dudding
    • , Ashley Budu-Aggrey
    • , David Carslake
    • , Gibran Hemani
    • , Lavinia Paternoster
    • , George Davey Smith
    • , Neil Davies
    • , Daniel J. Lawson
    •  & Nicholas J. Timpson
  • Article | | open

    Theory predicts that mating systems influence the relative strength of sexual selection before and after mating. Here, Morimoto and colleagues demonstrate that higher polyandry weakens precopulatory while strengthening post-copulatory sexual selection on males in Drosophila melanogaster.

    • Juliano Morimoto
    • , Grant C. McDonald
    • , Emelia Smith
    • , Damian T. Smith
    • , Jennifer C. Perry
    • , Tracey Chapman
    • , Tommaso Pizzari
    •  & Stuart Wigby
  • Article | | open

    Introgression of Neanderthals and Denisovans left genomic signals in anatomically modern human after Out-of-Africa event. Here, the authors identify a third archaic introgression common to all Asian and Oceanian human populations by applying an approximate Bayesian computation with a Deep Learning framework.

    • Mayukh Mondal
    • , Jaume Bertranpetit
    •  & Oscar Lao
  • Article | | open

    Stocking of hatchery produced fish is widely used to supplement wild fish populations. Here, the authors show that supplementary stocking can unintentionally favour introgressed individuals with domestic genotypes and compromise the fitness of a wild population of Atlantic salmon.

    • Ingerid J. Hagen
    • , Arne J. Jensen
    • , Geir H. Bolstad
    • , Ola H. Diserud
    • , Kjetil Hindar
    • , Håvard Lo
    •  & Sten Karlsson
  • Article | | open

    Turnovers in sex determination systems occur quite frequently, yet the evolutionary drivers of these turnovers are not well understood. Here, the authors study the sex determination systems in sticklebacks and propose chromosomal inversions as a possible driver of the evolution of sex determination.

    • Heini M. Natri
    • , Juha Merilä
    •  & Takahito Shikano
  • Article | | open

    The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel TMEM16A/Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) mediates secretion and intestinal motility in gastrointestinal epithelia and smooth muscle cells. Here, the authors show a role for ANO1 in zebrafish skeletal muscle which is activated by SR Ca2+ release during excitation-contraction coupling.

    • Anamika Dayal
    • , Shu Fun J. Ng
    •  & Manfred Grabner
  • Article | | open

    Examples of overdominance are usually explained by deleterious effects in homozygotes. Here, Kellenberger et al. describe a case of overdominance in the floral color of the Alpine orchid Gymnadenia rhellicani apparently maintained by pollinator preferences without deleterious effects in homozygotes.

    • Roman T. Kellenberger
    • , Kelsey J. R. P. Byers
    • , Rita M. De Brito Francisco
    • , Yannick M. Staedler
    • , Amy M. LaFountain
    • , Jürg Schönenberger
    • , Florian P. Schiestl
    •  & Philipp M. Schlüter
  • Article | | open

    The same protein abundance can be achieved by many combinations of transcription, translation and degradation rates. Here, the authors find that genes combining high transcription with low translation rate are rare due to a trade-off between the cost of transcription and expression noise.

    • Jean Hausser
    • , Avi Mayo
    • , Leeat Keren
    •  & Uri Alon
  • Article | | open

    Plants and fungi interact widely and in diverse ways, from mutualism to parasitism and decomposition. Here, Lutzoni et al. analyse the timing of plant and fungal evolutionary radiations and identify four major periods in which plant-fungal interactions likely drove lineage diversification.

    • François Lutzoni
    • , Michael D. Nowak
    • , Michael E. Alfaro
    • , Valérie Reeb
    • , Jolanta Miadlikowska
    • , Michael Krug
    • , A. Elizabeth Arnold
    • , Louise A. Lewis
    • , David L. Swofford
    • , David Hibbett
    • , Khidir Hilu
    • , Timothy Y. James
    • , Dietmar Quandt
    •  & Susana Magallón
  • Article | | open

    The origin of Tibetan barley (qingke) has been a controversial issue for many years. Here, the authors conduct population genomics study to support that qingke is derived from eastern domesticated barley instead of Tibetan wild barley and suggest southern Tibetan Plateau as its introduction route.

    • Xingquan Zeng
    • , Yu Guo
    • , Qijun Xu
    • , Martin Mascher
    • , Ganggang Guo
    • , Shuaicheng Li
    • , Likai Mao
    • , Qingfeng Liu
    • , Zhanfeng Xia
    • , Juhong Zhou
    • , Hongjun Yuan
    • , Shuaishuai Tai
    • , Yulin Wang
    • , Zexiu Wei
    • , Li Song
    • , Sang Zha
    • , Shiming Li
    • , Yawei Tang
    • , Lijun Bai
    • , Zhenhua Zhuang
    • , Weiming He
    • , Shancen Zhao
    • , Xiaodong Fang
    • , Qiang Gao
    • , Ye Yin
    • , Jian Wang
    • , Huanming Yang
    • , Jing Zhang
    • , Robert J. Henry
    • , Nils Stein
    •  & Nyima Tashi
  • Article | | open

    Transient aneuploidy enables cells to survive sudden environmental changes before longterm cellular adaptations are established. Here, the authors show that yeast cells respond to the acute loss of Ulp2 SUMO protease by rapid induction of aneuploidy, and reveal predictable long-term adaptation mechanisms that restore euploidy.

    • Hong-Yeoul Ryu
    • , Francesc López-Giráldez
    • , James Knight
    • , Soo Seok Hwang
    • , Christina Renner
    • , Stefan G. Kreft
    •  & Mark Hochstrasser
  • Article | | open

    Peach is an economically important fruit crop. Here, the authors carry out a large-scale population genomics analysis of peach, describing its demographic history as well as genes associated with domestication and edibility traits.

    • Yang Yu
    • , Jun Fu
    • , Yaoguang Xu
    • , Jiewei Zhang
    • , Fei Ren
    • , Hongwei Zhao
    • , Shilin Tian
    • , Wei Guo
    • , Xiaolong Tu
    • , Jing Zhao
    • , Dawei Jiang
    • , Jianbo Zhao
    • , Weiying Wu
    • , Gaochao Wang
    • , Rongcai Ma
    • , Quan Jiang
    • , Jianhua Wei
    •  & Hua Xie
  • Article | | open

    Male pattern baldness (MPB) is a polygenic trait that affects the majority of European men. Here, Yap et al. estimate heritability, partitioned by autosomes and the X-chromosome, of MPB in the UK Biobank cohort, perform GWAS for MPB and find genetic correlation with other sex-specific traits.

    • Chloe X. Yap
    • , Julia Sidorenko
    • , Yang Wu
    • , Kathryn E. Kemper
    • , Jian Yang
    • , Naomi R. Wray
    • , Matthew R. Robinson
    •  & Peter M. Visscher
  • Article | | open

    Latin Americans trace their ancestry to the admixture of Native Americans, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. Here, the authors develop a novel haplotype-based approach and analyse over 6,500 Latin Americans to infer the geographically-detailed genetic structure of this population.

    • Juan-Camilo Chacón-Duque
    • , Kaustubh Adhikari
    • , Macarena Fuentes-Guajardo
    • , Javier Mendoza-Revilla
    • , Victor Acuña-Alonzo
    • , Rodrigo Barquera
    • , Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez
    • , Jorge Gómez-Valdés
    • , Paola Everardo Martínez
    • , Hugo Villamil-Ramírez
    • , Tábita Hünemeier
    • , Virginia Ramallo
    • , Caio C. Silva de Cerqueira
    • , Malena Hurtado
    • , Valeria Villegas
    • , Vanessa Granja
    • , Mercedes Villena
    • , René Vásquez
    • , Elena Llop
    • , José R. Sandoval
    • , Alberto A. Salazar-Granara
    • , Maria-Laura Parolin
    • , Karla Sandoval
    • , Rosenda I. Peñaloza-Espinosa
    • , Hector Rangel-Villalobos
    • , Cheryl A. Winkler
    • , William Klitz
    • , Claudio Bravi
    • , Julio Molina
    • , Daniel Corach
    • , Ramiro Barrantes
    • , Verónica Gomes
    • , Carlos Resende
    • , Leonor Gusmão
    • , Antonio Amorim
    • , Yali Xue
    • , Jean-Michel Dugoujon
    • , Pedro Moral
    • , Rolando González-José
    • , Lavinia Schuler-Faccini
    • , Francisco M. Salzano
    • , Maria-Cátira Bortolini
    • , Samuel Canizales-Quinteros
    • , Giovanni Poletti
    • , Carla Gallo
    • , Gabriel Bedoya
    • , Francisco Rothhammer
    • , David Balding
    • , Garrett Hellenthal
    •  & Andrés Ruiz-Linares
  • Article | | open

    Although components of animal mating signals are often studied separately, many animals produce complex multimodal displays. Here, the authors show that the courtship display of male broad-tailed hummingbirds consists of synchronized motions, sounds, and colors that occur within just 300 milliseconds.

    • Benedict G. Hogan
    •  & Mary Caswell Stoddard
  • Article | | open

    Candida auris is an emergent fungal pathogen that is resistant to multiple antifungals. Here, Muñoz et al. analyse genomic sequences for isolates from each of the four major C. auris clades and for three related species, and identify genetic features associated with virulence, antifungal resistance and mating.

    • José F. Muñoz
    • , Lalitha Gade
    • , Nancy A. Chow
    • , Vladimir N. Loparev
    • , Phalasy Juieng
    • , Elizabeth L. Berkow
    • , Rhys A. Farrer
    • , Anastasia P. Litvintseva
    •  & Christina A. Cuomo
  • Article | | open

    The evolutionary mechanisms leading to the development of sperm are poorly understood. Here, the authors infer that neofunctionalisation and expression changes of the orthologue of DUO1 in algal ancestors of land plants were key events for sperm differentiation and sexual reproduction in this lineage.

    • Asuka Higo
    • , Tomokazu Kawashima
    • , Michael Borg
    • , Mingmin Zhao
    • , Irene López-Vidriero
    • , Hidetoshi Sakayama
    • , Sean A. Montgomery
    • , Hiroyuki Sekimoto
    • , Dieter Hackenberg
    • , Masaki Shimamura
    • , Tomoaki Nishiyama
    • , Keiko Sakakibara
    • , Yuki Tomita
    • , Taisuke Togawa
    • , Kan Kunimoto
    • , Akihisa Osakabe
    • , Yutaka Suzuki
    • , Katsuyuki T. Yamato
    • , Kimitsune Ishizaki
    • , Ryuichi Nishihama
    • , Takayuki Kohchi
    • , José M. Franco-Zorrilla
    • , David Twell
    • , Frédéric Berger
    •  & Takashi Araki
  • Article | | open

    Northern tree populations may not benefit under climate change, with implications for assisted migration and range expansion. Here, Isaac-Renton et al. show that leading-edge lodgepole pine populations have fewer characteristics of drought-tolerance, so may not adapt to tolerate drier conditions.

    • Miriam Isaac-Renton
    • , David Montwé
    • , Andreas Hamann
    • , Heinrich Spiecker
    • , Paolo Cherubini
    •  & Kerstin Treydte
  • Article | | open

    Reconstructions of evolutionary history from molecular vs. fossil data are often in conflict. Here, the authors show that discrepancies in speciation and extinction rates can arise from differing assumptions about underlying processes and present a model that reconciles fossil and molecular evidence.

    • Daniele Silvestro
    • , Rachel C. M. Warnock
    • , Alexandra Gavryushkina
    •  & Tanja Stadler
  • Article | | open

    The late Paleozoic was a time of major transition for tetrapods. Here, Brocklehurst and colleagues analyse the biogeography of Paleozoic tetrapods and find shifts in dispersal and vicariance associated with Carboniferous mountain formation and end-Guadalupian climate variability.

    • Neil Brocklehurst
    • , Emma M. Dunne
    • , Daniel D. Cashmore
    •  & Jӧrg Frӧbisch
  • Article | | open

    Medullary bone is used by modern female birds as a calcium reservoir for eggshell production. Here, O’Connor and colleagues propose criteria for identifying medullary bone in fossils and report medullary bone from a Cretaceous enantiornithine bird fossil.

    • Jingmai O’Connor
    • , Gregory M. Erickson
    • , Mark Norell
    • , Alida M. Bailleul
    • , Han Hu
    •  & Zhonghe Zhou
  • Article | | open

    Predicting the functional consequences of non-coding genetic variants is a challenge. Here, He et al. present GenoNet, a semi-supervised method that combines information from experimentally confirmed regulatory variants with cell type- and tissue specific annotation for function prediction.

    • Zihuai He
    • , Linxi Liu
    • , Kai Wang
    •  & Iuliana Ionita-Laza
  • Article | | open

    Herbivorous insects could diversify through radiations after major host switches or through constant variability in new host use. With phylogenetic and network analyses, Braga et al. show that variability in host use supports most butterfly diversification, while rare radiations can further boost diversity.

    • Mariana P. Braga
    • , Paulo R. Guimarães Jr
    • , Christopher W. Wheat
    • , Sören Nylin
    •  & Niklas Janz
  • Article | | open

    Fish have a high diversity of sex-determining systems, but the mechanisms responsible for this are not well understood. Here, Franchini et al. show how hybridization and backcrossing have led to the evolution of a new sex chromosome in swordtail fish during 30 years of experimental evolution.

    • Paolo Franchini
    • , Julia C. Jones
    • , Peiwen Xiong
    • , Susanne Kneitz
    • , Zachariah Gompert
    • , Wesley C. Warren
    • , Ronald B. Walter
    • , Axel Meyer
    •  & Manfred Schartl
  • Article | | open

    The expansion of grassland plant diversity is thought to have facilitated diversification of herbivorous insects. Here, the authors show opposing evolutionary dynamics in a clade of African grasses and associated stemborers, opposing the hypothesis about grasslands as a 'cradle' of herbivore diversity.

    • Gael J. Kergoat
    • , Fabien L. Condamine
    • , Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint
    • , Claire Capdevielle-Dulac
    • , Anne-Laure Clamens
    • , Jérôme Barbut
    • , Paul Z. Goldstein
    •  & Bruno Le Ru
  • Article | | open

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is carried asymptomatically by virtually all humans but is also a major cause of nosocomial infection. Here, the authors study 141 isolates from healthy carriage and 274 isolates from clinical infections, and identify genes and genetic elements associated with pathogenicity.

    • Guillaume Méric
    • , Leonardos Mageiros
    • , Johan Pensar
    • , Maisem Laabei
    • , Koji Yahara
    • , Ben Pascoe
    • , Nattinee Kittiwan
    • , Phacharaporn Tadee
    • , Virginia Post
    • , Sarah Lamble
    • , Rory Bowden
    • , James E. Bray
    • , Mario Morgenstern
    • , Keith A. Jolley
    • , Martin C. J. Maiden
    • , Edward J. Feil
    • , Xavier Didelot
    • , Maria Miragaia
    • , Herminia de Lencastre
    • , T. Fintan Moriarty
    • , Holger Rohde
    • , Ruth Massey
    • , Dietrich Mack
    • , Jukka Corander
    •  & Samuel K. Sheppard
  • Article | | open

    Little is known about how sex is determined in diatoms. Here, Russo et al. show that in the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, the gene MRP3 regulates mating type and the expression of four other mating-type biased genes.

    • Monia T. Russo
    • , Laura Vitale
    • , Laura Entrambasaguas
    • , Konstantinos Anestis
    • , Neri Fattorini
    • , Filomena Romano
    • , Carmen Minucci
    • , Pasquale De Luca
    • , Elio Biffali
    • , Wim Vyverman
    • , Remo Sanges
    • , Marina Montresor
    •  & Maria I. Ferrante
  • Article | | open

    Although men have lower survival across ages, women have poorer health than men as they age. Here, Archer et al. suggest that this pattern is explained by intralocus sexual conflict and provide supporting evidence from a mathematical model and experiments with Drosophila.

    • C. Ruth Archer
    • , Mario Recker
    • , Eoin Duffy
    •  & David J. Hosken