Cancer screening

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Computer-assisted diagnosis is key for scaling up cervical cancer screening, but current algorithms perform poorly on whole slide image analysis and generalization. Here, the authors present a WSI classification and top lesion cell recommendation system using deep learning, and achieve comparable results with cytologists.

    • Shenghua Cheng
    • , Sibo Liu
    •  & Xiuli Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Technical advancements have significantly improved early diagnosis of cervical cancer, but accurate diagnosis is still difficult due to various practical factors. Here, the authors develop an artificial intelligence assistive diagnostic solution to improve cervical liquid-based thin-layer cell smear diagnosis according to clinical TBS criteria in a large multicenter study.

    • Xiaohui Zhu
    • , Xiaoming Li
    •  & Yanqing Ding
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Several genomic features have been found for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) but targeted clinical genetic testing fails to predict prognosis. Here, the authors generate an AML prognostic score from RNA-seq data of patients, which successfully stratifies AML patients and which may provide guidance for therapeutic strategies.

    • T. Roderick Docking
    • , Jeremy D. K. Parker
    •  & Aly Karsan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    To date, patients still succumb to cancer, due to tumors not responding to therapy or ultimately acquiring resistance. Here the authors show that by exploiting patient derived organoids and a treatment-naïve patient derived xenograft, patient therapy can be personalized.

    • Sofia Karkampouna
    • , Federico La Manna
    •  & Marianna Kruithof-de Julio
  • Matters Arising
    | Open Access

    • Jingsong Zhang
    • , Jessica J. Cunningham
    •  & Robert A. Gatenby
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Predicting who will develop skin cancer is difficult. Here, the authors from 23andMe developed a polygenic risk score for skin cancer based on a questionnaire and genetic data from more than 210,000 individuals and suggest that the score could be used in early screening programmes.

    • Pierre Fontanillas
    • , Babak Alipanahi
    •  & Adam Auton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Identifying leukaemia stem cells (LSC) and defining how they drive tumourigenesis might aid in the treatment of disease. Here, the authors show that a reporter Musashi 2 can serve as a platform to effectively identify leukemic stem cells and it is used to define Syndecan-1 as a dependency for these aggressive, therapy resistant cells.

    • Kyle Spinler
    • , Jeevisha Bajaj
    •  & Tannishtha Reya
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in circulation at relatively early stages of disease, providing potential opportunities for early cancer diagnosis. Here, the authors report a covalent chemistry-based hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific EV purification system for early detection of HCC by performing digital scoring on the purified EVs.

    • Na Sun
    • , Yi-Te Lee
    •  & Yazhen Zhu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Defects in homologous recombination (HR) are found in some triple negative breast cancers, suggesting they may be sensitive to PARP inhibitors. In this phase II clinical trial of the PARP inhibitor rucaparib, changes in Ki67 levels did not correlate with markers of HR deficiency but HR deficiency was detected in 69% of tumours, indicating that PARP inhibitors may be a useful treatment.

    • Neha Chopra
    • , Holly Tovey
    •  & Nicholas C. Turner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Breast cancer is frequently diagnosed using ultrasound. Here, the authors show that, in addition to ultrasound, shear wave elastography can be used to diagnose breast cancer and, in conjunction with deep learning and radiomics, can predict whether the disease has spread to axillary lymph nodes.

    • Xueyi Zheng
    • , Zhao Yao
    •  & Jianhua Zhou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with different malignant diseases and circulating EBV DNA is a biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, the authors report that plasma EBV DNA methylation profiles show disease-associated patterns and can help to distinguish NPC and non-NPC subjects.

    • W. K. Jacky Lam
    • , Peiyong Jiang
    •  & Y. M. Dennis Lo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that control genetic programs. Here, the authors found that the methylation landscape influences the physicochemical properties of DNA and that it can serve as a universal cancer biomarker, and developed a one-step assay for the detection of cancer DNA.

    • Abu Ali Ibn Sina
    • , Laura G. Carrascosa
    •  & Matt Trau
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Screening methods for early detection of ovarian cancer is technically difficult. Here, the authors investigated circulating microRNA in human blood serum and developed a model using 10 microRNAs to discern between ovarian cancer and being ovarian tumors, solid tumors, and non-cancer patients.

    • Akira Yokoi
    • , Juntaro Matsuzaki
    •  & Takahiro Ochiya
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Several challenges are involved in direct targeting of mutant p53, while targeting altered fitness of cells with loss of wild type p53 is an alternative approach. Here they identify niclosamide to be selectively toxic to p53 deficient cells through a previously unknown mitochondrial uncoupling mechanism.

    • R. Kumar
    • , L. Coronel
    •  & C. F. Cheok
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) allows for non-invasive disease monitoring and characterization. Here the authors describe an alternative CTC isolation method based on the ability of the malaria rVAR2 protein to specifically bind oncofetal chondroitin sulfate, which is expressed by all cancer cells

    • Mette Ø. Agerbæk
    • , Sara R. Bang-Christensen
    •  & Ali Salanti
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Detecting metastatic cells in tumor/lymph node samples of breast cancer patients is extremely important for diagnosis. Here the authors develop a microelectronic biochip that detect the presence of invasive/metastatic cells in unprocessed biopsies and performs better than the current gold standards.

    • Mohammad Saeid Nikshoar
    • , Mohammad Ali Khayamian
    •  & Mohammad Abdolahad
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The extracellular matrix is under variable strain, but we lack the tools to detect differences in strain. Here the authors develop a probe based on a bacterial fibronectin-binding peptide that binds to relaxed fibronectin fibrils and detects relaxed matrix in cell culture, tissue slices and in vivo.

    • Simon Arnoldini
    • , Alessandra Moscaroli
    •  & Viola Vogel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The current FDA-approved whole blood stabilization method for circulating tumor cell (CTC) isolation suffers from RNA degradation. Here the authors combine hypothermic preservation and antiplatelet strategies to stabilize whole blood up to 72 h without compromising CTC yield and RNA integrity.

    • Keith H. K. Wong
    • , Shannon N. Tessier
    •  & Mehmet Toner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are rare cells found in the blood of certain cancer patients. Here, the authors develop a cytometry tool that appends a microfluidic western blot to a CTC isolation workflow and apply it to profile a panel of proteins in single CTCs isolated from ER+ breast cancer patients.

    • Elly Sinkala
    • , Elodie Sollier-Christen
    •  & Amy E. Herr
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Identifying therapeutic targets in rare cancers is challenging due to the lack of relevant pre-clinical models. Here, the authors generate a cancer cell line from a paediatric patient with a rare undifferentiated sarcoma and through functional genomics and chemical screens identified CDK4 and XPO1 as potential therapeutic targets in this cancer.

    • Andrew L. Hong
    • , Yuen-Yi Tseng
    •  & Jesse S. Boehm