Electrophysiology

  • Article
    | Open Access

    GABAA receptors (GABAARs) cause inhibition in the brain by functioning as heteropentamers formed from multiple subunit types. Here, the authors demonstrate that receptors incorporating β3 subunits can spontaneously gate, which is modulated by protein kinases and neurosteroids to affect tonic inhibition.

    • Craig A. Sexton
    • , Reka Penzinger
    •  & Trevor G. Smart
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Silicon probes for electrical recording from neurons usually have fewer wires than recording channels available to carry signals off the probe, which restricts the number of channels that can be recorded simultaneously. The authors propose to pool electrodes, using a single wire to serve many channels through a set of controllable switches.

    • Kyu Hyun Lee
    • , Yu-Li Ni
    •  & Markus Meister
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The nature of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) is still under debate. Here, through genetically modified F-ATP synthase, the authors show that PTP formation can be mediated by F-ATP synthase or by adenine nucleotide translocator, suggesting the existence of distinct but related permeability pathways.

    • Andrea Carrer
    • , Ludovica Tommasin
    •  & Paolo Bernardi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Pannexin 1 (PANX1) is a membrane channel mediating release of signaling molecules to the extracellular space. PANX1 can be activated by GPCRs. Here, the authors elucidate a non-canonical channel activation pathway by α1-adrenergic receptor that involves HDAC6- mediated lysine deacetylation of PANX1.

    • Yu-Hsin Chiu
    • , Christopher B. Medina
    •  & Douglas A. Bayliss
  • Article
    | Open Access

    TMEM16 lipid scramblases transport lipids and also operate as ion channels with highly variable ion selectivities and various physiological functions. Using computational electrophysiology simulations, the authors identify the main ion-conductive state of TMEM16 lipid scramblases and find that lipid headgroups modulate ion permeability and regulate ion selectivity of TMEM16 proteolipidic pores.

    • Andrei Y. Kostritskii
    •  & Jan-Philipp Machtens
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sea urchin hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (spHCN) ion channels channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization instead of depolarization and undergo inactivation with hyperpolarization. Here authors apply transition metal ion FRET, patch-clamp fluorometry and Rosetta modeling to measure differences in the structural rearrangements between activation and inactivation of spHCN channels.

    • Gucan Dai
    • , Teresa K. Aman
    •  & William N. Zagotta
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Synaptic loss may disturb the excitatory to inhibitory balance (E/I ratio) in circuits vulnerable in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The authors find reduced synaptic levels of PSD-95 and gephyrin and show that individuals with AD exhibit a pro-excitatory shift of postsynaptic densities and the electrophysiological synaptic E/I ratio in the parietal cortex.

    • Julie C. Lauterborn
    • , Pietro Scaduto
    •  & Agenor Limon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Structural and functional characterization of the full-length TRPV1 channel from the thirteen-lined ground squirrel reveal the architecture of the extracellular cap domain and the intracellular C-terminus, and suggest a role of the cap domain in TRPV1 conductance and ion selectivity.

    • Kirill D. Nadezhdin
    • , Arthur Neuberger
    •  & Alexander I. Sobolevsky
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Intrinsically disordered FG-Nups line the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) lumen and form a selective barrier where transport of most proteins is inhibited, whereas specific transporter proteins are able to pass. Here, the authors reconstitute the selective behaviour of the NPC by introducing a rationally designed artificial FG-Nup that demonstrates that no specific spacer sequence nor a spatial segregation of different FG-motif types are needed to create selective NPCs.

    • Alessio Fragasso
    • , Hendrik W. de Vries
    •  & Cees Dekker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Long-distance extracellular electron transfer has been observed in Gram-negative bacteria. Here, Yang et al. show that a filamentous, unicellular Gram-positive bacterium is capable of bidirectional extracellular electron transfer, and forms centimetre-range conductive networks consisting of 1mm-long cells and conductive appendages.

    • Yonggang Yang
    • , Zegao Wang
    •  & Mingdong Dong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Patch clamp recording of neurons is slow and labor-intensive. Here the authors present a method for automated deep learning driven label-free image guided patch clamp physiology to perform measurements on hundreds of human and rodent neurons.

    • Krisztian Koos
    • , Gáspár Oláh
    •  & Peter Horvath
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) release Ca2+ from the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in RyR are linked to malignant hyperthermia (MH), myopathies, and arrhythmias. Here, a collection of cryoEM structures provides insights into the molecular consequences of MHrelated RyR mutation R615C, and how apoCaM opens RyR1.

    • Kellie A. Woll
    • , Omid Haji-Ghassemi
    •  & Filip Van Petegem
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA1 synapses can be due to increasing the number and/or single-channel conductance of AMPA receptors. The authors show that PKA and CaMKII are necessary and together sufficient to increase single channel conductance, via insertion of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors.

    • Pojeong Park
    • , John Georgiou
    •  & Graham L. Collingridge
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The small proton-coupled transporter EmrE confers multidrug resistance in bacteria. The structure of drug-bound EmrE in phospholipid bilayers is now determined using solid-state NMR. The structure provides detailed insights into the molecular mechanism of substrate recognition by this transporter.

    • Alexander A. Shcherbakov
    • , Grant Hisao
    •  & Mei Hong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gdx-Clo is a bacterial transporter from the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family. Here, the authors use solid supported membrane electrophysiology to characterize Gdx-Clo functionally and report crystal structures of Gdx-Clo which confirm the dual topology architecture and offer insight into substrate binding and transport mechanism.

    • Ali A. Kermani
    • , Christian B. Macdonald
    •  & Randy B. Stockbridge
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Current media for neuronal cell and organoid cultures are suboptimal for functional imaging and optogenetics experiments, owing to phototoxicity and unphysiological performance. Here the authors formulate an optimised neuronal medium to support live cell imaging and electrophysiological activity.

    • Michael Zabolocki
    • , Kasandra McCormack
    •  & Cedric Bardy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Current methods of neuronal network imaging cannot be used for continuous, long-term functional recordings. Here, the authors present a dual-mode high-density microelectrode array, which can simultaneously record in full-frame and high-signal-to-noise modes for label-free electrophysiological measurements.

    • Xinyue Yuan
    • , Manuel Schröter
    •  & Urs Frey
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Reported wearable dry electrodes have limited long-term use due to their imperfect skin compliance and high motion artifacts. Here, the authors report an intrinsically conductive, stretchable polymer dry electrode with excellent self-adhesiveness for long-term high-quality biopotential detection.

    • Lei Zhang
    • , Kirthika Senthil Kumar
    •  & Jianyong Ouyang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Modulation of peripheral nervous system signalling has many applications in medicine, neurobiology and machine-man interfaces. Here the authors develop a microscale implantable device for chronic interfacing with a small diameter nerve, and show multi-week in vivo recording and control of activity.

    • Timothy M. Otchy
    • , Christos Michas
    •  & Timothy J. Gardner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    EEG microstate abnormalities have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Here the authors demonstrate that patients and their siblings show similar microstate abnormalities compared to healthy controls.

    • Janir Ramos da Cruz
    • , Ophélie Favrod
    •  & Michael H. Herzog
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electrical stimulation of the brain can have variable effects, perhaps because of individual differences in brain structure which produce differences in the electric fields. Here, the authors show that using functional and structural brain imaging along with electric field modeling can predict the effectiveness of stimulation.

    • Florian H. Kasten
    • , Katharina Duecker
    •  & Christoph S. Herrmann
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The depolarizing funny current contributing to cardiac pacemaking is upregulated in the myocardium of  failing and infarcted hearts, but whether the current is implied in disease mechanisms is unclear. Here the authors generate HCN4 transgenic mice and show that upregulation of funny current to the levels observed in human heart failure alters calcium homeostasis leading to cardiac remodelling and arrhythmia.

    • Pessah Yampolsky
    • , Michael Koenen
    •  & Patrick A. Schweizer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) can modulate human brain activity, but the extent of the cortical area activated by TMS is unclear. Here, the authors show that TMS affects monkey single neuron activity in an area less than 2 mm diameter, while TMS-induced activity and task-related activity do not summate.

    • Maria C. Romero
    • , Marco Davare
    •  & Peter Janssen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (TACS) of the brain is widely used in neuroscience, but the electric fields produced when multiple stimulation electrodes are used are not well understood. Here, the authors directly record electric fields in primate brains during multi-electrode TACS.

    • Ivan Alekseichuk
    • , Arnaud Y. Falchier
    •  & Alexander Opitz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The hippocampus is involved both in episodic memory recall and scene processing. Here, the authors show that hippocampal neurons first process scene cues before coordinating memory-guided pattern completion in adjacent entorhinal cortex.

    • Bernhard P. Staresina
    • , Thomas P. Reber
    •  & Florian Mormann
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive method of measuring neural activity but the hippocampus and amygdala are difficult to measure with MEG because of their deep localization. Here, the authors show with simultaneous MEG and invasive recordings that hippocampus and amygdala activity can be retrieved from the surface.

    • Francesca Pizzo
    • , N. Roehri
    •  & C. G. Bénar
  • Article
    | Open Access

    While strain is known to affect cardiac electrophysiology, experimental systems to interrogate the effect of rapid strain cycles on cardiac tissue are lacking. Here the authors introduce a multielectrode array that can induce rapid dynamic strain cycles on cardiomyocyte strands and see effects of strain amplitude but not strain rate on impulse conduction.

    • Matthias Imboden
    • , Etienne de Coulon
    •  & Stephan Rohr
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mutations that modulate the activity of ion channels are essential tools to understand the biophysical determinants that control their gating. Here authors reveal the role played by a single residue in the second transmembrane domain of vertebrate and invertebrate two-pore domain potassium channels.

    • Ismail Ben Soussia
    • , Sonia El Mouridi
    •  & Thomas Boulin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electroencephalography (EEG) allows the measurement of electrical signals associated with brain activity, but it is unclear if EEG can accurately measure subcortical activity. Here, the authors show that source dynamics, reconstructed from scalp EEG, correlate with activity recorded from human thalamus and nucleus accumbens.

    • Martin Seeber
    • , Lucia-Manuela Cantonas
    •  & Christoph M. Michel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Place cells and grid cells are known to encode spatial information about an animal’s location relative to the surrounding environment. Here, the authors show that place cells predominantly encode environmental sensory inputs, while grid cell activity reflects a greater influence of physical motion.

    • Guifen Chen
    • , Yi Lu
    •  & Neil Burgess
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) uses weak electrical currents, applied to the head, to modulate brain activity. Here, the authors show that contrary to previous assumptions, the effects of tACS on the brain may be mediated by its effect on peripheral nerves in the skin, not direct.

    • Boateng Asamoah
    • , Ahmad Khatoun
    •  & Myles Mc Laughlin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Memories formed around the same time are linked together by a shared temporal context. Here, the authors show that the ability to selectively retrieve distinct episodic memories formed close together in time is related to how quickly neural representations of temporal context change over time during encoding.

    • Mostafa M. El-Kalliny
    • , John H. Wittig Jr
    •  & Kareem A. Zaghloul
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Direct electrical brain stimulation can induce widespread changes in neural activity, offering a means to modulate network-wide activity and treat disease. Here, the authors show that the low-frequency functional connectivity profile of a stimulation target predicts where induced theta activity occurs.

    • E. A. Solomon
    • , J. E. Kragel
    •  & M. J. Kahana
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Peripheral nerves have a complex physiology and it is therefore difficult to measure axonal activity in vitro. Here the authors make a nerve-on-a-chip platform to align peripheral nerves and permit measurement of conduction amplitude and velocity along several axons in a single experiment.

    • Sandra Gribi
    • , Sophie du Bois de Dunilac
    •  & Stéphanie P. Lacour
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A bottleneck for the application of bioelectrochemical systems is the slow rate of extracellular electron transfer. Here the authors use a synthetic biology approach to redirect metabolic flux to NAD+ biosynthesis, which enhances the intracellular electron flux and the extracellular electron transfer rate.

    • Feng Li
    • , Yuan-Xiu Li
    •  & Hao Song
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Human Bestrophin1 (hBest1), a calcium-activated chloride channel in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is essential for retina physiology. Using electrophysiological and structural approaches, the authors uncover an ATP-dependent activation mechanism of hBest1, and identify an ATP-binding motif.

    • Yu Zhang
    • , Alec Kittredge
    •  & Tingting Yang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Thalamocortical dysrhythmia has been proposed to occur in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here, the authors use a data-driven approach to demonstrate thalamocortical dysrhythmia occurs in individuals with Parkinson’s disease, neuropathic pain, tinnitus, and depression.

    • Sven Vanneste
    • , Jae-Jin Song
    •  & Dirk De Ridder
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The ability to identify periods of heightened seizure risk could enable new treatments for patients with epilepsy. Here, the authors describe long term EEG recordings from 37 patients which allow them to identify multi-day fluctuations in interictal activity.

    • Maxime O. Baud
    • , Jonathan K. Kleen
    •  & Vikram R. Rao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The BRICHOS domain is a chaperone that can act against amyloid-β peptide fibril formation and non-fibrillar protein aggregation. Here the authors use a multidisciplinary approach and show that the Bri2 BRICHOS domain has qualitatively different chaperone activities depending on its quaternary structure.

    • Gefei Chen
    • , Axel Abelein
    •  & Jan Johansson