Cell division

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cellular membranes have distinct lipid compositions despite intermixing, and it is unclear why plasma membrane lipids do not accumulate on endosomes. Here, the authors use the C. elegans embryo to identify lipid transfer proteins and phosphatases that are critical for endosomal lipid homeostasis.

    • Darshini Jeyasimman
    • , Bilge Ercan
    •  & Yasunori Saheki
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The connection between cell cycle, metabolic state and mitochondrial activity is unclear. Here, the authors show that p107 represses mitochondrial transcription and ATP output in response to glycolytic byproducts, causing metabolic control of the cell cycle rate in myogenic progenitors.

    • Debasmita Bhattacharya
    • , Vicky Shah
    •  & Anthony Scimè
  • Article
    | Open Access

    During meiosis, chromosomes undergo dramatic changes in morphology and intranuclear positioning. Here the authors mapped the 3D genome architecture throughout mouse spermatogenesis by Hi-C of sorted cells to reveal the contributions of transcriptional activity and mechanical force in modulating homolog alignment and recombination.

    • Wu Zuo
    • , Guangming Chen
    •  & Qian Bian
  • Article
    | Open Access

    RAD51 is a well known player of DNA repair and homologous recombination. Here the authors reveal a function for RAD51 in protecting under-replicated DNA in mitotic human cells, promoting mitotic DNA synthesis (MiDAS) and successful chromosome segregation.

    • Isabel E. Wassing
    • , Emily Graham
    •  & Fumiko Esashi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Higher-order chromatin structure is temporarily disrupted during mitosis. Here the authors show that loss of the architectural factor CTCF results in failure to form structural loops and leads to inappropriate cis-regulatory contacts and alterations of compartmental interactions after mitosis. Furthermore, they show global 3D architecture is set up without transcription, but that transcription contributes to proper gene domain formation.

    • Haoyue Zhang
    • , Jessica Lam
    •  & Gerd A. Blobel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    ParA is an ATPase involved in the segregation of newly replicated DNA in bacteria. Here, structures of a ParA filament bound to DNA and of ParA in various nucleotide states offer insight into its conformational changes upon DNA binding and filament assembly, including the basis for ParA’s cooperative binding to DNA.

    • Alexandra V. Parker
    • , Daniel Mann
    •  & Julien R. C. Bergeron
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2-RAD51 (BRCA1-P) complex is well known to play a fundamental role in DNA repair, but how the complex recruitment is regulated is still a matter of interest. Here the authors reveal mechanistic insights into RNF168 activity being responsible for PALB2 recruitment, through BARD1-BRCA1 during homologous recombination repair.

    • John J. Krais
    • , Yifan Wang
    •  & Neil Johnson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cytokinetic ring constriction during cell division requires actin but curiously is independent of myosin in many organisms. Here, the authors show that anillin, a protein enriched in the contractile ring, is a non-motor actin crosslinker that generates contractile force in lieu of a molecular motor.

    • Ondřej Kučera
    • , Valerie Siahaan
    •  & Zdenek Lansky
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) often have mutations in cohesin and its regulators; however, the molecular mechanism driving CdLS phenotypes is not well established. Here the authors reveal system skeletal organization genes are downregulated and show that cohesin and its loader Nipbl have altered and decreased genome-wide localization.

    • Patricia Garcia
    • , Rita Fernandez-Hernandez
    •  & Ethel Queralt
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    A key feature of living cells is the cell cycle. In this Perspective, the authors explore attempts to recreate this process and what is still required for an integrated synthetic cell cycle.

    • Lorenzo Olivi
    • , Mareike Berger
    •  & John van der Oost
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are reported to block cancer cell proliferation, but the mode of action is unclear. Here the authors show that glucocorticoid receptor activation induces cancer cell dormancy in lung cancer by regulating CDKN1C expression through a distal enhancer, and these dormant cells are addicted to IGF-1R signalling pathway.

    • Stefan Prekovic
    • , Karianne Schuurman
    •  & Wilbert Zwart
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Single-stranded DNA during DNA replication and repair in S/G2 needs protection by replication protein A (RPA). Here the authors reveal that RPA also shields inherited single-stranded DNA in G1, representing replication remnants from the previous cell cycle, to allow for post-mitotic DNA synthesis.

    • Aleksandra Lezaja
    • , Andreas Panagopoulos
    •  & Matthias Altmeyer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Centriole biogenesis begins with self-assembly of SAS-6 proteins into 9-fold symmetrical ring polymers, which then stack into a cartwheel that scaffolds organelle formation. Here, the authors develop monobodies against Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SAS-6 and use X-ray crystallography, atomic force microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy to reveal insights into ring assembly and stacking.

    • Georgios N. Hatzopoulos
    • , Tim Kükenshöner
    •  & Pierre Gönczy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Progression of the cell division cycle requires feedback loops including those of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation; however the precise regulation of phosphorylation kinetics of Arpp19, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, is unclear. Here, the authors report that feedback between phosphorylation states of Ser67 and Ser109 of Arpp19 coordinates Arpp19-dependent inhibition of PP2A-B55 and Cyclin B activation during cell cycle progression.

    • Jean Claude Labbé
    • , Suzanne Vigneron
    •  & Thierry Lorca
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In most bacteria, cell division depends on tubulin homolog FtsZ and other proteins, such as SepF. Cell division in many archaea also depends on FtsZ. Here, Nußbaum et al. show that a SepF homolog plays important roles in cell division in Haloferax volcanii, a halophilic archaeon that has two FtsZ homologs.

    • Phillip Nußbaum
    • , Maren Gerstner
    •  & Sonja-Verena Albers
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Clinical CDK4/6 inhibitors are used and tested to treat a variety of cancer types. Here, the authors identify that these drugs work in two ways, a known catalytic role to inhibit kinase activity and a newly discovered noncatalytic role to displace CDK inhibitor p21 from CDK4 but not CDK6 complexes.

    • Lindsey R. Pack
    • , Leighton H. Daigh
    •  & Tobias Meyer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Most archaea divide by binary fission using an FtsZ-based system that is poorly understood. Here, the authors combine structural, cellular, and evolutionary analyses to show that the SepF protein acts as the FtsZ anchor in the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii.

    • Nika Pende
    • , Adrià Sogues
    •  & Simonetta Gribaldo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    How the developing skin epidermis is transformed from a simple single-layered epithelium to a complex and stratified barrier is still an open question. Here, the authors provide a model based on high proliferation and delamination of the keratinocyte progenitors that support the stratification process.

    • Mareike Damen
    • , Lisa Wirtz
    •  & Hisham Bazzi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    During cell division, the actin cytoskeletal network at both the equatorial contractile ring and cell cortex are known to play a role, but the regulation of γ-actin during cytokinesis is less well understood. Here, the authors show that recruitment of β-actin to the contractile ring and loss of γ-actin from the cell poles is required for completion of cell division.

    • Anan Chen
    • , Luisa Ulloa Severino
    •  & Andrew Wilde
  • Article
    | Open Access

    During pre-Replication Complex, eukaryotic cells load two MCMs into a head-to-head Double Hexamer around duplex DNA (DH). Here the authors preRC assembly assay with purified proteins to reveal insights into S. cerevisiae’s first steps that lead to the DH formation.

    • Marina Guerrero-Puigdevall
    • , Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes
    •  & Jordi Frigola
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It is unclear how epithelial tissues adjust cell division rates to cell density. Here, the authors show that Plexin-B1 and Plexin-B2 sense mechanical compression (crowding) of epidermal stem cells, resulting in inactivation of YAP and suppression of cell proliferation.

    • Chen Jiang
    • , Ahsan Javed
    •  & Thomas Worzfeld
  • Article
    | Open Access

    During differentiation, chromosome conformation is remodelled to support lineage-specific transcriptional programs. Here, the authors characterise chromosome conformational changes in B lymphocytes as they differentiate into plasma cells, and provide evidence that chromosome reconfiguration occurs prior to DNA replication and mitosis and guides gene expression that controls differentiation.

    • Wing Fuk Chan
    • , Hannah D. Coughlan
    •  & Rhys S. Allan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Kinesin motor proteins are critical for maintaining mitotic spindle integrity, which is important for chromosome stability. Here, the authors show that the kinesin motor protein, KIF18A, permits the proliferation of chromosomally unstable cells and knockdown of KIF18A induces centrosome fragmentation.

    • Carolyn Marquis
    • , Cindy L. Fonseca
    •  & Jason Stumpff
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Establishing protein gradients for asymmetric cell division is fundamental across all kingdoms of life. Here the authors construct asymmetric cell division in E. coli by localizing the expression of RNA polymerase using an orthogonal unipolar scaffold, and restricting diffusion of its products.

    • Da-Wei Lin
    • , Yang Liu
    •  & Hsiao-Chun Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The kinetochore is a multi-complex structure that helps attach chromosomes to spindle microtubules, ensuring accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. Kinetochores are thought to be evolutionarily conserved, but which components are conserved is unclear. Here, the authors report that some members of the fungal phylum of Basidomycota lack many conventional kinetochore linker proteins. Instead, they possess a human Ki67-like protein that bridges the outer part of the kinetochore to centromere DNA, which may compensate for the loss of a conventional linker.

    • Shreyas Sridhar
    • , Tetsuya Hori
    •  & Kaustuv Sanyal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Depending on the cell cycle stage, cells can repair their genome via different pathways. Here the authors reveal mechanistic insights into repair of double strand breaks induced during G1 in an error-prone manner by Pol θ-dependent and PARP1-independent alt NHEJ during the SG2/M phases of the cell cycle

    • Wei Yu
    • , Chloé Lescale
    •  & Ludovic Deriano
  • Article
    | Open Access

    ATP drives most cellular processes, although ATP production and consumption levels during mitosis remain unreported. Here, the authors combine metabolic measurements and modeling to quantify ATP levels and synthesis dynamics, revealing that ATP synthesis and consumption are lowered during mitosis.

    • Joon Ho Kang
    • , Georgios Katsikis
    •  & Teemu P. Miettinen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Herpesviruses code for conserved protein kinases (CHPKs) that exert several regulatory functions by interacting with cellular factors. Here, the authors use affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP–MS) to identify differential interaction partners of CHPKs from seven different human herpesviruses, finding Cyclin A and associated factors as a specific signature of β-herpesvirus kinases.

    • Boris Bogdanow
    • , Max Schmidt
    •  & Lüder Wiebusch
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A unique cell envelope contributes to the antibiotic resistance of the pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, Geisinger et al. identify A. baumannii mutants with altered antibiotic susceptibility, infer the function of uncharacterized proteins involved in envelope synthesis, and predict antibiotic synergies.

    • Edward Geisinger
    • , Nadav J. Mortman
    •  & Ralph R. Isberg
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Meiosis-specific cohesins and the synaptonemal complex are essential for meiotic chromosome structure and function. Here the authors show that continued surveillance of these chromosome structures controls meiotic progression by regulating CHK-2, a master regulator of pairing and recombination.

    • Maikel Castellano-Pozo
    • , Sarai Pacheco
    •  & Enrique Martinez-Perez
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bacteria can form wall-deficient variants, or L-forms, that divide by a simple mechanism that does not require the FtsZ-based cell division machinery. Here, Wu et al. study L-forms in microfluidic systems to show the importance of geometric effects for cell growth, chromosome segregation and cell division.

    • Ling Juan Wu
    • , Seoungjun Lee
    •  & Jeff Errington
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Epigenetic information is transmitted from mother to daughter cells through mitosis. Here, the authors isolate native chromosomes from metaphase-arrested cells and perform LC-MS/MS to identify chromosome-bound proteins in pluripotent stem cells during mitosis and reveal that PRC2, DNA methylation and Mecp2 are required to maintain chromosome compaction.

    • Dounia Djeghloul
    • , Bhavik Patel
    •  & Amanda G. Fisher
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Staphylococcus aureus is thought to divide in three alternating orthogonal planes over three consecutive divisions. Here the authors dispel this idea, showing that one out of the multiple planes perpendicular to the septum can be used in daughter cells irrespective of its orientation in relation to the penultimate division plane.

    • Bruno M. Saraiva
    • , Moritz Sorg
    •  & Mariana G. Pinho
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Aneuploidy, abnormal chromosome number, is a major cause of early pregnancy loss. Here the authors determine the extent of post-implantation development of human embryos with common aneuploidies in culture, finding developmental arrest of monosomy 21 embryos, and trophoblast hypo-proliferation in trisomy 16 embryos.

    • Marta N. Shahbazi
    • , Tianren Wang
    •  & Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Microtubules are dynamic tubulin polymers which elongate by addition of bent guanosine triphosphate tubulin to the tips of curving protofilaments. Here authors use Brownian dynamics modeling and electron cryotomography to show that the lateral activation energy barrier in tubulin-tubulin interactions is a key parameter for this process, controlling the development of high pulling forces.

    • Nikita B. Gudimchuk
    • , Evgeni V. Ulyanov
    •  & J. Richard McIntosh