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Single-molecule measurements of synaptic vesicles show that V-ATPases do not pump continuously in time but instead stochastically switch between ultralong-lived proton-pumping, inactive and proton-leaky modes.
Electrophysiological, structural and biochemical studies on the bestrophin-2 anion channel reveal asymmetric permeability to glutamate and show that it forms a cooperative machinery in complex with glutamine synthetase for glutamate release.
Cryo-electron microscopy studies of Escherichia coli complex I suggest a conserved mechanism of coupled proton transfers and electrostatic interactions that result in proton ejection from the complex exclusively at the distal NuoL subunit.
A synthetic cell-cell adhesion logic using swarming E. coli with 4 bits of information is introduced, enabling the programming of interfaces that combine to form universal tessellation patterns over a large scale.
Histone deacetylation at the onset of mitosis induces a chromatin-intrinsic phase transition that endows chromosomes with the physical characteristics necessary for their precise movement during cell division.
A nanoscale rotary motor made of DNA origami, driven by ratcheting and powered by an external electric field, shows the ability to wind up a spring and has mechanical capabilities approaching those of biological motors.
Small intestinal crypts contain twice as many effective stem cells as large intestinal crypts, and this difference is determined by the degree of Wnt-driven retrograde cell movement—which is largely absent in the large intestine—counteracting conveyor-belt-like upward movement.
Single-molecule spectroscopy and structural studies were used to examine the dynamics of association of eIF1A and eIF5B with the human translation initiation complex and their role in presenting tRNA to the complex to initiate translation.
Cryo-electron microscopy and crystal structures of Arabidopsis NPR1—a bird-shaped homodimer—and its complex with the transcription factor TGA3 provide an explanation for a direct role of salicylic acid and enhanceosome assembly in regulating NPR1-dependent gene expression.
Structural studies of human Na+–taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide in complex with nanobodies reveal mechanisms for bile salts transport and HBV recognition involving an open-pore intermediate state.
A method that uses a combination of optical trapping, fluorescence microscopy and microfluidics to analyse the internal structure of chromosomes shows that there is a distinct nonlinear stiffening of the chromosome in response to tension.
Cryo-EM structures of AMPA receptor with the subunit γ2 in non-desensitizing conditions at low glutamate concentrations disprove the one-to-one link between the number of glutamate-bound subunits and ionotropic glutamate receptor conductance.
Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the bacterial O-antigen ligase WaaL, combined with genetics, biochemistry and molecular dynamics simulations, provide insight into the mechanism by which WaaL catalyses the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide.
Three-dimensional reconstructions of morphology and flight mechanics of the beetle Paratuposa placentis reveal adaptations that enable extremely small insects to fly at speeds similar to those of much larger insects.
A mechanism involving intracellular recycling of the morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp) underlies the scaling of the Dpp gradient in the Drosophila wing disc, and this is modulated by the extracellular factors Pentagone and Dally.
Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the photosystem I–NADH dehydrogenase-like supercomplex in barley provide structural details to elucidate the functions and regulation of photosystem I-dependent cyclic electron transport in chloroplasts.
Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the sodium–glucose cotransporter SGLT1 and a related transporter SMCT1 define the architecture of this protein family and provide insights into substrate binding and transport function.
Cryo-electron microscopy studies show that dynamic coordination of Na+ in the ion channel of Dispatched homologue 1 and the transmembrane Na+ gradient have key roles in exporting lipid-modified Hedgehog protein signal.
Interface mutations in the GTPase switch protein Gsp1 (the yeast homologue of human RAN) allosterically affect the kinetics of the switch cycle, revealing a systems-level mechanism of multi-specificity.
Structural, functional and localization studies reveal that Geobacter sulfurreducens pili cannot behave as microbial nanowires, instead functioning in a similar way to secretion pseudopili to export cytochrome nanowires that are essential for extracellular electron transfer.
Cryptochrome 4 from the night-migratory European robin displays magnetically sensitive photochemistry in vitro, in which four successive flavin–tryptophan radical pairs generate magnetic-field effects and stabilize potential signalling states.