Deubiquitylating enzymes

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Autophagy and the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) are cellular quality control processes, but their coordination remains unclear. Here, the authors show that branched ubiquitination of VPS34 functions as a switch between UPS and autophagy and has an important role in lipid metabolism in the liver.

    • Yu-Hsuan Chen
    • , Tzu-Yu Huang
    •  & Ruey-Hwa Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many pathogens manipulate ubiquitin-mediated signaling to evade host cell defense. Here, the authors characterize the structure and enzymatic activity of a deubiquitylase domain from the causative pathogen of scrub typhus, providing evidence for a distinct mechanism of ubiquitin chain selectivity.

    • Jason M. Berk
    • , Christopher Lim
    •  & Mark Hochstrasser
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Axin is a scaffolding protein known for its role in Wnt signalling that can be marked with a variety of post-translational modifications. Here, Cong et al. demonstrate that USP7 de-ubiquinates Axin and that canonical Wnt signaling output can be increased with USP7 inhibitors.

    • Lei Ji
    • , Bo Lu
    •  & Feng Cong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    PTEN is a lipid phosphatase that functions as a dose-dependent tumor suppressor through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Here the authors describe a signaling feedback mechanism where PTEN stability is regulated through transcriptional upregulation of X-linked ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11) via the PI3K/FOXO pathway.

    • Mi Kyung Park
    • , Yixin Yao
    •  & Min Sup Song
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hippo signaling leads to the phosphorylation of the key transcriptional effector, Yap/Yki, although how Yap/Yki stability is regulated has remained unclear. Here, Sun et al. identify HAUSP/Usp7 as a conserved and clinically relevant regulator of the Hippo pathway that increases Yap/Yki stability.

    • Xiaohan Sun
    • , Yan Ding
    •  & Zizhang Zhou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Polycomb Repressive-Deubiquitinase (PR-DUB) complex is responsible for the removal of the ubiquitin epigenetic modification from Histone 2A. Here the authors describe the structure of the Drosophila PR-DUB complex, providing new insight into its regulation and how cancer-associated mutations disrupt PR-DUB activity.

    • Martina Foglizzo
    • , Adam J. Middleton
    •  & Peter D. Mace
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ubiquitin modification also occurs in archaea. Here, the authors characterize an archaeal ancestral ubiquitination system, present the crystal structure of the archaeal deubiquitinase Rpn11 from Caldiarchaeum subterraneum bound to ubiquitin and provide insights into evolutionary relationships.

    • Adrian C. D. Fuchs
    • , Lorena Maldoner
    •  & Jörg Martin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are essential to modulate ubiquitin signaling. While known DUBs can be grouped into six families, the authors here present biochemical and structural evidence for a seventh DUB family, defining determinants of substrate specificity for two representative enzymes.

    • Thomas Hermanns
    • , Christian Pichlo
    •  & Kay Hofmann
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The relaying of Wnt signals to the cytoplasm requires the formation of signalosomes through the reversible polymerization of Dishevelled (Dvl). Here the authors establish the functional consequences of ubiquitination of the Dvl DIX domain and identify deubiquitinases predicted to promote Dvl polymerization.

    • Julia Madrzak
    • , Marc Fiedler
    •  & Jason W. Chin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Deubiquitylases (DUBs) remove ubiquitin chains from proteins. Here the authors develop a mass spectrometry-based DUB activity screen using unmodified diubiquitin isomers to characterize substrate specificity for 42 human DUBs, and assess the potency and selectivity of 11 DUB inhibitors.

    • Maria Stella Ritorto
    • , Richard Ewan
    •  & Matthias Trost
  • Article |

    Mutations in the deubiquitinase gene CYLD are associated with cylindromatosis, a disease characterized by the development of skin appendage tumours. Eguether et al.discover that CYLD localizes to centrosomes and is required for basal body migration and docking, providing insight into its tumour suppressor activity.

    • Thibaut Eguether
    • , Maria A. Ermolaeva
    •  & Anne-Marie Tassin
  • Article |

    Ovarian tumour deubiquitinases are cysteine proteases that cleave polyubiquitin chains. Here the authors show that these enzymes are susceptible to reversible oxidation, and present crystal structures which reveal how the reversibly oxidized catalytic cysteine residue is stabilized by the active site.

    • Yogesh Kulathu
    • , Francisco J. Garcia
    •  & David Komander
  • Article |

    MITF is a transcription factor required for melanocyte development, which is activated in some melanomas. Zhao and colleagues show that USP13 removes ubiquitin from MITF, stabilizes MITF protein levels and enhances colony formation, suggesting that USP13 may be a therapeutic target in melanoma.

    • Xiansi Zhao
    • , Brian Fiske
    •  & David E Fisher
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Deubiquitinating enzymes are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cell viability. The authors reveal a role for the deubiquitinating enzyme, USP17, in the migration of cells in response to chemokines and show that USP17 is required for the relocalization of GTPases involved in cell motility.

    • Michelle de la Vega
    • , Alyson A. Kelvin
    •  & James A. Johnston