Climate sciences

Climate science is the study of relatively long-term weather conditions, typically spanning decades to centuries but extending to geological timescales. The discipline is primarily concerned with atmospheric properties – for example temperature and humidity – and patterns of circulation, as well as interactions with the ocean, the biosphere, and, over longer timescales, the geosphere.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Impacts from marine heatwaves can be devastating, but understanding their causes is largely based on case studies. Here the authors carry out a global assessment of literature and sea surface temperatures to identify important local processes, climate modes and teleconnections that drive marine heatwaves regionally.

    • Neil J. Holbrook
    • , Hillary A. Scannell
    • , Alexander Sen Gupta
    • , Jessica A. Benthuysen
    • , Ming Feng
    • , Eric C. J. Oliver
    • , Lisa V. Alexander
    • , Michael T. Burrows
    • , Markus G. Donat
    • , Alistair J. Hobday
    • , Pippa J. Moore
    • , Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick
    • , Dan A. Smale
    • , Sandra C. Straub
    •  & Thomas Wernberg
  • Reviews | | open

    Questions of causality are ubiquitous in Earth system sciences and beyond, yet correlation techniques still prevail. This Perspective provides an overview of causal inference methods, identifies promising applications and methodological challenges, and initiates a causality benchmark platform.

    • Jakob Runge
    • , Sebastian Bathiany
    • , Erik Bollt
    • , Gustau Camps-Valls
    • , Dim Coumou
    • , Ethan Deyle
    • , Clark Glymour
    • , Marlene Kretschmer
    • , Miguel D. Mahecha
    • , Jordi Muñoz-Marí
    • , Egbert H. van Nes
    • , Jonas Peters
    • , Rick Quax
    • , Markus Reichstein
    • , Marten Scheffer
    • , Bernhard Schölkopf
    • , Peter Spirtes
    • , George Sugihara
    • , Jie Sun
    • , Kun Zhang
    •  & Jakob Zscheischler
  • Research | | open

    The relative importance of crustal vs. anthropogenic dust deposition for iron cycling in the surface ocean is unclear. Based on analysis of iron isotope data from North Atlantic aerosol samples, the authors can reveal the relative importance of anthropogenic iron emissions and its impact on marine biogeochemistry.

    • Tim M. Conway
    • , Douglas S. Hamilton
    • , Rachel U. Shelley
    • , Ana M. Aguilar-Islas
    • , William M. Landing
    • , Natalie M. Mahowald
    •  & Seth G. John
  • Research | | open

    It is important to understand how physical changes in Polar regions influence social systems and populations. Here the authors develop an Arctic Climate Change Vulnerability Index focusing on aviation and marine infrastructure in future climate scenarios and show that transportation system vulnerability varies across the region depending on modeled hazards and transportation infrastructure types.

    • Nathan S. Debortoli
    • , Dylan G. Clark
    • , James D. Ford
    • , Jesse S. Sayles
    •  & Emilia P. Diaconescu
  • Research | | open

    Parametrizations of unresolved small-scale atmospheric waves are an important source of uncertainty in climate models. Scale invariance is used to estimate the forcing of these small-scale waves and it is shown to have a leading order effect on the mean flow.

    • Han-Li Liu

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