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Cell proliferation is the process that results in an increase of the number of cells, and is defined by the balance between cell divisions and cell loss through cell death or differentiation. Cell proliferation is increased in tumours.
Ubiquitylation is a post-translational modification that modulates protein stability and regulates various cellular signalling pathways and cellular processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation and migration. Recent insights highlight its crucial role in development and how its deregulation is associated with several diseases.
In the Drosophila testis, ageing leads to loss of germline stem cells. Here, the authors show that, during ageing in Drosophila, miR-9a is upregulated in male germline stem cells and regulates their proliferation by targeting N-cadherin.
The pancreas arises from a small population of cells but how individual cells contribute to organ formation is unclear. Here, the authors deconstruct pancreas organogenesis into clonal units, showing that single progenitors give rise to heterogeneous multi-lineage and endocrinogenic single-lineage clones.
The lung undergoes a striking repair process in response to severe injuries such as influenza infection. A study now demonstrates that associated stem/progenitor cells are heterogeneous in nature and comprise subpopulations dominated by hypoxia/Notch or Wnt signalling. Modulation of this heterogeneity in favour of functional repair may have therapeutic value.
Vascular malformations result from improper blood vessel responses to molecular and mechanical signals. Two studies now show that endothelial cell migration and cell shape changes are perturbed in mutants lacking the TGFβ/BMP co-receptor endoglin, leading to arteriovenous shunts. Endoglin coordinates endothelial cell responses to ligand–receptor signalling and flow-mediated mechanical cues.
The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance.