Cells

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) in infants has been studied for more than a century, however, the knowledge about its physiological features is limited. Here, the authors investigate the link between BAT thermogenesis and the regulation of temperature in human new-borns with non-invasive infrared thermography.

    • Adela Urisarri
    • , Ismael González-García
    •  & Miguel López
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Genetic association signals for fractures have been reported at the RSPO3 locus, but the causal gene and the underlying mechanism are unknown. Here, the authors show that RSPO3 exerts an important role for vertebral trabecular bone mass and bone strength in mice and fracture risk in humans.

    • Karin H. Nilsson
    • , Petra Henning
    •  & Claes Ohlsson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Uncoupling of mature oocytes from somatic granulosa cells is required for their fertilization. Here the authors show that activation of EGFR signalling in granulosa cells during ovulation triggers ERK-dependent loss of filopodia oocyte adhesion, and Arp2/3 mediated retraction of granulosa cell filopodia.

    • Laleh Abbassi
    • , Stephany El-Hayek
    •  & Hugh J. Clarke
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The innate immune system and inflammation modulate bone homeostasis through complex regulation of bone remodelling cells including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Here, the authors show that the type I interferon pathway and guanylate binding proteins functionally limit bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast functions.

    • David E. Place
    • , R. K. Subbarao Malireddi
    •  & Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with cartilage disruption, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, the authors show that expression of osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is associated with OA, that its genetic ablation or targeting with OSCAR-Fc fusion protein ameliorates OA in mice by decreasing chondrocyte apoptosis.

    • Doo Ri Park
    • , Jihee Kim
    •  & Soo Young Lee
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The origin of the heterogeneity of metabolic and inflammatory profiles exhibited by white adipocytes is little understood. Here, using scRNA-seq and computational methods, the authors show that differentiating preadipocytes exhibit gene expression differences and suggest underlying regulators.

    • Alfred K. Ramirez
    • , Simon N. Dankel
    •  & Simon Kasif
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) plays a central role in energy dissipation in brown adipose tissue. Here the authors show that FGF6 and FGF9 induce UCP1 expression in adipocytes and preadipocytes, via modulation of a transcriptional network that is dissociated from brown adipogenesis.

    • Farnaz Shamsi
    • , Ruidan Xue
    •  & Yu-Hua Tseng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) are important in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Here, the authors demonstrate that extracellular presence of the amino acid arginine is required for MGC formation and metabolism, suggesting a translational impact for strategies utilizing systemic arginine depletion in MGC-mediated diseases.

    • Julia S. Brunner
    • , Loan Vulliard
    •  & Gernot Schabbauer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fibrosis is a hallmark of several cardiac pathologies and its underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined. Here the authors show that macrophage hypoxia signaling following transverse aortic constriction in mice suppresses the activation of cardiac fibroblasts by secreting oncostatin M.

    • Hajime Abe
    • , Norihiko Takeda
    •  & Issei Komuro
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Following muscle damage, an inflammatory response is associated to activation of satellite cells, which drive muscle repair. Here, the authors show that upregulation of Zeb1 in macrophages and muscle fibres regulates inflammation, and also show a role for Zeb1 in maintenance of satellite cell quiescence.

    • Laura Siles
    • , Chiara Ninfali
    •  & Antonio Postigo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mammalian joints have poor regenerative capacity following amputation. Here, the authors show that in mice, stimulation of the amputation wound with BMP2 and BMP9 stimulates regeneration of a synovial joint that includes bone, cartilage and a synovial cavity.

    • Ling Yu
    • , Lindsay A. Dawson
    •  & Ken Muneoka
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Osteoarthritis is characterised by degeneration of joint cartilage. Here the authors show that the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L1 is upregulated in chondrocytes of humans and mice with osteoarthritis, and that its knockdown in mouse joints protects chondrocytes against apoptosis by modulating the function of heat shock proteins.

    • Young-Ok Son
    • , Hyo-Eun Kim
    •  & Jang-Soo Chun
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Zika virus (ZIKV) can persist for months in semen and sperm. Here, the authors show that germ cells, compared to other cell types in the reproductive tract, are most susceptible to ZIKV and produce high levels of progeny virus, which coincides with decreased expression of the interferon-stimulated gene Ifi44l.

    • Christopher L. Robinson
    • , Angie C. N. Chong
    •  & Shuibing Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Satellite cells can differentiate both into myocytes and brown adipocytes. Here, the authors show that the histone demethylase Lsd1 prevents adipogenic differentiation of satellite cells by repressing expression of Glis1, and that its ablation changes satellite cell fate towards brown adipocytes and delays muscle regeneration in mice.

    • Milica Tosic
    • , Anita Allen
    •  & Roland Schüle
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Communication between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is essential for bone homeostasis, but the mode of interaction is unclear. The authors use intravital two-photon microscopy in mice to show that these cells directly interact, regulating activity of osteoclasts, and that the interaction is modulated by parathyroid hormone administration.

    • Masayuki Furuya
    • , Junichi Kikuta
    •  & Masaru Ishii
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are a main class of metabolites derived from fermentation of dietary fibre in the intestine. Here, the authors show that dietary administration of SCFA is associated with inhibition of osteoclast differentiation, increased bone mass, and reduced pathological bone loss in mice.

    • Sébastien Lucas
    • , Yasunori Omata
    •  & Mario M. Zaiss
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Osteoclasts are involved in arthritis, and their differentiation depends on RANKL signaling. The author show that the ROS-scavenging protein DJ-1 negatively regulates RANKL signaling and that its ablation increases osteoclast numbers and exacerbates bone damage in mouse models of arthritis.

    • Hyuk Soon Kim
    • , Seung Taek Nam
    •  & Wahn Soo Choi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Exon skipping is a strategy for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but has variable efficacy. Here, the authors show that dystrophin restoration occurs preferentially in areas of myofiber regeneration, where antisense oligonucleotides are stored in macrophages and delivered to myoblasts and newly formed myotubes

    • James S. Novak
    • , Marshall W. Hogarth
    •  & Terence A. Partridge
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Satellite cells are crucial for growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Here the authors show that in response to muscle injury, macrophages secrete Adamts1, which induces satellite cell activation by modulating Notch1 signaling.

    • Hongqing Du
    • , Chung-Hsuan Shih
    •  & Brian J. Feldman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Adipose tissue contains macrophages that can influence both local and systemic metabolism via the secretion of cytokines. Here, Nawaz et al. report that M2-like macrophages, present in adipose tissue, create a microenvironment that inhibits proliferation of adipocyte progenitors due to the secretion of TGF-β1

    • Allah Nawaz
    • , Aminuddin Aminuddin
    •  & Kazuyuki Tobe
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bone loss is common in patients with diabetes, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are unclear. Here the authors show high succinate levels in mice with type 2 diabetes and that succinate can signal through succinate receptor 1 on osteoclasts to induce bone resorption.

    • Yuqi Guo
    • , Chengzhi Xie
    •  & Xin Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The peptide hormone hepcidin is released from hepatocytes and regulates iron homoeostasis. Here, the authors show that hepcidin also regulates the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in mouse models of liver fibrosis by reducing ferroportin expression and inhibiting the HSC response to TGFβ.

    • Chang Yeob Han
    • , Ja Hyun Koo
    •  & Sang Geon Kim
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Rela is a transcription factor shown to have seemingly contradictory roles in anabolism and catabolism of cartilage. Here the authors find that Rela prevents chondrocyte apoptosis and that homozygous knockout causes accelerated osteoarthritis in adults, whereas heterozygous knockout suppresses osteoarthritis by maintaining wild-type effects on apoptosis but inhibiting catabolic gene expression.

    • Hiroshi Kobayashi
    • , Song Ho Chang
    •  & Taku Saito
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Nanos family protein, NANOS2, is required for sexual differentiation of male germ cells in mice, however, the molecular RNA targets are unknown. Here, Kato et al. identify Dazl, a germ cell-specific gene, as being a target of NANOS, with stabilized DazlmRNA causing abnormal resumption of the cell cycle.

    • Yuzuru Kato
    • , Takeo Katsuki
    •  & Yumiko Saga
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bone marrow contains adipocytes, which have been thought to form one type of marrow adipose tissue (MAT). Here, the authors identify two MAT subpopulations in mice and humans—‘regulated’ and ‘constitute’ MAT—which show distinct phenotypic and cellular traits, and respond differently to cold exposure.

    • Erica L. Scheller
    • , Casey R. Doucette
    •  & Ormond A. MacDougald
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Insulin resistance in adipose tissue is a hallmark of obesity. Here, the authors generate inducible adipocyte-specific PTEN knockout mice to demonstrate that enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue is directly linked to improved systemic metabolic homeostasis, despite an increase in fat mass.

    • Thomas S. Morley
    • , Jonathan Y. Xia
    •  & Philipp E. Scherer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    What regulates mRNAs transcript localization in the germ granules in Drosophila is unclear. Here Trcek et al.identify that germ plasm proteins are homogeneously distributed in germ granules but once localized, individual mRNAs form homotypic clusters, contributing structure to the germ granules.

    • Tatjana Trcek
    • , Markus Grosch
    •  & Ruth Lehmann
  • Article
    | Open Access

    As oocytes age the frequency of chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I increases. Here the authors use live imaging of oocytes from naturally aged mice to provide direct evidence that bivalent separation into univalents is the primary defect responsible for age-related aneuploidy.

    • Yogo Sakakibara
    • , Shu Hashimoto
    •  & Tomoya S. Kitajima
  • Article |

    Unlike rodents, humans produce the protein Cidea in white adipose tissue, where it associates with lipid droplets. Here the authors generate mice that express human Cidea in fat tissues to show Cidea exerts beneficial metabolic effects by regulating the expansion of visceral fat in response to a high-fat diet.

    • Gustavo Abreu-Vieira
    • , Alexander W. Fischer
    •  & Natasa Petrovic
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The growth factor NELL-1 induces bone formation during development, but its role in osteoporosis is unknown. This study shows that NELL-1 binding to integrin ß1 induces Wnt/ß-catenin signalling in the bone and restores bone mineral density in osteoporotic mice and sheep, suggesting the therapeutic potential of NELL-1 for the treatment of bone loss.

    • Aaron W. James
    • , Jia Shen
    •  & Chia Soo
  • Article |

    Central to the lineage commitment of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells is the nuclear receptor PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis. Here the authors use a variety of structural approaches to rationally design PPARγ inverse agonist SR2595, and demonstrate its ability to promote osteogenesis.

    • David P. Marciano
    • , Dana S. Kuruvilla
    •  & Patrick R. Griffin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) regulates differentiation of brown fat. Here, Hoffman et al.show that a small molecule sGC stimulator increases brown fat activity and browning of white fat, thereby inducing energy expenditure, weight loss and partial protection from diet-induced obesity in mice.

    • Linda S. Hoffmann
    • , Jennifer Etzrodt
    •  & Alexander Pfeifer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mutations in the FTO gene have been linked to obesity. Here, Merkestein et al. provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that FTOdirectly regulates adipogenesis in mice at the stage of mitotic clonal expansion, likely by modulating the expression of the transcription factor RUNX1T1.

    • Myrte Merkestein
    • , Samantha Laber
    •  & Roger D. Cox
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The IgG sugar moiety modulates the binding of immune complexes to their Fcγ receptors resulting in pro- or anti-inflammatory response. This study shows that IgG sialylation also affects osteoclastogenesis and bone mass in mice and humans, identifying a new link between bone and the immune system.

    • Ulrike Harre
    • , Stefanie C. Lang
    •  & Georg Schett
  • Article |

    Haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) transform from aortic endothelium into migratory cells that move through stroma and enter circulation to colonize haematopoietic tissues. Here the authors show that HSPCs' passage is facilitated by primitive macrophages that secrete extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes.

    • Jana Travnickova
    • , Vanessa Tran Chau
    •  & Karima Kissa
  • Article |

    Small-molecule C21 inhibits Rac GTPase activation by Dock5, which decreases osteoclast activity in vitro. Using three mouse models where bone loss is caused by hyperactive osteoclasts, Vives et al. show that C21 treatment safely and efficiently prevents osteoporosis while preserving bone formation.

    • Virginie Vives
    • , Gaëlle Cres
    •  & Anne Blangy