Evolution

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Parasitic interactions are difficult to document in the fossil record. Here, Zhang et al. analyze a large population of a Cambrian brachiopod and show it was frequently encrusted by tubes aligned to its feeding currents and that encrustation was associated with reduced biomass, suggesting a fitness cost.

    • Zhifei Zhang
    • , Luke C. Strotz
    • , Timothy P. Topper
    • , Feiyang Chen
    • , Yanlong Chen
    • , Yue Liang
    • , Zhiliang Zhang
    • , Christian B. Skovsted
    •  & Glenn A. Brock
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The teleost Astyanax mexicanus has sighted morphs living in surface rivers and various blind morphs living in caves. Here, the authors suggest that loss of eyes in cave morphs is linked to mutations in the cystathionine ß-synthase a (cbsa) gene, which cause eye degeneration by disrupting function of the optic circulatory system.

    • Li Ma
    • , Aniket V. Gore
    • , Daniel Castranova
    • , Janet Shi
    • , Mandy Ng
    • , Kelly A. Tomins
    • , Corine M. van der Weele
    • , Brant M. Weinstein
    •  & William R. Jeffery
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Northern China contains some of the world’s earliest farming societies. Here, authors use 55 ancient genomes to trace the genetic history of human migrations across northern China for the last 7500 years, and document genetic changes mirroring shifts in subsistence strategy.

    • Chao Ning
    • , Tianjiao Li
    • , Ke Wang
    • , Fan Zhang
    • , Tao Li
    • , Xiyan Wu
    • , Shizhu Gao
    • , Quanchao Zhang
    • , Hai Zhang
    • , Mark J. Hudson
    • , Guanghui Dong
    • , Sihao Wu
    • , Yanming Fang
    • , Chen Liu
    • , Chunyan Feng
    • , Wei Li
    • , Tao Han
    • , Ruo Li
    • , Jian Wei
    • , Yonggang Zhu
    • , Yawei Zhou
    • , Chuan-Chao Wang
    • , Shengying Fan
    • , Zenglong Xiong
    • , Zhouyong Sun
    • , Maolin Ye
    • , Lei Sun
    • , Xiaohong Wu
    • , Fawei Liang
    • , Yanpeng Cao
    • , Xingtao Wei
    • , Hong Zhu
    • , Hui Zhou
    • , Johannes Krause
    • , Martine Robbeets
    • , Choongwon Jeong
    •  & Yinqiu Cui
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many metalloenzymes are highly specific for their cognate metal ion but the molecular principles underlying this specificity often remain unclear. Here, the authors characterize the structural and biochemical basis for the different metal specificity of two evolutionarily related superoxide dismutases.

    • Anna Barwinska-Sendra
    • , Yuritzi M. Garcia
    • , Kacper M. Sendra
    • , Arnaud Baslé
    • , Eilidh S. Mackenzie
    • , Emma Tarrant
    • , Patrick Card
    • , Leandro C. Tabares
    • , Cédric Bicep
    • , Sun Un
    • , Thomas E. Kehl-Fie
    •  & Kevin J. Waldron
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Both geography and ecology can drive the origins of new species. Siqueira et al. show how geological changes in the structure of Miocene reefs and the concurrent evolution of new feeding strategies combine to explain why coral reefs contain such a diversity of fish species.

    • Alexandre C. Siqueira
    • , Renato A. Morais
    • , David R. Bellwood
    •  & Peter F. Cowman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Genomic studies of paleopteran insects, such as mayflies, are needed to reconstruct early insect evolution. Here, Almudi and colleagues present the genome of the mayfly Cloeon dipterum and use transcriptomics to characterize its adaptations to distinct habitats and the origin of insect wings.

    • Isabel Almudi
    • , Joel Vizueta
    • , Christopher D. R. Wyatt
    • , Alex de Mendoza
    • , Ferdinand Marlétaz
    • , Panos N. Firbas
    • , Roberto Feuda
    • , Giulio Masiero
    • , Patricia Medina
    • , Ana Alcaina-Caro
    • , Fernando Cruz
    • , Jessica Gómez-Garrido
    • , Marta Gut
    • , Tyler S. Alioto
    • , Carlos Vargas-Chavez
    • , Kristofer Davie
    • , Bernhard Misof
    • , Josefa González
    • , Stein Aerts
    • , Ryan Lister
    • , Jordi Paps
    • , Julio Rozas
    • , Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia
    • , Manuel Irimia
    • , Ignacio Maeso
    •  & Fernando Casares
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In addition to species richness, evolutionary measures of biodiversity are important considerations for conservation. Here, Gumbs et al. develop new biodiversity metrics incorporating phylogenetic diversity and human pressure and highlight conservation priorities in a global analysis of reptiles.

    • Rikki Gumbs
    • , Claudia L. Gray
    • , Monika Böhm
    • , Michael Hoffmann
    • , Richard Grenyer
    • , Walter Jetz
    • , Shai Meiri
    • , Uri Roll
    • , Nisha R. Owen
    •  & James Rosindell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multicellularity is one of the major transitions in evolution. Here, authors use a model to show that compared to unicellular bacteria, multicellular fungi can more rapidly colonise immobile, nutrient poor resources because exoenzymes provide greater or longer lasting benefits to mycelial organisms.

    • Luke L. M. Heaton
    • , Nick S. Jones
    •  & Mark D. Fricker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sensory drive theory posits that selection on sexual signals should depend on the environmental background. Here, Hulse et al. analyze the spatial statistics of body patterning in 10 darter fish species and find a correlation with habitat spatial statistics only for males, consistent with sexual selection via sensory drive.

    • Samuel V. Hulse
    • , Julien P. Renoult
    •  & Tamra C. Mendelson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Key events in human evolution are thought to have occurred between 3 and 2.5 Ma, but the fossil record of this period is sparse. Here, Alemseged et al. report a new fossil site from this period, Mille-Logya, Ethiopia, and characterize the geology, basin evolution and fauna, including specimens of Homo.

    • Zeresenay Alemseged
    • , Jonathan G. Wynn
    • , Denis Geraads
    • , Denne Reed
    • , W. Andrew Barr
    • , René Bobe
    • , Shannon P. McPherron
    • , Alan Deino
    • , Mulugeta Alene
    • , Mark J. Sier
    • , Diana Roman
    •  & Joseph Mohan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Somatic and germline mutations are found at different densities across the genome. Here, the authors compare human somatic tumour mutations with the germline of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, and find that the mutation density of tumours correlates better with non-human great apes than with the human germline.

    • José María Heredia-Genestar
    • , Tomàs Marquès-Bonet
    • , David Juan
    •  & Arcadi Navarro
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fast metabolisms tend to shorten lifespans by increasing oxidative damage. This study identifies a gene mutation that keeps a key antioxidant response active, possibly allowing Neoaves bird species to avoid the tradeoff between rapid metabolism and longevity that challenges most mammals, including humans.

    • Gianni M. Castiglione
    • , Zhenhua Xu
    • , Lingli Zhou
    •  & Elia J. Duh
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The causes of the Upper Pleistocene megafauna extinction in Australia and New Guinea are debated, but fossil data are lacking for much of this region. Here, Hocknull and colleagues report a new, diverse megafauna assemblage from north-eastern Australia that persisted until ~40,000 years ago.

    • Scott A. Hocknull
    • , Richard Lewis
    • , Lee J. Arnold
    • , Tim Pietsch
    • , Renaud Joannes-Boyau
    • , Gilbert J. Price
    • , Patrick Moss
    • , Rachel Wood
    • , Anthony Dosseto
    • , Julien Louys
    • , Jon Olley
    •  & Rochelle A. Lawrence
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In contrast to bird plumage, little is known about the evolution of bird skin color. Here, Nicolaï et al. find that black skin has evolved over 100 times in birds and is associated with baldness and/or white feathers as well as with high irradiation habitats, suggesting a role in UV protection.

    • Michaël P. J. Nicolaï
    • , Matthew D. Shawkey
    • , Sara Porchetta
    • , Ruben Claus
    •  & Liliana D’Alba
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Developmental duration is a key life-history trait. Cooney et al. compile data on 3096 bird species to quantify the degree to which phylogenetic history, body size and ecological variables like predation risk or breeding phenology influence variation in developmental duration.

    • Christopher R. Cooney
    • , Catherine Sheard
    • , Andrew D. Clark
    • , Susan D. Healy
    • , András Liker
    • , Sally E. Street
    • , Camille A. Troisi
    • , Gavin H. Thomas
    • , Tamás Székely
    • , Nicola Hemmings
    •  & Alison E. Wright
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Seshat database has made it possible to reveal large-scale patterns in human cultural evolution. Here, Shin et al. investigate transitions in social complexity and find alternating thresholds of polity size and information processing required for further sociopolitical development.

    • Jaeweon Shin
    • , Michael Holton Price
    • , David H. Wolpert
    • , Hajime Shimao
    • , Brendan Tracey
    •  & Timothy A. Kohler
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Acquired resistance to cancer therapies reflects the ability of cancers to adapt to therapy-imposed selective pressures. Here, the authors elucidate the dynamics of developing resistance to ALK inhibitors in an ALK+ lung cancer cell line showing that resistance originates from drug-specific tolerant cancer cells and it develops as a gradual adaptation.

    • Robert Vander Velde
    • , Nara Yoon
    • , Viktoriya Marusyk
    • , Arda Durmaz
    • , Andrew Dhawan
    • , Daria Miroshnychenko
    • , Diego Lozano-Peral
    • , Bina Desai
    • , Olena Balynska
    • , Jan Poleszhuk
    • , Liu Kenian
    • , Mingxiang Teng
    • , Mohamed Abazeed
    • , Omar Mian
    • , Aik Choon Tan
    • , Eric Haura
    • , Jacob Scott
    •  & Andriy Marusyk
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It is generally thought many microbes, owing to their ubiquity and dispersal capability, lack biogeographic structuring and clear speciation patterns compared to macroorganisms. However, Pinseel et al. demonstrate multiple cycles of colonization and diversification in Pinnularia borealis, a rare biosphere soil diatom.

    • Eveline Pinseel
    • , Steven B. Janssens
    • , Elie Verleyen
    • , Pieter Vanormelingen
    • , Tyler J. Kohler
    • , Elisabeth M. Biersma
    • , Koen Sabbe
    • , Bart Van de Vijver
    •  & Wim Vyverman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required for transcription initiation in archaea and eukaryotes. Here the authors delineate how TBP’s function has evolved new functional features through context-dependent interactions with various protein partners.

    • Charles N. J. Ravarani
    • , Tilman Flock
    • , Sreenivas Chavali
    • , Madhanagopal Anandapadamanaban
    • , M. Madan Babu
    •  & Santhanam Balaji
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Life history theory predicts that females will adjust reproductive timing in response to environmental challenges. Here the authors show that young girls exposed to higher mortality rates during war give birth earlier and more often than their peers who were not exposed to these conditions.

    • Robert Lynch
    • , Virpi Lummaa
    • , Michael Briga
    • , Simon N. Chapman
    •  & John Loehr
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. By analyzing 532 genomes from 114 populations around the world, the authors find evidence supporting a South American origin of this moth, and look for signatures of positive selection.

    • Minsheng You
    • , Fushi Ke
    • , Shijun You
    • , Zhangyan Wu
    • , Qingfeng Liu
    • , Weiyi He
    • , Simon W. Baxter
    • , Zhiguang Yuchi
    • , Liette Vasseur
    • , Geoff M. Gurr
    • , Christopher M. Ward
    • , Hugo Cerda
    • , Guang Yang
    • , Lu Peng
    • , Yuanchun Jin
    • , Miao Xie
    • , Lijun Cai
    • , Carl J. Douglas
    • , Murray B. Isman
    • , Mark S. Goettel
    • , Qisheng Song
    • , Qinghai Fan
    • , Gefu Wang-Pruski
    • , David C. Lees
    • , Zhen Yue
    • , Jianlin Bai
    • , Tiansheng Liu
    • , Lianyun Lin
    • , Yunkai Zheng
    • , Zhaohua Zeng
    • , Sheng Lin
    • , Yue Wang
    • , Qian Zhao
    • , Xiaofeng Xia
    • , Wenbin Chen
    • , Lilin Chen
    • , Mingmin Zou
    • , Jinying Liao
    • , Qiang Gao
    • , Xiaodong Fang
    • , Ye Yin
    • , Huanming Yang
    • , Jian Wang
    • , Liwei Han
    • , Yingjun Lin
    • , Yanping Lu
    •  & Mousheng Zhuang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Horseshoe crabs have been morphologically stable across evolutionary time. Here, the authors generate a chromosome-level assembly for the mangrove horseshoe crab, with implications for innate immunity, and challenging assumptions about the role of genome duplication in adaptive radiation.

    • Prashant Shingate
    • , Vydianathan Ravi
    • , Aravind Prasad
    • , Boon-Hui Tay
    • , Kritika M. Garg
    • , Balaji Chattopadhyay
    • , Laura-Marie Yap
    • , Frank E. Rheindt
    •  & Byrappa Venkatesh
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dinosaurs had some of the most complex dentitions known. Here, Reisz et al. characterize dental development across embryonic, hatchling and adult Lufengosaurus, an Early Jurassic sauropodomorph dinosaur, and suggest that derived sauropod dentition evolved by paedomorphosis (juvenilization).

    • Robert R. Reisz
    • , Aaron R. H. LeBlanc
    • , Hillary C. Maddin
    • , Thomas W. Dudgeon
    • , Diane Scott
    • , Timothy Huang
    • , Jun Chen
    • , Chuan-Mu Chen
    •  & Shiming Zhong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Models of the origin of life generally require a mechanism to structure emerging populations. Here, Krieger et al. develop spatial models showing that coherent structures arising in turbulent flows in aquatic environments could have provided compartments that facilitated the origin of life.

    • Madison S. Krieger
    • , Sam Sinai
    •  & Martin A. Nowak
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hybrid genomes provide a window into the speciation process over time. Here, Chaturvedi et al. use Lycaeides butterflies from hybrid zones of different ages to show that selection and recombination have repeatable effects on hybrid genome composition across timescales.

    • Samridhi Chaturvedi
    • , Lauren K. Lucas
    • , C. Alex Buerkle
    • , James A. Fordyce
    • , Matthew L. Forister
    • , Chris C. Nice
    •  & Zachariah Gompert
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dpr (Defective proboscis extension response) and DIP (Dpr Interacting Proteins) are immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion proteins that form highly specific pairwise interactions, which control synaptic connectivity during Drosophila development. Here, the authors combine a computational approach with binding affinity measurements and find that DIP/Dpr binding specificity is controlled by negative constraints that interfere with non-cognate binding.

    • Alina P. Sergeeva
    • , Phinikoula S. Katsamba
    • , Filip Cosmanescu
    • , Joshua J. Brewer
    • , Goran Ahlsen
    • , Seetha Mannepalli
    • , Lawrence Shapiro
    •  & Barry Honig
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There has been substantial debate of how hominins colonized Australasia through Wallacea, including their ability to utilize marine vs. terrestrial resources. Here, Roberts et al. use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes to reconstruct temporal shifts in the diets of early human inhabitants of Alor and Timor.

    • Patrick Roberts
    • , Julien Louys
    • , Jana Zech
    • , Ceri Shipton
    • , Shimona Kealy
    • , Sofia Samper Carro
    • , Stuart Hawkins
    • , Clara Boulanger
    • , Sara Marzo
    • , Bianca Fiedler
    • , Nicole Boivin
    • , Mahirta
    • , Ken Aplin
    •  & Sue OʼConnor
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many industrial organisms are the result of recent or ancient allopolypoidy events. Here the authors iteratively combine the genomes of six yeast species to generate a viable hybrid.

    • David Peris
    • , William G. Alexander
    • , Kaitlin J. Fisher
    • , Ryan V. Moriarty
    • , Mira G. Basuino
    • , Emily J. Ubbelohde
    • , Russell L. Wrobel
    •  & Chris Todd Hittinger
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The transition to agriculture brought major changes to human populations in Europe during the Neolithic period. Here, Cubas and colleagues analyse lipid residues from Neolithic pottery from along the Atlantic coast of Europe to trace the spread of dairy production and shifts in diet.

    • Miriam Cubas
    • , Alexandre Lucquin
    • , Harry K. Robson
    • , André Carlo Colonese
    • , Pablo Arias
    • , Bruno Aubry
    • , Cyrille Billard
    • , Denis Jan
    • , Mariana Diniz
    • , Ricardo Fernandes
    • , Ramón Fábregas Valcarce
    • , Cécile Germain-Vallée
    • , Laurent Juhel
    • , Arturo de Lombera-Hermida
    • , Cyril Marcigny
    • , Sylvain Mazet
    • , Grégor Marchand
    • , César Neves
    • , Roberto Ontañón-Peredo
    • , Xose Pedro Rodríguez-Álvarez
    • , Teresa Simões
    • , João Zilhão
    •  & Oliver E. Craig
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bacterial chemosensory systems are grouped into 17 flagellar classes (F1-17). Here the authors employ electron cryotomography and comparative genomics to characterise the chemosensory arrays in γ-proteobacteria and identify a structural distinct form of F7 that was repurposed to a different biological role over the course of its evolution.

    • Davi R. Ortega
    • , Wen Yang
    • , Poorna Subramanian
    • , Petra Mann
    • , Andreas Kjær
    • , Songye Chen
    • , Kylie J. Watts
    • , Sahand Pirbadian
    • , David A. Collins
    • , Romain Kooger
    • , Marina G. Kalyuzhnaya
    • , Simon Ringgaard
    • , Ariane Briegel
    •  & Grant J. Jensen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Plant evolution is intimately associated with fungal partners. Here the authors provide evidence that Physcomitrella patens MACRO2, a gene likely derived from early mycorrhizae-like fungi, was transferred to early land plants and plays an important role in regulating stem cell growth and gametophore development in moss.

    • Shuanghua Wang
    • , Yanlong Guan
    • , Qia Wang
    • , Jinjie Zhao
    • , Guiling Sun
    • , Xiangyang Hu
    • , Mark P. Running
    • , Hang Sun
    •  & Jinling Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors compete for the same binding site on beta-lactamases; thus, mutations that increase beta-lactamase activity likely increase also susceptibility to the inhibitor. Here, Russ et al. identify rare mutations in the ampC beta-lactamase gene that escape this adaptive tradeoff specifically for certain drug combinations.

    • Dor Russ
    • , Fabian Glaser
    • , Einat Shaer Tamar
    • , Idan Yelin
    • , Michael Baym
    • , Eric D. Kelsic
    • , Claudia Zampaloni
    • , Andreas Haldimann
    •  & Roy Kishony
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many nematode worms, including Caenorhabditis elegans have XX/XO sex determination, while other species have XY. The authors use a new genome assembly of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi and published data to show that nematode sex chromosome evolution is highly plastic.

    • Jeremy M. Foster
    • , Alexandra Grote
    • , John Mattick
    • , Alan Tracey
    • , Yu-Chih Tsai
    • , Matthew Chung
    • , James A. Cotton
    • , Tyson A. Clark
    • , Adam Geber
    • , Nancy Holroyd
    • , Jonas Korlach
    • , Yichao Li
    • , Silvia Libro
    • , Sara Lustigman
    • , Michelle L. Michalski
    • , Michael Paulini
    • , Matthew B. Rogers
    • , Laura Teigen
    • , Alan Twaddle
    • , Lonnie Welch
    • , Matthew Berriman
    • , Julie C. Dunning Hotopp
    •  & Elodie Ghedin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Europe hosts isolated remnants of the steppe belt that once covered much of Eurasia. Here the authors combine genomic data and ecological niche modelling on three plant and three insect species to show evolution independent of the zonal steppe and high conservation value of these extrazonal steppes.

    • Philipp Kirschner
    • , Eliška Záveská
    • , Alexander Gamisch
    • , Andreas Hilpold
    • , Emiliano Trucchi
    • , Ovidiu Paun
    • , Isabel Sanmartín
    • , Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner
    • , Božo Frajman
    • , Wolfgang Arthofer
    • , Wolfgang Arthofer
    • , Božo Frajman
    • , Alexander Gamisch
    • , Andreas Hilpold
    • , Philipp Kirschner
    • , Ovidiu Paun
    • , Isabel Sanmartín
    • , Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner
    • , Peter Schönswetter
    • , Florian M. Steiner
    • , Emiliano Trucchi
    • , Eliška Záveská
    • , Florian M. Steiner
    •  & Peter Schönswetter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Empirical examples documenting the pace of adaptation across the whole genome in wild populations are scarce. Here the authors study wild stickleback populations from lake and stream habitats and show that there is a genome-wide signature of adaptation to stream habitats within just one generation.

    • Telma G. Laurentino
    • , Dario Moser
    • , Marius Roesti
    • , Matthias Ammann
    • , Anja Frey
    • , Fabrizia Ronco
    • , Benjamin Kueng
    •  & Daniel Berner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    European populations underwent strong genetic changes during the Neolithic. Here, Furtwängler et al. provide ancient nuclear and mitochondrial genomic data from the region of Switzerland during the end of the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age that reveal a complex genetic turnover during the arrival of steppe ancestry.

    • Anja Furtwängler
    • , A. B. Rohrlach
    • , Thiseas C. Lamnidis
    • , Luka Papac
    • , Gunnar U. Neumann
    • , Inga Siebke
    • , Ella Reiter
    • , Noah Steuri
    • , Jürgen Hald
    • , Anthony Denaire
    • , Bernadette Schnitzler
    • , Joachim Wahl
    • , Marianne Ramstein
    • , Verena J. Schuenemann
    • , Philipp W. Stockhammer
    • , Albert Hafner
    • , Sandra Lösch
    • , Wolfgang Haak
    • , Stephan Schiffels
    •  & Johannes Krause
  • Article
    | Open Access

    High-throughput combinatorial mutagenesis assays are useful to screen the function of many different sequences but they are not exhaustive. Here, Zhou and McCandlish develop a method to impute such missing genotype-phenotype data based on inferring the least epistatic sequence-function relationship.

    • Juannan Zhou
    •  & David M. McCandlish
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Interspecies interactions, including those between plants and pollinators, can involve deception. The authors characterize the molecular development of Nigella damascena pseudonectaries, and their adaptive function in attracting specific pollinators to concealed nectaries with visual cues.

    • Hong Liao
    • , Xuehao Fu
    • , Huiqi Zhao
    • , Jie Cheng
    • , Rui Zhang
    • , Xu Yao
    • , Xiaoshan Duan
    • , Hongyan Shan
    •  & Hongzhi Kong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Scaly-foot Snail, Chrysomallon squamiferum, is a model for understanding the evolution of biomineralised armour. Here, the authors present a chromosome-level reference genome assembly and tissue-specific transcriptomic data for this enigmatic organism.

    • Jin Sun
    • , Chong Chen
    • , Norio Miyamoto
    • , Runsheng Li
    • , Julia D. Sigwart
    • , Ting Xu
    • , Yanan Sun
    • , Wai Chuen Wong
    • , Jack C. H. Ip
    • , Weipeng Zhang
    • , Yi Lan
    • , Dass Bissessur
    • , Tomo-o Watsuji
    • , Hiromi Kayama Watanabe
    • , Yoshihiro Takaki
    • , Kazuho Ikeo
    • , Nobuyuki Fujii
    • , Kazutoshi Yoshitake
    • , Jian-Wen Qiu
    • , Ken Takai
    •  & Pei-Yuan Qian
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) exhibit a large genomic repertoire and complex evolutionary history. Here, the authors generate 501 metagenome-assembled genomes from diverse environments and show NCLDVs to harbor a wide range of potential metabolic capabilities.

    • Mohammad Moniruzzaman
    • , Carolina A. Martinez-Gutierrez
    • , Alaina R. Weinheimer
    •  & Frank O. Aylward
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Litsea cubeba belongs to the Lauraceae family within the Magnoliids clade. Here, the authors assemble its genome and reveal divergence of inflorescence and sexual differentiation, the phylogenetic relationships across the Lauraceae and related species, and biosynthetic genes related to essential oil synthesis.

    • Yi-Cun Chen
    • , Zhen Li
    • , Yun-Xiao Zhao
    • , Ming Gao
    • , Jie-Yu Wang
    • , Ke-Wei Liu
    • , Xue Wang
    • , Li-Wen Wu
    • , Yu-Lian Jiao
    • , Zi-Long Xu
    • , Wen-Guang He
    • , Qi-Yan Zhang
    • , Chieh-Kai Liang
    • , Yu-Yun Hsiao
    • , Di-Yang Zhang
    • , Si-Ren Lan
    • , Laiqiang Huang
    • , Wei Xu
    • , Wen-Chieh Tsai
    • , Zhong-Jian Liu
    • , Yves Van de Peer
    •  & Yang-Dong Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tracking tumour evolution in a patient via circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is complicated due to the unknown mix of fragmented alleles from different cancer lesions. Here, the authors make use of a rapid autopsy program to demonstrate how representative ctDNA profiling is of metastasis, as well as presenting methylation profiling method to track evolutionary change.

    • George D. Cresswell
    • , Daniel Nichol
    • , Inmaculada Spiteri
    • , Haider Tari
    • , Luis Zapata
    • , Timon Heide
    • , Carlo C. Maley
    • , Luca Magnani
    • , Gaia Schiavon
    • , Alan Ashworth
    • , Peter Barry
    •  & Andrea Sottoriva
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In the Indo-Pacific, multiple Anguilla eel species overlap in their spawning. Here, the authors sequence three Anguilla genomes and with genome-wide data of four more congeners, investigate contemporary hybridization, historical introgression, and the maintenance of species boundaries despite substantial gene flow.

    • Julia M. I. Barth
    • , Chrysoula Gubili
    • , Michael Matschiner
    • , Ole K. Tørresen
    • , Shun Watanabe
    • , Bernd Egger
    • , Yu-San Han
    • , Eric Feunteun
    • , Ruben Sommaruga
    • , Robert Jehle
    •  & Robert Schabetsberger
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The end-Permian is associated with major changes in both marine and terrestrial biodiversity. Here, Gastaldo et al. present high resolution dating of the Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, demonstrating that the marine crisis did not mirror a coeval event on land.

    • Robert A. Gastaldo
    • , Sandra L. Kamo
    • , Johann Neveling
    • , John W. Geissman
    • , Cindy V. Looy
    •  & Anna M. Martini
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Horizontal transfer (HT) and evolution of transposable elements (TEs) has rarely been quantified on a large scale. Here, the authors screen 307 vertebrate genomes and infer 975 HT events (93% in ray-finned fishes); all TEs involved in HT evolve within genomes under purifying selection, as do most retrotransposons.

    • Hua-Hao Zhang
    • , Jean Peccoud
    • , Min-Rui-Xuan Xu
    • , Xiao-Gu Zhang
    •  & Clément Gilbert
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nature has developed the ability to produce a wide range of optical effects most notably in the butterfly wing. Here, the authors report on the analysis of the structures responsible for ultra-black coloration across different butterflies and combine this with modelling to identify the key characteristics

    • Alexander L. Davis
    • , H. Frederik Nijhout
    •  & Sönke Johnsen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Complex macroscopic organisms are first found in the Ediacaran period, but their ecology during this time is not well understood. Here, Bobrovskiy et al. analyse biomarkers from Ediacaran sediments hosting macrofossils and find evidence for abundant algal food sources available for these organisms.

    • Ilya Bobrovskiy
    • , Janet M. Hope
    • , Elena Golubkova
    •  & Jochen J. Brocks