Biophysics

  • Article | | open

    The search for peroxidase-like as well as other enzyme-like nanozymes mainly relies on trial-and-error strategies, due to the lack of predictive descriptors. Here, the authors fill this gap by investigating the occupancy of eg orbitals as a possible descriptor for the peroxidase-like activity of transition metal oxide nanozymes

    • Xiaoyu Wang
    • , Xuejiao J. Gao
    • , Li Qin
    • , Changda Wang
    • , Li Song
    • , Yong-Ning Zhou
    • , Guoyin Zhu
    • , Wen Cao
    • , Shichao Lin
    • , Liqi Zhou
    • , Kang Wang
    • , Huigang Zhang
    • , Zhong Jin
    • , Peng Wang
    • , Xingfa Gao
    •  & Hui Wei
  • Article | | open

    Cryo-electron microscopy can determine the structure but not the nanomechanics of biological matter. Here the authors combine force spectroscopy in cryogenic conditions with computer simulations to characterize the properties of DNA simultaneously down to the sub-nm level.

    • Rémy Pawlak
    • , J. G. Vilhena
    • , Antoine Hinaut
    • , Tobias Meier
    • , Thilo Glatzel
    • , Alexis Baratoff
    • , Enrico Gnecco
    • , Rubén Pérez
    •  & Ernst Meyer
  • Article | | open

    Somatic mutations within antibody framework regions (FWR) can alter structural flexibility, but their role in maturation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is unclear. Here the authors show how FWR mutations impact interdomain conformational flexibility and paratope plasticity during bnAb development.

    • Rory Henderson
    • , Brian E. Watts
    • , Hieu N. Ergin
    • , Kara Anasti
    • , Robert Parks
    • , Shi-Mao Xia
    • , Ashley Trama
    • , Hua-Xin Liao
    • , Kevin O. Saunders
    • , Mattia Bonsignori
    • , Kevin Wiehe
    • , Barton F. Haynes
    •  & S. Munir Alam
  • Article | | open

    BMP ligands act as retrograde signalling molecules to regulate presynaptic development, and regulation of BMP receptors by endocytosis may be an important component of this signalling pathway. Here, the authors show that Abi-mediated macropinocytosis of BMP receptors in Drosophila larva and contributes to neuromuscular development.

    • Najin Kim
    • , Sungdae Kim
    • , Minyeop Nahm
    • , Danielle Kopke
    • , Joohyung Kim
    • , Eunsang Cho
    • , Min-Jung Lee
    • , Mihye Lee
    • , Seung Hyun Kim
    • , Kendal Broadie
    •  & Seungbok Lee
  • Article | | open

    Some retroviruses, including HIV, insert their DNA in a non-random manner in the host genome through a poorly understood selection mechanism. Here the authors develop a biophysical model of retroviral integration, identifying previously unnoticed universal principles that regulate this phenomenon.

    • D. Michieletto
    • , M. Lusic
    • , D. Marenduzzo
    •  & E. Orlandini
  • Article | | open

    Mammalian transcription factors (TFs) differ broadly in their DNA binding properties. Here authors quantify mitotic chromosome binding (MCB) of 501 TFs and suggest that MCB can be used as a proxy for non-specific TF-DNA interactions that regulate TF search for specific genomic sites.

    • Mahé Raccaud
    • , Elias T. Friman
    • , Andrea B. Alber
    • , Harsha Agarwal
    • , Cédric Deluz
    • , Timo Kuhn
    • , J. Christof M. Gebhardt
    •  & David M. Suter
  • Article | | open

    IRSp53 is a key regulator of filopodia formation and cell migration. Here, the authors elucidate a mechanism of phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of IRSp53 by 14-3-3, which impedes the interactions of IRSp53 with membranes and downstream cytoskeletal effectors.

    • David J. Kast
    •  & Roberto Dominguez
  • Article | | open

    Studying the condensation of proteins into membraneless organelles in live cells is highly challenging. Here the authors develop a fluorescence lifetime imaging approach to monitor the condensation of proteins in nuclear organelles and report coordinated and cyclic changes in several nuclear organelles.

    • Artem Pliss
    • , Svitlana M. Levchenko
    • , Lixin Liu
    • , Xiao Peng
    • , Tymish Y. Ohulchanskyy
    • , Indrajit Roy
    • , Andrey N. Kuzmin
    • , Junle Qu
    •  & Paras N. Prasad
  • Article | | open

    Septins are cytoskeletal filaments that localize at constriction sites and impact membrane remodeling. Here authors examine the curvature sensitivity of septins using bilayers on wavy patterns and derive a theoretical model that quantitatively describe the results.

    • Alexandre Beber
    • , Cyntia Taveneau
    • , Manuela Nania
    • , Feng-Ching Tsai
    • , Aurelie Di Cicco
    • , Patricia Bassereau
    • , Daniel Lévy
    • , João T. Cabral
    • , Hervé Isambert
    • , Stéphanie Mangenot
    •  & Aurélie Bertin
  • Article | | open

    Real-time deformability cytometry (RT-DC) is used for mechanical cell phenotyping but is limited to a single snapshot per cell and can only measure elastic modulus. Here the authors introduce dynamic RT-DC which can measure elasticity and viscosity in single cells by following dynamic cell shape changes.

    • Bob Fregin
    • , Fabian Czerwinski
    • , Doreen Biedenweg
    • , Salvatore Girardo
    • , Stefan Gross
    • , Konstanze Aurich
    •  & Oliver Otto
  • Article | | open

    The interactions of lignin with polysaccharides in plant secondary cell walls are not well understood. Here the authors employ solid-state NMR measurements to analyse intact stems of maize, Arabidopsis, switchgrass and rice and observe that lignin self-aggregates and forms highly hydrophobic microdomains that make extensive surface contacts to xylan.

    • Xue Kang
    • , Alex Kirui
    • , Malitha C. Dickwella Widanage
    • , Frederic Mentink-Vigier
    • , Daniel J. Cosgrove
    •  & Tuo Wang
  • Article | | open

    Analysis of single-molecule binding assays still requires substantial manual user intervention. Here, the authors present a pipeline for rapid, automated analysis of co-localization single-molecule spectroscopy images, with a modular user interface that can be adjusted to a range of experimental conditions.

    • Carlas S. Smith
    • , Karina Jouravleva
    • , Maximiliaan Huisman
    • , Samson M. Jolly
    • , Phillip D. Zamore
    •  & David Grunwald
  • Article | | open

    Allostery is a fundamental principle of protein regulation that remains challenging to engineer. Here authors screen human Inward Rectifier K + Channel Kir2.1 for permissibility to domain insertions and propose that differential permissibility is a metric of latent allosteric capacity in Kir2.1.

    • Willow Coyote-Maestas
    • , Yungui He
    • , Chad L. Myers
    •  & Daniel Schmidt
  • Article | | open

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are critical regulators of cellular processes by removing ubiquitin from specific targets. Here global kinetic modelling reveals the mechanism by which the low intrinsic activity of USP7 is substantially enhanced on a specific physiological target.

    • Robbert Q. Kim
    • , Paul P. Geurink
    • , Monique P. C. Mulder
    • , Alexander Fish
    • , Reggy Ekkebus
    • , Farid El Oualid
    • , Willem J. van Dijk
    • , Duco van Dalen
    • , Huib Ovaa
    • , Hugo van Ingen
    •  & Titia K. Sixma
  • Article | | open

    Dynein plays roles in vesicular, organelle, chromosomal and nuclear transport but so far it is unclear how dynein activity in cells is regulated. Here authors study several dynein cofactors and their role in force adaptation of dynein during lipid droplet, lysosomal, and mitochondrial transport.

    • Dail E. Chapman
    • , Babu J. N. Reddy
    • , Bunchhin Huy
    • , Matthew J. Bovyn
    • , Stephen John S. Cruz
    • , Zahraa M. Al-Shammari
    • , Han Han
    • , Wenqi Wang
    • , Deanna S. Smith
    •  & Steven P. Gross
  • Article | | open

    Transient oligomeric species of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42) have been identified as key pathogenic agents in Alzheimer’s disease. Here the authors find that the aminosterol trodusquemine enhances Aβ42 aggregation and suppresses Aβ42-induced toxicity by displacing oligomers from cell membranes.

    • Ryan Limbocker
    • , Sean Chia
    • , Francesco S. Ruggeri
    • , Michele Perni
    • , Roberta Cascella
    • , Gabriella T. Heller
    • , Georg Meisl
    • , Benedetta Mannini
    • , Johnny Habchi
    • , Thomas C. T. Michaels
    • , Pavan K. Challa
    • , Minkoo Ahn
    • , Samuel T. Casford
    • , Nilumi Fernando
    • , Catherine K. Xu
    • , Nina D. Kloss
    • , Samuel I. A. Cohen
    • , Janet R. Kumita
    • , Cristina Cecchi
    • , Michael Zasloff
    • , Sara Linse
    • , Tuomas P. J. Knowles
    • , Fabrizio Chiti
    • , Michele Vendruscolo
    •  & Christopher M. Dobson
  • Article | | open

    Studying quantum heat machines would extend our fundamental understanding of thermodynamics. Here, the authors report on absorption refrigeration within three normal modes of motion of a three-ion chain, studying performances using either thermal or squeezed states, also in the single-shot regime.

    • Gleb Maslennikov
    • , Shiqian Ding
    • , Roland Hablützel
    • , Jaren Gan
    • , Alexandre Roulet
    • , Stefan Nimmrichter
    • , Jibo Dai
    • , Valerio Scarani
    •  & Dzmitry Matsukevich
  • Article | | open

    The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel TMEM16A/Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) mediates secretion and intestinal motility in gastrointestinal epithelia and smooth muscle cells. Here, the authors show a role for ANO1 in zebrafish skeletal muscle which is activated by SR Ca2+ release during excitation-contraction coupling.

    • Anamika Dayal
    • , Shu Fun J. Ng
    •  & Manfred Grabner
  • Article | | open

    The Membrane-Proximal External Region (MPER) of the HIV Env gp41 subunit is a target for broadly neutralizing antibodies. Here, the authors apply super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy on single virions and provide insights into how the MPER epitope is recognized.

    • Pablo Carravilla
    • , Jakub Chojnacki
    • , Edurne Rujas
    • , Sara Insausti
    • , Eneko Largo
    • , Dominic Waithe
    • , Beatriz Apellaniz
    • , Taylor Sicard
    • , Jean-Philippe Julien
    • , Christian Eggeling
    •  & José L. Nieva
  • Article | | open

    Fluids may avoid crystallization via an underlying mechanism that remains hotly debated. Teich et al. show that hard polyhedral particles form glass because of the competition of local structural motifs, each of which is prevalent in crystals self-assembled from particles of closely related shapes.

    • Erin G. Teich
    • , Greg van Anders
    •  & Sharon C. Glotzer
  • Article | | open

    Microscopic transition mechanisms impact many biophysical systems. In this work, the authors explore transition path times between thermodynamic states experimentally, and show symmetry breaking in the transition times under an external force that drives the system out of equilibrium.

    • J. Gladrow
    • , M. Ribezzi-Crivellari
    • , F. Ritort
    •  & U. F. Keyser
  • Article | | open

    Ultrathin nanopore membranes have the potential for detecting topological variation in DNA. Here the authors use barcoded DNA to characterise the translocation profiles of DNA with single strand gaps.

    • Ke Liu
    • , Chao Pan
    • , Alexandre Kuhn
    • , Adrian Pascal Nievergelt
    • , Georg E. Fantner
    • , Olgica Milenkovic
    •  & Aleksandra Radenovic
  • Article | | open

    Replication Protein A (RPA) coats single stranded DNA (ssDNA) generated during DNA recombination, replication and repair. Here the authors present a structural model suggesting how RPA’s DNA-binding domains promote cooperative assembly of multiple RPAs on long ssDNA.

    • Luke A. Yates
    • , Ricardo J. Aramayo
    • , Nilisha Pokhrel
    • , Colleen C. Caldwell
    • , Joshua A. Kaplan
    • , Rajika L. Perera
    • , Maria Spies
    • , Edwin Antony
    •  & Xiaodong Zhang
  • Article | | open

    Packaging of viral DNA depends on strong molecular motors that are powered by ATP hydrolysis. Here, the authors develop a single-molecule assay to monitor how nucleotide binding regulates motor-DNA interactions and reveal a generic mechanism that prevents exit of the whole DNA from the viral capsid during packaging.

    • Mariam Ordyan
    • , Istiaq Alam
    • , Marthandan Mahalingam
    • , Venigalla B. Rao
    •  & Douglas E. Smith
  • Article | | open

    The bacterial complex QrcABCD plays a key role in the bioenergetics of sulfate respiration. Here, Duarte et al. show that this complex is electrogenic, with protons and electrons required for quinone reduction being extracted from opposite sides of the membrane.

    • Américo G. Duarte
    • , Teresa Catarino
    • , Gaye F. White
    • , Diana Lousa
    • , Sinje Neukirchen
    • , Cláudio M. Soares
    • , Filipa L. Sousa
    • , Thomas A. Clarke
    •  & Inês A. C. Pereira
  • Article | | open

    How DNA repair proteins locate their target sites on DNA is still a matter of debate. Here the authors characterize by single-molecule fluorescence imaging the modes of scanning adopted by bacterial endonuclease V as it moves along linear DNA tracks.

    • Arash Ahmadi
    • , Ida Rosnes
    • , Pernille Blicher
    • , Robin Diekmann
    • , Mark Schüttpelz
    • , Kyrre Glette
    • , Jim Tørresen
    • , Magnar Bjørås
    • , Bjørn Dalhus
    •  & Alexander D. Rowe
  • Article | | open

    RIG-I is a critical receptor in the induction of innate immune responses, but mutations in RIG-I can be associated with hyperactive signalling and autoimmune disease. Here Zheng et al. apply HDX-MS approaches to reveal dysregulated checkpoints that result in recognition of self-derived RNA during RIG-I mediated autoimmunity.

    • Jie Zheng
    • , Chen Wang
    • , Mi Ra Chang
    • , Swapnil C. Devarkar
    • , Brandon Schweibenz
    • , Gogce C. Crynen
    • , Ruben D. Garcia-Ordonez
    • , Bruce D. Pascal
    • , Scott J. Novick
    • , Smita S. Patel
    • , Joseph Marcotrigiano
    •  & Patrick R. Griffin
  • Article | | open

    It is unclear why many bacteria have more than one gene encoding flagellin, the protein that makes up flagella. Here, the authors show that a particular arrangement of two different flagellins in the polar flagellum of Shewanella putrefaciens facilitates screw-like motility through obstructed environments.

    • Marco J. Kühn
    • , Felix K. Schmidt
    • , Nicola E. Farthing
    • , Florian M. Rossmann
    • , Bina Helm
    • , Laurence G. Wilson
    • , Bruno Eckhardt
    •  & Kai M. Thormann
  • Article | | open

    The translocation domain (HN) of Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) mediates the delivery of the BoNT light chain (LC) into neuronal cytosol. Here the authors provide insights into HN membrane insertion by determining the crystal structure of BoNT/A1 HN at acidic pH, which reveals a molecular switch in HN, where buried α-helices are transformed into surface-exposed hydrophobic β-hairpins.

    • Kwok-ho Lam
    • , Zhuojun Guo
    • , Nadja Krez
    • , Tsutomu Matsui
    • , Kay Perry
    • , Jasmin Weisemann
    • , Andreas Rummel
    • , Mark E. Bowen
    •  & Rongsheng Jin
  • Article | | open

    The promoter variant rs35705950 confers a gain of function to the MUC5B gene and is the dominant risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Here the authors show that mice overexpressing Muc5b in distal airspaces show impaired mucociliary clearance and increased susceptibility to bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, and that both characteristics are reduced by treatment with a mucolytic agent.

    • Laura A. Hancock
    • , Corinne E. Hennessy
    • , George M. Solomon
    • , Evgenia Dobrinskikh
    • , Alani Estrella
    • , Naoko Hara
    • , David B. Hill
    • , William J. Kissner
    • , Matthew R. Markovetz
    • , Diane E. Grove Villalon
    • , Matthew E. Voss
    • , Guillermo J. Tearney
    • , Kate S. Carroll
    • , Yunlong Shi
    • , Marvin I. Schwarz
    • , William R. Thelin
    • , Steven M. Rowe
    • , Ivana V. Yang
    • , Christopher M. Evans
    •  & David A. Schwartz
  • Article | | open

    Similarly to entropy, majorization allows to quantify deviation from uniformity in a wide range of fields. In this paper, the authors use its generalization to the quantum realm to derive a complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions for thermal transformations of quantum states.

    • Gilad Gour
    • , David Jennings
    • , Francesco Buscemi
    • , Runyao Duan
    •  & Iman Marvian
  • Article | | open

    Desmosomes are intercellular adhesion complexes that connect the intermediate filament cytoskeletons of neighboring cells but direct evidence for their load-bearing nature is lacking. Here the authors develop FRET-based tension sensors to measure the forces experienced by desmoplakin and infer that desmosomes become mechanically loaded when cells are exposed to external mechanical stresses.

    • Andrew J. Price
    • , Anna-Lena Cost
    • , Hanna Ungewiß
    • , Jens Waschke
    • , Alexander R. Dunn
    •  & Carsten Grashoff
  • Article | | open

    Sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) transport sugars across the plasma membrane and play important roles in renal sugar reabsorption. Here authors develop structural models of human SGLT1/2 (hSGLT1/2) in complex with inhibitors which helps to understand inhibitor subtype selectivity.

    • Paola Bisignano
    • , Chiara Ghezzi
    • , Hyunil Jo
    • , Nicholas F. Polizzi
    • , Thorsten Althoff
    • , Chakrapani Kalyanaraman
    • , Rosmarie Friemann
    • , Matthew P. Jacobson
    • , Ernest M. Wright
    •  & Michael Grabe
  • Article | | open

    Zygotic genome activation (ZGA), the onset of transcription after initial quiescence, is a major developmental step in many species. Here authors use single molecule tracking in live developing zebrafish embryos to show that increased transcription factor binding to DNA at ZGA is due to a shrinking nucleus.

    • Matthias Reisser
    • , Anja Palmer
    • , Achim P. Popp
    • , Christopher Jahn
    • , Gilbert Weidinger
    •  & J. Christof M. Gebhardt
  • Article | | open

    Electron transport chains rely on interactions between redox proteins, but the distance-dependence of the electron transfer rate through the solution is unknown. Here, the authors show that the current between two redox protein partners occurs at long distances and is electrochemically gated.

    • Anna Lagunas
    • , Alejandra Guerra-Castellano
    • , Alba Nin-Hill
    • , Irene Díaz-Moreno
    • , Miguel A. De la Rosa
    • , Josep Samitier
    • , Carme Rovira
    •  & Pau Gorostiza
  • Article | | open

    Exocyst complex tethers vesicles to plasma membranes, but assembly mechanisms remain unclear. Here, the authors use Cas9 gene editing to tag exocyst components in epithelial cells, and find that exocyst subcomplexes are recruited to membranes independently, but are both needed for vesicle fusion.

    • Syed Mukhtar Ahmed
    • , Hisayo Nishida-Fukuda
    • , Yuchong Li
    • , W. Hayes McDonald
    • , Claudiu C. Gradinaru
    •  & Ian G. Macara
  • Article | | open

    The early steps of ribosome assembly occur co-transcriptionally on the nascent ribosomal RNA. Here the authors demonstrate an approach that allows simultaneous monitoring of transcription and ribosomal protein assembly at the single-molecule level in real time.

    • Olivier Duss
    • , Galina A. Stepanyuk
    • , Annette Grot
    • , Seán E. O’Leary
    • , Joseph D. Puglisi
    •  & James R. Williamson
  • Article | | open

    Different fluorescence fluctuation methods require specialized equipment and cannot be performed simultaneously. Here the authors present an implementation that includes many advanced fluorescence fluctuation techniques in a single analysis, by exploiting the fast and widely used Zeiss Airyscan detector.

    • L. Scipioni
    • , L. Lanzanó
    • , A. Diaspro
    •  & E. Gratton
  • Article | | open

    Assessing biological circuit connections in single cells has been intractable due to lack of appropriate tools. Here, Bleck et al. develop a method to assess mitochondrial network connectivity in muscle cells and observe clear differences consistent with differing energy requirements.

    • Christopher K. E. Bleck
    • , Yuho Kim
    • , T. Bradley Willingham
    •  & Brian Glancy
  • Article | | open

    The helical transmembrane segments of membrane proteins play central roles in sensory transduction but the mechanistic basis for their function remains unresolved. Here the authors identify regions in the S4 voltage-sensing segment of Shaker potassium channels where local helical structure is reliant upon backbone amide support.

    • Daniel T. Infield
    • , Kimberly Matulef
    • , Jason D. Galpin
    • , Kin Lam
    • , Emad Tajkhorshid
    • , Christopher A. Ahern
    •  & Francis I. Valiyaveetil
  • Article | | open

    The microalgal pyrenoid has been reported to behave as a phase-separated liquid compartment. Here the authors demonstrate that the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco and the linker protein EPYC1 are necessary and sufficient to bring about a liquid-liquid phase separation that recapitulates the pyrenoid’s liquid-like behavior.

    • Tobias Wunder
    • , Steven Le Hung Cheng
    • , Soak-Kuan Lai
    • , Hoi-Yeung Li
    •  & Oliver Mueller-Cajar
  • Article | | open

    The nucleolus is a membrane-less organelle and both Nucleophosmin (NPM1) and Surfeit locus protein 6 (SURF6) are abundant proteins within the nucleolus. Here the authors employ biophysical methods to study the properties of NPM1-S6N droplets and provide insights into the role of SURF6 in maintaining and modulating the liquid-like structure of the nucleolus.

    • Mylene C. Ferrolino
    • , Diana M. Mitrea
    • , J. Robert Michael
    •  & Richard W. Kriwacki
  • Article | | open

    The P-type ATPase subunit KdpB of KdpFABC hydrolyzes ATP while K+ transport was assumed to occur through channel-like subunit KdpA. Here, the authors show two cryo-EM structures of KdpFABC which suggest a translocation pathway through two inter-subunit half-channels formed by KdpA and KdpB.

    • C. Stock
    • , L. Hielkema
    • , I. Tascón
    • , D. Wunnicke
    • , G. T. Oostergetel
    • , M. Azkargorta
    • , C. Paulino
    •  & I. Hänelt
  • Article | | open

    The dynamics of biomolecules can occur over a wide range of time and length scales. Here the authors develop a high-speed AFM height spectroscopy method to directly detect the motion of unlabeled molecules at Angstrom spatial and microsecond temporal resolution.

    • George R. Heath
    •  & Simon Scheuring
  • Article | | open

    Myosin motors drive the actin cytoskeleton out-of-equilibrium, but the role of myosin-driven active stresses in the accumulation and dissipation of mechanical work is unclear. Here, the authors synthesize an actomyosin material and find that the rate of entropy production increases non-monotonically with increasing accumulation of active stresses.

    • Daniel S. Seara
    • , Vikrant Yadav
    • , Ian Linsmeier
    • , A. Pasha Tabatabai
    • , Patrick W. Oakes
    • , S. M. Ali Tabei
    • , Shiladitya Banerjee
    •  & Michael P. Murrell
  • Article | | open

    Molecular aggregation is a widespread and important process in physiological metabolism, but details regarding conformational changes during the process are hard to probe. Here, the authors use circular dichroism to monitor in-situ the conformational changes occurring during molecular aggregation.

    • Haoke Zhang
    • , Xiaoyan Zheng
    • , Ryan T. K. Kwok
    • , Jia Wang
    • , Nelson L. C. Leung
    • , Lin Shi
    • , Jing Zhi Sun
    • , Zhiyong Tang
    • , Jacky W. Y. Lam
    • , Anjun Qin
    •  & Ben Zhong Tang
  • Article | | open

    Red blood cell disorders are often accompanied by increased release of extracellular vesicles (EVs), but their structural and mechanical properties are not fully understood. Here, the authors show that red blood cell EVs show liposome-like mechanical features and are softened in blood disorder patients.

    • Daan Vorselen
    • , Susan M. van Dommelen
    • , Raya Sorkin
    • , Melissa C. Piontek
    • , Jürgen Schiller
    • , Sander T. Döpp
    • , Sander A. A. Kooijmans
    • , Brigitte A. van Oirschot
    • , Birgitta A. Versluijs
    • , Marc B. Bierings
    • , Richard van Wijk
    • , Raymond M. Schiffelers
    • , Gijs J. L. Wuite
    •  & Wouter H. Roos
  • Article | | open

    The detailed folding mechanisms of membrane proteins in their natural bilayer-like environments remains poorly understood due to the lack of tools for measuring stabilities and kinetics. Here, by simulating the folding of GlpG in a bilayer, the authors provide support for the helical-hairpin hypothesis and prompt a re-evaluation of a long-standing paradigm, the two-stage hypothesis.

    • Wei Lu
    • , Nicholas P. Schafer
    •  & Peter G. Wolynes