Eukaryote

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Little is known on how mitonuclear interactions influence genomic divergence among hybrid and parental lineages. A study of hybridizing wood warbler species complex finds a nuclear gene block with mitochondrial functions coevolves with mitochondrial genome, driven by climate-associated divergent selection underlying hybrid-parental population divergence.

    • Silu Wang
    • , Madelyn J. Ore
    •  & Darren Irwin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many nematode worms, including Caenorhabditis elegans have XX/XO sex determination, while other species have XY. The authors use a new genome assembly of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi and published data to show that nematode sex chromosome evolution is highly plastic.

    • Jeremy M. Foster
    • , Alexandra Grote
    •  & Elodie Ghedin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Recent evidence has questioned the dogma of strict maternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in humans. Wei et al. saw no evidence of paternal transmission of mtDNA in 11,035 human trios, and show that nuclear-mitochondrial segments (NUMTs) can give the impression of paternal mtDNA transmission, but are actually inherited through the nuclear genome.

    • Wei Wei
    • , Alistair T. Pagnamenta
    •  & Patrick F. Chinnery
  • Article
    | Open Access

    H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin silencing marks are usually deposited by different SET-domain proteins. Here the authors show that the Enhancer-of-zeste-like protein Ezl1, from the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, catalyzes methylation of histone H3 in vitro and in vivo with an apparent specificity toward K9 and K27, and controls the repression of transposable elements.

    • Andrea Frapporti
    • , Caridad Miró Pina
    •  & Sandra Duharcourt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    MANF is a secreted ER stress-inducible protein that protects neurons, pancreatic β cells and cardiomyocytes from cell death under oxidative stress, hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Here the authors show that MANF confers cytoprotection through direct binding to sulfatide followed by cellular uptake in both C. elegans and mammalian cells.

    • Meirong Bai
    • , Roman Vozdek
    •  & Dengke K. Ma
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The extent of diversity in deep subsurface mines is not well documented. Here, Borgonie et al.report the discovery of Protozoa, Fungi, Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Annelida and Arthropoda from 1.4 km below ground, and conclude that their population growth is limited by food rather than oxygen availability.

    • G. Borgonie
    • , B. Linage-Alvarez
    •  & E. Van Heerden
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Copy number variation is an important source of genetic variation in natural populations and may have a role in human disease. Here, the authors identify high-order amplification structures that form large extended chromosomes and suggest that these may occur due to accidental template switching in stress conditions.

    • Agnès Thierry
    • , Varun Khanna
    •  & Bernard Dujon