Environmental sciences

  • Article | | open

    The amount of carbon stored in closed hidden reservoirs is unknown. Here the authors use a computational approach to study the evolution of carbon species and observe polymerization of carbon atoms at high pressures, illustrating the potential for a significant carbon reservoir in the Earth’s deep interior.

    • Natalia V. Solomatova
    • , Razvan Caracas
    •  & Craig E. Manning
  • Article | | open

    Oxidation of magnetite has broad implications in geochemistry and environmental science, but its reaction mechanisms are not fully understood yet. Here the authors use Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to show oxidative dissolution of magnetite inducing a rich array of strain and defect structures.

    • Ke Yuan
    • , Sang Soo Lee
    • , Wonsuk Cha
    • , Andrew Ulvestad
    • , Hyunjung Kim
    • , Bektur Abdilla
    • , Neil C. Sturchio
    •  & Paul Fenter
  • Article | | open

    Fire-derived organic matter (OM) is present throughout the environment, and its impact on nutrient cycling remains poorly understood. Here, the authors show that this pyrogenic OM can retain large quantities of ammonia through covalent bond formation, thereby exerting an important control on nitrogen cycling.

    • Rachel Hestrin
    • , Dorisel Torres-Rojas
    • , James J. Dynes
    • , James M. Hook
    • , Tom Z. Regier
    • , Adam W. Gillespie
    • , Ronald J. Smernik
    •  & Johannes Lehmann
  • Article | | open

    Country difference in macroeconomic cycles-mortality changes relationships has been rarely explored. Here the authors studied the relationship between 2008 recession and daily mortality counts for EU countries and revealed a significant relationship between macroeconomic cycles and mortality trends.

    • Joan Ballester
    • , Jean-Marie Robine
    • , François R. Herrmann
    •  & Xavier Rodó
  • Article | | open

    Ferromanganese minerals are abundant in marine environments but the extent of these minerals in subseafloor sediments remains unknown. Here the authors find abundant ferromanganese microparticles in oxic pelagic clays, accounting for 14–16% of the new estimate of the global manganese budget (9.2–47.4 Tt).

    • Go-Ichiro Uramoto
    • , Yuki Morono
    • , Naotaka Tomioka
    • , Shigeyuki Wakaki
    • , Ryoichi Nakada
    • , Rota Wagai
    • , Kentaro Uesugi
    • , Akihisa Takeuchi
    • , Masato Hoshino
    • , Yoshio Suzuki
    • , Fumito Shiraishi
    • , Satoshi Mitsunobu
    • , Hiroki Suga
    • , Yasuo Takeichi
    • , Yoshio Takahashi
    •  & Fumio Inagaki
  • Article | | open

    Multistage crystallization of transition metal oxides often proceeds through a number of metastable intermediates. Here, the authors shed light on this phenomenon by extending Pourbaix diagrams to capture the metastable and nanoscale thermodynamics of manganese oxide nucleation.

    • Wenhao Sun
    • , Daniil A. Kitchaev
    • , Denis Kramer
    •  & Gerbrand Ceder
  • Article | | open

    Size-resolved Black Carbon (BC) particle number emission inventory is not available for global civil aviation. Here the authors converted BC mass emission inventory into number emission inventory and found that aviation BC number emission contributes to 1.3% of total ground anthropogenic emissions and 3.6% on global average.

    • Xiaole Zhang
    • , Xi Chen
    •  & Jing Wang
  • Article | | open

    It remains controversial whether or not impact melt sheets produced by asteroid impacts were able to undergo large-scale igneous differentiation. Here the authors present evidence for large igneous differentiation in one of these sheets and argue that this process has contributed to the evolution and lithological diversity of the proto-crusts on terrestrial planets.

    • Rais Latypov
    • , Sofya Chistyakova
    • , Richard Grieve
    •  & Hannu Huhma
  • Article | | open

    Chinese government has implemented regulations to reduce mining-related methane emission since 2010. Here the authors estimated methane emissions in China using GOSAT satellite observation and results reveal a business-as-usual increase in methane emissions since 2010 despite those ambitious targets.

    • Scot M. Miller
    • , Anna M. Michalak
    • , Robert G. Detmers
    • , Otto P. Hasekamp
    • , Lori M. P. Bruhwiler
    •  & Stefan Schwietzke
  • Article | | open

    The underlying mechanisms structuring dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and reactivity in rivers remain poorly quantified. Here, the authors pair mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy to show that hydrology and river geomorphology both shape molecular patterns in DOM composition.

    • Laurel M. Lynch
    • , Nicholas A. Sutfin
    • , Timothy S. Fegel
    • , Claudia M. Boot
    • , Timothy P. Covino
    •  & Matthew D. Wallenstein
  • Article | | open

    Forecasting drought and its impact on agriculture and ecosystems is challenged by a lack of knowledge of vegetation access to deep moisture. Here the authors show that combining vegetation and water storage remote sensing can be used to infer this knowledge, allowing drought impact forecasts months in advance.

    • Siyuan Tian
    • , Albert I. J. M. Van Dijk
    • , Paul Tregoning
    •  & Luigi J. Renzullo
  • Article | | open

    Isotopic thermometry of carbonate minerals postulates that their composition reflects thermodynamic equilibrium constants. Here the authors constrain equilibrium relationships between temperature, 18O/16O and clumped isotopes and find that most natural calcites form out of isotopic equilibrium.

    • M. Daëron
    • , R. N. Drysdale
    • , M. Peral
    • , D. Huyghe
    • , D. Blamart
    • , T. B. Coplen
    • , F. Lartaud
    •  & G. Zanchetta
  • Article | | open

    Organic nucleation is an important source of atmospheric aerosol number concentration, especially in pristine continental regions and during the preindustrial period. Here the authors find a 16% reduced radiative forcing associated with anthropogenic aerosols when including organic nucleation together with climate and land use change.

    • Jialei Zhu
    • , Joyce E. Penner
    • , Fangqun Yu
    • , Sanford Sillman
    • , Meinrat O. Andreae
    •  & Hugh Coe
  • Article | | open

    The spatio-temporal distributions of these plastics are not fully characterized. Here the authors examined the sources, sinks and pathways and projected microplastic concentrations for 2066 and found that most plastics accumulate in the North Pacific, with the highest concentrations predicted in the East Asia Seas and central North Pacific.

    • Atsuhiko Isobe
    • , Shinsuke Iwasaki
    • , Keiichi Uchida
    •  & Tadashi Tokai
  • Article | | open

    The mid-Pleistocene transition is recognized as a shift in paleoclimatic periodicity from 41- to 100-kyr cycles. Here the authors present a unique mid-Pleistocene transition of coupled monsoon-vegetation changes from 23- to 100-kyr cycles, which indicates varied sensitivity of past climate to astronomical and ice/CO2 forcing.

    • Youbin Sun
    • , Qiuzhen Yin
    • , Michel Crucifix
    • , Steven C. Clemens
    • , Pablo Araya-Melo
    • , Weiguo Liu
    • , Xiaoke Qiang
    • , Qingsong Liu
    • , Hui Zhao
    • , Lianji Liang
    • , Hongyun Chen
    • , Ying Li
    • , Li Zhang
    • , Guocheng Dong
    • , Ming Li
    • , Weijian Zhou
    • , Andre Berger
    •  & Zhisheng An
  • Article | | open

    Climate change strongly impacts regions in high latitudes and altitudes that store high amounts of carbon in yet frozen ground. Here the authors show that the consequence of these changes is global warming of permafrost at depths greater than 10 m in the Northern Hemisphere, in mountains, and in Antarctica.

    • Boris K. Biskaborn
    • , Sharon L. Smith
    • , Jeannette Noetzli
    • , Heidrun Matthes
    • , Gonçalo Vieira
    • , Dmitry A. Streletskiy
    • , Philippe Schoeneich
    • , Vladimir E. Romanovsky
    • , Antoni G. Lewkowicz
    • , Andrey Abramov
    • , Michel Allard
    • , Julia Boike
    • , William L. Cable
    • , Hanne H. Christiansen
    • , Reynald Delaloye
    • , Bernhard Diekmann
    • , Dmitry Drozdov
    • , Bernd Etzelmüller
    • , Guido Grosse
    • , Mauro Guglielmin
    • , Thomas Ingeman-Nielsen
    • , Ketil Isaksen
    • , Mamoru Ishikawa
    • , Margareta Johansson
    • , Halldor Johannsson
    • , Anseok Joo
    • , Dmitry Kaverin
    • , Alexander Kholodov
    • , Pavel Konstantinov
    • , Tim Kröger
    • , Christophe Lambiel
    • , Jean-Pierre Lanckman
    • , Dongliang Luo
    • , Galina Malkova
    • , Ian Meiklejohn
    • , Natalia Moskalenko
    • , Marc Oliva
    • , Marcia Phillips
    • , Miguel Ramos
    • , A. Britta K. Sannel
    • , Dmitrii Sergeev
    • , Cathy Seybold
    • , Pavel Skryabin
    • , Alexander Vasiliev
    • , Qingbai Wu
    • , Kenji Yoshikawa
    • , Mikhail Zheleznyak
    •  & Hugues Lantuit
  • Article | | open

    Iron oxides prevail in the deep Earth, at extreme pressures and temperatures, with different stoichiometries than in ambient conditions. Here, high-pressure synchrotron X-ray spectroscopic measurements reveal the oxidation states of Fe and O in iron superoxide, shedding light on the puzzling chemistry of iron and oxygen in the deep Earth

    • Jin Liu
    • , Qingyang Hu
    • , Wenli Bi
    • , Liuxiang Yang
    • , Yuming Xiao
    • , Paul Chow
    • , Yue Meng
    • , Vitali B. Prakapenka
    • , Ho-Kwang Mao
    •  & Wendy L. Mao
  • Article | | open

    Deforestation for palm oil production is often attributed to large-scale, agro-industrial expansion. Here, Ordway et al. show that much recent expansion in Southwest Cameroon can be attributed to an informal sector of non-industrial producers establishing near informal, non-industrial palm oil mills.

    • Elsa M. Ordway
    • , Rosamond L. Naylor
    • , Raymond N. Nkongho
    •  & Eric F. Lambin
  • Article | | open

    The solubility of sulfur in basaltic melt has important implications for the formation of magmatic ore deposits. Here, the authors show that magma ascent and sulfur-degassing influence the degree to which basaltic magmas are enriched in economically-important chalcophile and siderophile elements.

    • C. D. J. Reekie
    • , F. E. Jenner
    • , D. J. Smythe
    • , E. H. Hauri
    • , E. S. Bullock
    •  & H. M. Williams
  • Article | | open

    Increased abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment may be due to selection pressure by residual antibiotics, or to contamination with resistant bacteria from human faeces. Here, Karkman et al. analyze metagenomic data and find evidence supporting the second scenario in most cases.

    • Antti Karkman
    • , Katariina Pärnänen
    •  & D. G. Joakim Larsson
  • Article | | open

    Volatile exchange between the Earth’s interior and surface layers is one of the central issues in mantle geochemistry. Here the authors present evidence that chlorine is transferred from the surface to the deep mantle by subducted oceanic crust, forming a chlorine-rich mantle reservoir.

    • Takeshi Hanyu
    • , Kenji Shimizu
    • , Takayuki Ushikubo
    • , Jun-Ichi Kimura
    • , Qing Chang
    • , Morihisa Hamada
    • , Motoo Ito
    • , Hikaru Iwamori
    •  & Tsuyoshi Ishikawa
  • Article | | open

    The occurrence and distribution of permafrost region disturbances (PRDs) remain poorly resolved across the Arctic and Subarctic. Here, the authors quantify the abundance and distribution of three primary PRDs using a time-series analysis of 30-m resolution Landsat imagery between 1999 and 2014.

    • I. Nitze
    • , G. Grosse
    • , B. M. Jones
    • , V. E. Romanovsky
    •  & J. Boike
  • Article | | open

    The causes of Mid-Pleistocene Transition global cooling 1 million years ago are still unknown. Here, the authors find the subarctic North Pacific became stratified during these glaciations due to closure of the Bering Strait, which would have removed CO2 from the atmosphere and caused global cooling.

    • Sev Kender
    • , Ana Christina Ravelo
    • , Savannah Worne
    • , George E. A. Swann
    • , Melanie J. Leng
    • , Hirofumi Asahi
    • , Julia Becker
    • , Henrieka Detlef
    • , Ivano W. Aiello
    • , Dyke Andreasen
    •  & Ian R. Hall
  • Article | | open

    Credibility of long-term projection in quantitative models is continuously under debate and they rely on validation to prove projection accuracy. Here the authors investigated the views on the validation approaches and they show that empirical data plays an important role in the validation practice in all main areas of sustainability science.

    • Sibel Eker
    • , Elena Rovenskaya
    • , Michael Obersteiner
    •  & Simon Langan
  • Article | | open

    Short-lived natural bromocarbons, which contribute to ozone depletion in the atmosphere, are believed to be produced through light-driven processes, mainly in oceans. Here the authors present bromocarbon measurements in snow, sea ice, and air during polar winter that show an unexpected source of bromine to the polar atmosphere during periods of no sunlight.

    • Katarina Abrahamsson
    • , Anna Granfors
    • , Martin Ahnoff
    • , Carlos A. Cuevas
    •  & Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
  • Article | | open

    The role of thermochemical oxidation of methane (TOM) by high-valence metal oxides as a potential methane sink remains poorly understood. Here, the authors present evidence of TOM induced by Mn(Fe) oxides in a sedimentary basin, which yields calcite with extremely negative δ13C values (−70 to −22.5‰, VPDB).

    • Wen-Xuan Hu
    • , Xun Kang
    • , Jian Cao
    • , Xiao-Lin Wang
    • , Bin Fu
    •  & Hai-Guang Wu
  • Article | | open

    The large-scale production of CS2 presents both environmental and biological hazards, yet adsorbents capable of CS2 capture remain scarcely explored. Here, Long and colleagues demonstrate that CS2 is adsorbed in diamine-appended metal–organic frameworks through a cooperative and chemically specific insertion process.

    • C. Michael McGuirk
    • , Rebecca L. Siegelman
    • , Walter S. Drisdell
    • , Tomče Runčevski
    • , Phillip J. Milner
    • , Julia Oktawiec
    • , Liwen F. Wan
    • , Gregory M. Su
    • , Henry Z. H. Jiang
    • , Douglas A. Reed
    • , Miguel I. Gonzalez
    • , David Prendergast
    •  & Jeffrey R. Long
  • Article | | open

    Mantle-sourced magmas erupted at hotspot volcanoes can provide clues to the sulphur cycle over geological timescales. In this work, sulphur isotopes were analysed in crystal-hosted inclusions entrapped at depth, and reveal the presence of post-Archaean recycled material in the Canary Island mantle.

    • Patrick Beaudry
    • , Marc-Antoine Longpré
    • , Rita Economos
    • , Boswell A. Wing
    • , Thi Hao Bui
    •  & John Stix
  • Article | | open

    The rare noble gas isotope 39Ar is the ideal tracer to investigate the ventilation of the deep ocean in the time range of 50 to 1000 years. Here the authors constrain transit time distributions in the eastern Tropical Atlantic with 39Ar-measurements done on a sample size of 5 L of water utilising modern atom-optical techniques.

    • Sven Ebser
    • , Arne Kersting
    • , Tim Stöven
    • , Zhongyi Feng
    • , Lisa Ringena
    • , Maximilian Schmidt
    • , Toste Tanhua
    • , Werner Aeschbach
    •  & Markus K. Oberthaler
  • Article | | open

    The Indian Ocean provides a unique environmental gradient to test underlying drivers of the elemental composition of particulate organic matter. Here the authors show that nutrient supply, over temperature and biodiversity changes, controls regional variation of elemental ratios in the tropical Indian Ocean.

    • Catherine A. Garcia
    • , Steven E. Baer
    • , Nathan S. Garcia
    • , Sara Rauschenberg
    • , Benjamin S. Twining
    • , Michael W. Lomas
    •  & Adam C. Martiny
  • Article | | open

    Removal of anthropogenic mercury from water streams is of great importance given its high toxicity and ability to spread rapidly. Here, the authors demonstrate the direct alloying of mercury with a fully recyclable platinum electrode, providing effective removal at different concentrations and pH, and in the presence of other contaminants.

    • Cristian Tunsu
    •  & Björn Wickman
  • Article | | open

    Salt particles in the Amazon basin are typically attributed to marine aerosols transported from the Atlantic Ocean. Here the authors show the potential importance of fungal spores as a source of sodium-salt particles in the Amazon rainforest.

    • Swarup China
    • , Susannah M. Burrows
    • , Bingbing Wang
    • , Tristan H. Harder
    • , Johannes Weis
    • , Meryem Tanarhte
    • , Luciana V. Rizzo
    • , Joel Brito
    • , Glauber G. Cirino
    • , Po-Lun Ma
    • , John Cliff
    • , Paulo Artaxo
    • , Mary K. Gilles
    •  & Alexander Laskin
  • Article | | open

    As silica melts are believed to be important components of the Earth’s mantle, their structure should determine many of its properties. Here, the authors identify two crystalline modifications of SiO2, whose local structures closely resemble those of known melts, providing a structural model for their atomic ordering at the nanoscale.

    • E. Bykova
    • , M. Bykov
    • , A. Černok
    • , J. Tidholm
    • , S. I. Simak
    • , O. Hellman
    • , M. P. Belov
    • , I. A. Abrikosov
    • , H.-P. Liermann
    • , M. Hanfland
    • , V. B. Prakapenka
    • , C. Prescher
    • , N. Dubrovinskaia
    •  & L. Dubrovinsky
  • Article | | open

    Reduction of gaseous Hg(II) compounds drives atmospheric mercury wet and dry deposition to Earth surface ecosystems. Global Hg models assume this reduction takes place in clouds. Here the authors report a new gas-phase Hg photochemical mechanism that changes atmospheric mercury lifetime and its deposition to the surface.

    • Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
    • , Sebastian P. Sitkiewicz
    • , Daniel Roca-Sanjuán
    • , Josep M. Oliva-Enrich
    • , Juan Z. Dávalos
    • , Rafael Notario
    • , Martin Jiskra
    • , Yang Xu
    • , Feiyue Wang
    • , Colin P. Thackray
    • , Elsie M. Sunderland
    • , Daniel J. Jacob
    • , Oleg Travnikov
    • , Carlos A. Cuevas
    • , A. Ulises Acuña
    • , Daniel Rivero
    • , John M. C. Plane
    • , Douglas E. Kinnison
    •  & Jeroen E. Sonke
  • Article | | open

    A unified model for the formation of martian rock types is required to understand Mars’s formation and evolution. Here the authors show that nakhlite and chassignite meteorites originate from melting of metasomatized depleted mantle lithosphere, whereas shergottite melts originate from deep plume sources.

    • James M. D. Day
    • , Kimberly T. Tait
    • , Arya Udry
    • , Frédéric Moynier
    • , Yang Liu
    •  & Clive R. Neal
  • Article | | open

    Chromium and arsenic are prevalent water pollutants, but their removal is currently limited by low selectivity. Here, the authors use redox-active metallopolymer electrodes based on poly(vinyl)ferrocene to selectively remove the two heavy metal oxyanions at concentrations as low as 100 ppb.

    • Xiao Su
    • , Akihiro Kushima
    • , Cameron Halliday
    • , Jian Zhou
    • , Ju Li
    •  & T. Alan Hatton
  • Article | | open

    Pharmaceuticals are widespread contaminants in surface waters. Here, Richmond and colleagues show that dozens of pharmaceuticals accumulate in  food chains of streams, including in predators in adjacent terrestrial ecosystems.

    • Erinn K. Richmond
    • , Emma J. Rosi
    • , David M. Walters
    • , Jerker Fick
    • , Stephen K. Hamilton
    • , Tomas Brodin
    • , Anna Sundelin
    •  & Michael R. Grace
  • Article | | open

    Boron is one of the main proxies for seawater-derived fluids in subduction zone volcanics and it is vital to characterise the location and concentration of boron in the oceanic lithosphere. Here the authors show that boron concentration in the mantle of downgoing slabs has been overestimated, because boron is strongly decoupled from water in the hydration process.

    • Andrew M. McCaig
    • , Sofya S. Titarenko
    • , Ivan P. Savov
    • , Robert A. Cliff
    • , David Banks
    • , Adrian Boyce
    •  & Samuele Agostini
  • Article | | open

    Earth degassing of CO2-rich fluids contributes significantly to the global carbon budget but its link to tectonic regimes remains unclear. Here, the authors use global geological datasets to show that there is a positive spatial correlation between CO2 discharges and extensional tectonic regimes.

    • Giancarlo Tamburello
    • , Silvia Pondrelli
    • , Giovanni Chiodini
    •  & Dmitri Rouwet
  • Article | | open

    Iron oxides exist in a variety of polymorphs at different pressure and temperature conditions, displaying important magnetic properties, and are major constituents of the Earth’s interior. Here the authors investigate the structural and electronic changes in the uncommon epsilon phase under compression to deep Mantle pressures.

    • J. A. Sans
    • , V. Monteseguro
    • , G. Garbarino
    • , M. Gich
    • , V. Cerantola
    • , V. Cuartero
    • , M. Monte
    • , T. Irifune
    • , A. Muñoz
    •  & C. Popescu
  • Article | | open

    The long-term evolution of the sulfur budget in the lithosphere is poorly constrained. Here, using mass independent isotope fractionation as an indelible tracer, the authors track the pathway of sulfur from the Earth’s surface to punctuated episodes of granitoid magmatism during collisional orogenesis.

    • Crystal LaFlamme
    • , Marco L. Fiorentini
    • , Mark D. Lindsay
    •  & Thi Hao Bui
  • Article | | open

    Investment in watershed services programs is growing, however the factors that contribute to sustainability of such programs are unclear. Here the authors use a large database of cities around the world to show that payment schemes are more likely to be present in watersheds with more agricultural land and less protected areas.

    • Chelsie L. Romulo
    • , Stephen Posner
    • , Stella Cousins
    • , Jenn Hoyle Fair
    • , Drew E. Bennett
    • , Heidi Huber-Stearns
    • , Ryan C. Richards
    •  & Robert I. McDonald
  • Article | | open

    The reaction of hydroxyl and methylperoxy radicals has recently been suggested as the source of missing methanol in the remote troposphere. Here, the authors present direct experimental measurements demonstrating the reaction leads to further underprediction of modelled methanol.

    • Rebecca L. Caravan
    • , M. Anwar H. Khan
    • , Judit Zádor
    • , Leonid Sheps
    • , Ivan O. Antonov
    • , Brandon Rotavera
    • , Krupa Ramasesha
    • , Kendrew Au
    • , Ming-Wei Chen
    • , Daniel Rösch
    • , David L. Osborn
    • , Christa Fittschen
    • , Coralie Schoemaecker
    • , Marius Duncianu
    • , Asma Grira
    • , Sebastien Dusanter
    • , Alexandre Tomas
    • , Carl J. Percival
    • , Dudley E. Shallcross
    •  & Craig A. Taatjes
  • Article | | open

    UNESCO World Heritage located in low-lying coastal areas is increasingly at risk from flooding and erosion due to sea-level rise. This study shows that up to 82% of cultural World Heritage sites located in the Mediterranean will be at risk from coastal flooding and over 93% from coastal erosion by 2100 under high-end sea-level rise.

    • Lena Reimann
    • , Athanasios T. Vafeidis
    • , Sally Brown
    • , Jochen Hinkel
    •  & Richard S. J. Tol
  • Article | | open

    Drivers of crop yield variability require quantification, and historical records can help in improving understanding. Here, Webber et al. report that drought stress will remain a key driver of yield losses in wheat and maize across Europe, and benefits from CO2 will be limited in low-yielding years.

    • Heidi Webber
    • , Frank Ewert
    • , Jørgen E. Olesen
    • , Christoph Müller
    • , Stefan Fronzek
    • , Alex C. Ruane
    • , Maryse Bourgault
    • , Pierre Martre
    • , Behnam Ababaei
    • , Marco Bindi
    • , Roberto Ferrise
    • , Robert Finger
    • , Nándor Fodor
    • , Clara Gabaldón-Leal
    • , Thomas Gaiser
    • , Mohamed Jabloun
    • , Kurt-Christian Kersebaum
    • , Jon I. Lizaso
    • , Ignacio J. Lorite
    • , Loic Manceau
    • , Marco Moriondo
    • , Claas Nendel
    • , Alfredo Rodríguez
    • , Margarita Ruiz-Ramos
    • , Mikhail A. Semenov
    • , Stefan Siebert
    • , Tommaso Stella
    • , Pierre Stratonovitch
    • , Giacomo Trombi
    •  & Daniel Wallach
  • Article | | open

    Rising demand for ruminant meat and dairy products in developing nations drives increasing GHG and ammonia emissions from livestock. Authors show here that only long-term adoption of global best-practice in sustainable intensification buffered by a short-term coping strategy of green-source trading can offer a way forward.

    • Yuanyuan Du
    • , Ying Ge
    • , Yuan Ren
    • , Xing Fan
    • , Kaixuan Pan
    • , Linshan Lin
    • , Xu Wu
    • , Yong Min
    • , Laura A. Meyerson
    • , Mikko Heino
    • , Scott X. Chang
    • , Xiaozi Liu
    • , Feng Mao
    • , Guofu Yang
    • , Changhui Peng
    • , Zelong Qu
    • , Jie Chang
    •  & Raphael K. Didham
  • Article | | open

    Correlations between prehistoric eruptions and other phenomena depend on accurate dating of the eruption. Here the authors show that magmatic CO2 in groundwater can bias radiocarbon ages for eruptions and that plateaux of carbon isotopic values in tree ring sequences biased by magmatic CO2 foreshadow major eruptions.

    • Richard N. Holdaway
    • , Brendan Duffy
    •  & Ben Kennedy
  • Article | | open

    The interactions between organic particulate matter and water vapour affect climate predictions, yet the mechanisms of these interactions remain unresolved. Here, the authors propose a phase separation mechanism that reconciles the observed hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei activity.

    • Pengfei Liu
    • , Mijung Song
    • , Tianning Zhao
    • , Sachin S. Gunthe
    • , Suhan Ham
    • , Yipeng He
    • , Yi Ming Qin
    • , Zhaoheng Gong
    • , Juliana C. Amorim
    • , Allan K. Bertram
    •  & Scot T. Martin