Economics

  • Perspective |

    The unquantified, poorly understood and uncertain risks of climate change in economic valuations are identified and classified, and an integrated approach is proposed to include these missing risks in future valuations and decision-making processes.

    • James Rising
    • , Marco Tedesco
    •  & David A. Stainforth
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Social disconnection across socioeconomic lines is explained by both differences in exposure to people with high socioeconomic status and friending bias—the tendency for people to befriend peers with similar socioeconomic status even conditional on exposure.

    • Raj Chetty
    • , Matthew O. Jackson
    •  & Nils Wernerfelt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The difference between the number of men and women listed as authors on scientific papers and inventors on patents is at least partly attributable to unacknowledged contributions by women scientists.

    • Matthew B. Ross
    • , Britta M. Glennon
    •  & Julia I. Lane
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Principles from the field of fair division are used to develop selection algorithms for citizens’ assemblies that produce panels that are representative of the population while simultaneously selecting individuals with near-equal probabilities.

    • Bailey Flanigan
    • , Paul Gölz
    •  & Ariel D. Procaccia
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Analyses of a global database reveal that in many developing countries progress in learning remains limited despite increasing enrolment in primary and secondary education, and uncover links between human capital and economic development.

    • Noam Angrist
    • , Simeon Djankov
    •  & Harry A. Patrinos
  • Article |

    An analysis of the search behaviour of recruiters on a Swiss online recruitment platform shows that jobseekers from minority ethnic groups are less likely to be contacted by recruiters, and also provides evidence of gender-based discrimination.

    • Dominik Hangartner
    • , Daniel Kopp
    •  & Michael Siegenthaler
  • Article |

    Analyses of COVID-19 infection rates show that non-pharmaceutical interventions achieved large, beneficial and measurable health outcomes in China, South Korea, Italy, Iran, France and the United States; these results may inform decisions on whether or when these interventions should be deployed, intensified or lifted.

    • Solomon Hsiang
    • , Daniel Allen
    •  & Tiffany Wu
  • Letter
    | Open Access

    The prevalence of improved housing (with improved drinking water and sanitation, sufficient living area and durable construction) in urban and rural sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 2000 and 2015.

    • Lucy S. Tusting
    • , Donal Bisanzio
    •  & Samir Bhatt
  • Letter |

    Demographic analysis of life expectancy and maximum reported age at death provides evidence that human lifespan has reached its natural limit.

    • Xiao Dong
    • , Brandon Milholland
    •  & Jan Vijg
  • Letter |

    In human societies, individuals who violate social norms may be punished by third-party observers who have not been harmed by the violator; this study suggests that a reason why the observers are willing to punish is to be seen as more trustworthy by the community.

    • Jillian J. Jordan
    • , Moshe Hoffman
    •  & David G. Rand
  • Letter |

    Biodiversity threats from Red Lists are linked with patterns of international trade, identifying the ultimate instigators of the threats; developed countries tend to be net importers of implicated commodities, driving biodiversity decline in developing countries.

    • M. Lenzen
    • , D. Moran
    •  & A. Geschke
  • Letter |

    Removing the protected status from poorly performing conservation areas, selling the land and using the money better elsewhere is controversial, but has a simplistic appeal. Here, it is shown that such degazetting can reap significant conservation benefits, even for the well-designed Australian network of protected areas, and even when there is a significant economic cost to transferring protected status to a new area.

    • Richard A. Fuller
    • , Eve McDonald-Madden
    •  & Hugh P. Possingham
  • Letter |

    Social science hypotheses suggest that humans prefer more equality in outcome distributions because the knowledge of inequality reduces the reward experience. Here, functional MRI was used to test directly for inequality-averse social preferences in the brain during monetary transfers between pairs of participants and an experimenter. The results indicate that the brain's reward circuitry is sensitive to distribution inequality and is actively modulated relative to context.

    • Elizabeth Tricomi
    • , Antonio Rangel
    •  & John P. O’Doherty