Biological sciences

  • Article
    | Open Access

    REV7 has emerged as a critical regulator of DNA double-strand breaks repair. Here, the authors show that REV7 is crucial for both antibody class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in activated B cells, in addition to their survival upon AID-deamination.

    • Dingpeng Yang
    • , Ying Sun
    • , Jingjing Chen
    • , Ying Zhang
    • , Shuangshuang Fan
    • , Min Huang
    • , Xia Xie
    • , Yanni Cai
    • , Yafang Shang
    • , Tuantuan Gui
    • , Liming Sun
    • , Jiazhi Hu
    • , Junchao Dong
    • , Leng-Siew Yeap
    • , Xiaoming Wang
    • , Wei Xiao
    •  & Fei-Long Meng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD) the monomeric protein alpha-synuclein (aSyn) misfolds and aggregates into insoluble fibrils. Here the authors use NMR measurements and hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and find that the more solvent exposed the N-terminus of aSyn is, the more aggregation prone its conformation becomes, and further show how PD mutations and post translational modifications influence the extent of the N-terminus solvent exposure.

    • Amberley D. Stephens
    • , Maria Zacharopoulou
    • , Rani Moons
    • , Giuliana Fusco
    • , Neeleema Seetaloo
    • , Anass Chiki
    • , Philippa J. Woodhams
    • , Ioanna Mela
    • , Hilal A. Lashuel
    • , Jonathan J. Phillips
    • , Alfonso De Simone
    • , Frank Sobott
    •  & Gabriele S. Kaminski Schierle
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Thoeris defense system is a recently discovered bacterial defense system that protects bacteria against phage infection and consists of the two genes thsA and thsB. Here, the authors present the crystal structures of Bacillus cereus ThsA and ThsB and show that ThsA is a NAD+ cleaving enzyme.

    • Donghyun Ka
    • , Hyejin Oh
    • , Eunyoung Park
    • , Jeong-Han Kim
    •  & Euiyoung Bae
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In S. pombe, small non-coding RNA mediates heterochromatin formation by recruiting the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase complex. Here, the authors show that fly nucleosome remodeler Mi-2 and histone deacetylase Rpd3 are involved in piRNA-dependent transcriptional silencing of transposable elements.

    • Bruno Mugat
    • , Simon Nicot
    • , Carolina Varela-Chavez
    • , Christophe Jourdan
    • , Kaoru Sato
    • , Eugenia Basyuk
    • , François Juge
    • , Mikiko C. Siomi
    • , Alain Pélisson
    •  & Séverine Chambeyron
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mutation of the C-terminal extension of 5′-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2) is the molecular cause for X-linked protoporphyria, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Based on crystal structures and MD simulations of ALAS2, the authors here show how the C-terminal extension regulates ALAS2 activity.

    • Henry J. Bailey
    • , Gustavo A. Bezerra
    • , Jason R. Marcero
    • , Siladitya Padhi
    • , William R. Foster
    • , Elzbieta Rembeza
    • , Arijit Roy
    • , David F. Bishop
    • , Robert J. Desnick
    • , Gopalakrishnan Bulusu
    • , Harry A. Dailey Jr
    •  & Wyatt W. Yue
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Breeding crops with delayed senescence could plausibly increase grain yield. Here the authors show that variation at the rice SGR locus contributes to differences in senescence between indica and japonica subspecies and show that introgression can increase yield in an elite indica rice variety.

    • Dongjin Shin
    • , Sichul Lee
    • , Tae-Heon Kim
    • , Jong-Hee Lee
    • , Joonheum Park
    • , Jinwon Lee
    • , Ji Yoon Lee
    • , Lae-Hyeon Cho
    • , Jae Young Choi
    • , Wonhee Lee
    • , Ji-Hwan Park
    • , Dae-Woo Lee
    • , Hisashi Ito
    • , Dae Heon Kim
    • , Ayumi Tanaka
    • , Jun-Hyeon Cho
    • , You-Chun Song
    • , Daehee Hwang
    • , Michael D. Purugganan
    • , Jong-Seong Jeon
    • , Gynheung An
    •  & Hong Gil Nam
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tau plays an important role in tauopathies and undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). The authors show that disease-related P301L mutant and phosphomimic (S199E/S202E/T205E) tau enhance LLPS in vitro at physiological levels, and using specific antibodies, that tau LLPS leads to pathological conformations such as N-terminal exposure and oligomeric species.

    • Nicholas M. Kanaan
    • , Chelsey Hamel
    • , Tessa Grabinski
    •  & Benjamin Combs
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Label-free trapping of nanoparticles via dielectophoretic forces is traditionally done with electrodes in a horizontal gap layout. Here, the authors present a vertical nanogap architecture, which allows for precise capture and spatiotemporal manipulation of nanoparticles and molecular assemblies.

    • Eui-Sang Yu
    • , Hyojin Lee
    • , Sun-Mi Lee
    • , Jiwon Kim
    • , Taehyun Kim
    • , Jongsu Lee
    • , Chulki Kim
    • , Minah Seo
    • , Jae Hun Kim
    • , Young Tae Byun
    • , Seung-Chul Park
    • , Seung-Yeol Lee
    • , Sin-Doo Lee
    •  & Yong-Sang Ryu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by fear of gaining weight that can lead to serious complications. Here the authors show that inhibition of SIRT1 is protective against the onset and progression of anorectic behavior in an activity-based anorexia model, suggesting SIRT1 could be a potential therapeutic target.

    • Timothy M. Robinette
    • , Justin W. Nicholatos
    • , Adam B. Francisco
    • , Kayla E. Brooks
    • , Rachel Y. Diao
    • , Sandro Sorbi
    • , Valdo Ricca
    • , Benedetta Nacmias
    • , Miguel A. Brieño-Enríquez
    •  & Sergiy Libert
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Genetic resources for livestock are valuable for understanding their demography and past selection, and may inform future breeding programs and agricultural improvement. Here, the authors present deep resequencing of 248 wild and domestic sheep, with associated data and analysis.

    • Xin Li
    • , Ji Yang
    • , Min Shen
    • , Xing-Long Xie
    • , Guang-Jian Liu
    • , Ya-Xi Xu
    • , Feng-Hua Lv
    • , Hua Yang
    • , Yong-Lin Yang
    • , Chang-Bin Liu
    • , Ping Zhou
    • , Peng-Cheng Wan
    • , Yun-Sheng Zhang
    • , Lei Gao
    • , Jing-Quan Yang
    • , Wen-Hui Pi
    • , Yan-Ling Ren
    • , Zhi-Qiang Shen
    • , Feng Wang
    • , Juan Deng
    • , Song-Song Xu
    • , Hosein Salehian-Dehkordi
    • , Eer Hehua
    • , Ali Esmailizadeh
    • , Mostafa Dehghani-Qanatqestani
    • , Ondřej Štěpánek
    • , Christina Weimann
    • , Georg Erhardt
    • , Agraw Amane
    • , Joram M. Mwacharo
    • , Jian-Lin Han
    • , Olivier Hanotte
    • , Johannes A. Lenstra
    • , Juha Kantanen
    • , David W. Coltman
    • , James W. Kijas
    • , Michael W. Bruford
    • , Kathiravan Periasamy
    • , Xin-Hua Wang
    •  & Meng-Hua Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Argonaute 2 (AGO2) binds RAS and is required for cellular transformation. Here, the authors establish a KRAS-driven mouse model of pancreatic cancer with conditional loss of AGO2 and show that the early phase of neoplastic lesion initiation is dependent on EGFR/RAS but not AGO2, while AGO2 is required for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression and metastasis.

    • Sunita Shankar
    • , Jean Ching-Yi Tien
    • , Ronald F. Siebenaler
    • , Seema Chugh
    • , Vijaya L. Dommeti
    • , Sylvia Zelenka-Wang
    • , Xiao-Ming Wang
    • , Ingrid J. Apel
    • , Jessica Waninger
    • , Sanjana Eyunni
    • , Alice Xu
    • , Malay Mody
    • , Andrew Goodrum
    • , Yuping Zhang
    • , John J. Tesmer
    • , Rahul Mannan
    • , Xuhong Cao
    • , Pankaj Vats
    • , Sethuramasundaram Pitchiaya
    • , Stephanie J. Ellison
    • , Jiaqi Shi
    • , Chandan Kumar-Sinha
    • , Howard C. Crawford
    •  & Arul M. Chinnaiyan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    FinO-domain proteins are bacterial RNA-binding proteins with a wide range of target specificities. Here, the authors employ UV CLIP-seq and show that minimal ProQ protein of Neisseria meningitidis binds to various small non-coding RNAs and mRNAs involved in virulence.

    • Saskia Bauriedl
    • , Milan Gerovac
    • , Nadja Heidrich
    • , Thorsten Bischler
    • , Lars Barquist
    • , Jörg Vogel
    •  & Christoph Schoen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Uropathogenic E. coli can adhere to vaginal epithelial cells preceding urinary tract infection (UTI). Here, Brannon et al. show that urinary E. coli isolates can not only adhere to, but also invade vaginal cells in mouse UTI models and in clinical samples obtained from women with recurrent UTI.

    • John R. Brannon
    • , Taryn L. Dunigan
    • , Connor J. Beebout
    • , Tamia Ross
    • , Michelle A. Wiebe
    • , William S. Reynolds
    •  & Maria Hadjifrangiskou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is required for tumour angiogenesis and growth. Here, the authors show that deletion of pericyte FAK upregulates Gas6-Axl mediated Cyr61 production, which increases endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis, while elevating tissue factor production to enhance tumour cell proliferation.

    • Tanguy Lechertier
    • , Louise E. Reynolds
    • , Hyojin Kim
    • , Ana Rita Pedrosa
    • , Jesús Gómez-Escudero
    • , José M. Muñoz-Félix
    • , Silvia Batista
    • , Matthew Dukinfield
    • , Fevzi Demircioglu
    • , Ping Pui Wong
    • , Kylie P. Matchett
    • , Neil C. Henderson
    • , Gabriela D’Amico
    • , Maddy Parsons
    • , Catherine Harwood
    • , Pascal Meier
    •  & Kairbaan M. Hodivala-Dilke
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Small molecule polyamines participate in diverse aspects of cell growth and differentiation and are known to regulate ion channel gating. Here authors reveal that cellular polyamines control nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) biogenesis, and either catabolic degradation or inhibition of polyamine production augments nAChR assembly.

    • Madhurima Dhara
    • , Jose A. Matta
    • , Min Lei
    • , Daniel Knowland
    • , Hong Yu
    • , Shenyan Gu
    •  & David S. Bredt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Age-associated metabolic changes include lipid accumulation. Here, the authors show that with replicative aging yeast accumulate lipid droplets which protect cells from cold stress and can be modulated through Biosynthesis of NAD+ 2 (BNA2).

    • Anthony O. Beas
    • , Patricia B. Gordon
    • , Clara L. Prentiss
    • , Carissa Perez Olsen
    • , Matthew A. Kukurugya
    • , Bryson D. Bennett
    • , Susan M. Parkhurst
    •  & Daniel E. Gottschling
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Genetic variants at the RSPO3 locus are associated with waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI). Here, Loh et al. describe two independent RSPO3 signals that associate with body fat distribution, perform fine-mapping and explore the function of RSPO3 in human adipocyte biology and body fat distribution in zebrafish

    • Nellie Y. Loh
    • , James E. N. Minchin
    • , Katherine E. Pinnick
    • , Manu Verma
    • , Marijana Todorčević
    • , Nathan Denton
    • , Julia El-Sayed Moustafa
    • , John P. Kemp
    • , Celia L. Gregson
    • , David M. Evans
    • , Matt J. Neville
    • , Kerrin S. Small
    • , Mark I. McCarthy
    • , Anubha Mahajan
    • , John F. Rawls
    • , Fredrik Karpe
    •  & Constantinos Christodoulides
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex required to activate gene transcription by RNAPII. Here, the authors report that MED12 and MED13 are conditional positive regulators that facilitate the expression of genes depleted in active chromatin marks and the induction of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli in Arabidopsis.

    • Qikun Liu
    • , Sylvain Bischof
    • , C. Jake Harris
    • , Zhenhui Zhong
    • , Lingyu Zhan
    • , Calvin Nguyen
    • , Andrew Rashoff
    • , William D. Barshop
    • , Fei Sun
    • , Suhua Feng
    • , Magdalena Potok
    • , Javier Gallego-Bartolome
    • , Jixian Zhai
    • , James A. Wohlschlegel
    • , Michael F. Carey
    • , Jeffrey A. Long
    •  & Steven E. Jacobsen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Previous study identified in vivo structured mRNA regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by dimethyl sulfate-sequencing. Here the authors use quantitative proteomics to identify protein interactors of 186 RNA folds in S. cerevisiae, providing functional links between RNA binding proteins and distinct mRNA fold.

    • Nuria Casas-Vila
    • , Sergi Sayols
    • , Lara Pérez-Martínez
    • , Marion Scheibe
    •  & Falk Butter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) encodes expected outcomes and plays a key role in outcome-guided behavior. The authors show here that the top-down projection from the OFC to the visual cortex drives visual associative learning by modulating the response gain of V1 neurons to non-relevant stimuli.

    • Dechen Liu
    • , Juan Deng
    • , Zhewei Zhang
    • , Zhi-Yu Zhang
    • , Yan-Gang Sun
    • , Tianming Yang
    •  & Haishan Yao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The signals restricting specification of vascular progenitors are unclear. Here, the authors use scRNAseq to identify transitional steps during blood and vascular development in zebrafish and identify Etv2 as repressing skeletal muscle differentiation in vascular progenitors.

    • Brendan Chestnut
    • , Satish Casie Chetty
    • , Andrew L. Koenig
    •  & Saulius Sumanas
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The location and extent of intranasal oxytocin brain penetrance has not been shown. Here the authors show that oxytocin, administered intranasally, enters brain regions along the trajectories of the olfactory and trigeminal nerves and there, reaches biologically relevant concentrations.

    • M. R. Lee
    • , T. A. Shnitko
    • , S. W. Blue
    • , A. V. Kaucher
    • , A. J. Winchell
    • , D. W. Erikson
    • , K. A. Grant
    •  & L. Leggio
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Riboswitches consist of an aptamer domain and expression platform, which senses a signal and regulates gene expression, respectively. Here the authors show that the expression platform of a SAM-I riboswitch from the Gram-negative bacteria can sense and bind uncharged an initiator Met tRNA to control the met operon.

    • Dong-Jie Tang
    • , Xinyu Du
    • , Qiang Shi
    • , Jian-Ling Zhang
    • , Yuan-Ping He
    • , Yan-Miao Chen
    • , Zhenhua Ming
    • , Dan Wang
    • , Wan-Ying Zhong
    • , Yu-Wei Liang
    • , Jin-Yang Liu
    • , Jian-Ming Huang
    • , Yun-Shi Zhong
    • , Shi-Qi An
    • , Hongzhou Gu
    •  & Ji-Liang Tang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The transcriptional repressor Blimp1/PRDM1 regulates cell fate decisions in the developing embryo and adult tissues. Here the authors show that conditional inactivation within maternal uterine tissues results in a defective primary decidual zone barrier, increased expression of inflammatory cytokines IFN gamma and Csf1, and early embryonic lethality during pregnancy.

    • Mubeen Goolam
    • , Maria-Eleni Xypolita
    • , Ita Costello
    • , John P. Lydon
    • , Francesco J. DeMayo
    • , Elizabeth K. Bikoff
    • , Elizabeth J. Robertson
    •  & Arne W. Mould
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Music varies across cultures, but some features are widespread, consistent with biological constraints. Here, the authors report that both Western and native Amazonian listeners perceptually fuse concurrent notes related by simple-integer ratios, suggestive of one such biological constraint.

    • Malinda J. McPherson
    • , Sophia E. Dolan
    • , Alex Durango
    • , Tomas Ossandon
    • , Joaquín Valdés
    • , Eduardo A. Undurraga
    • , Nori Jacoby
    • , Ricardo A. Godoy
    •  & Josh H. McDermott
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sequestration of reactants in lipid vesicles is a strategy prevalent in biological systems to raise the rate and specificity of chemical reactions. Here, the authors show that micelle-assisted reactions facilitate native chemical ligation between a peptide-thioester and a Cys-peptide modified by a lipid-like moiety.

    • Shuaijiang Jin
    • , Roberto J. Brea
    • , Andrew K. Rudd
    • , Stuart P. Moon
    • , Matthew R. Pratt
    •  & Neal K. Devaraj
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mutations that affect Treg cell function can cause lethal autoimmunity, but whether correcting these mutations can reverse established disease is unclear. Here, the authors correct Treg cell-specific Brg1 mutation in a minor fraction of Treg cells, which supercharges these cells to rescue mice from otherwise fatal IPEX-like autoimmunity.

    • Yongqin Li
    • , Yuxin Chen
    • , Shaoshuai Mao
    • , Ravinder Kaundal
    • , Zhengyu Jing
    • , Qin Chen
    • , Xinxin Wang
    • , Jing Xia
    • , Dahai Liu
    • , Jianlong Sun
    • , Haopeng Wang
    •  & Tian Chi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Synthetic circuits based on CRISPRi have not achieved multistable and dynamic behaviors. Here the authors build an oscillator, a toggle switch and an incoherent feed-forward loop using CRISPRi, and provide a mathematical model suggesting that unspecific binding in CRISPRi enables multistability.

    • Javier Santos-Moreno
    • , Eve Tasiudi
    • , Joerg Stelling
    •  & Yolanda Schaerli
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Immunopeptidomics allows identifying the cellular repertoire of MHC-bound peptides, but quantifying them remains challenging. Here, the authors present a method to efficiently generate internal peptide MHC standards and calibration curves, facilitating relative and absolute quantitative immunopeptidomics.

    • Lauren E. Stopfer
    • , Joshua M. Mesfin
    • , Brian A. Joughin
    • , Douglas A. Lauffenburger
    •  & Forest M. White
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Conventional co-culture systems often lack physiological complexity of the tumor microenvironment. Here, the authors report an organotypic skin melanoma culture and use this model to investigate the tumor induced suppression on dendritic cells.

    • S. Di Blasio
    • , G. F. van Wigcheren
    • , A. Becker
    • , A. van Duffelen
    • , M. Gorris
    • , K. Verrijp
    • , I. Stefanini
    • , G. J. Bakker
    • , M. Bloemendal
    • , A. Halilovic
    • , A. Vasaturo
    • , G. Bakdash
    • , S. V. Hato
    • , J. H. W. de Wilt
    • , J. Schalkwijk
    • , I. J. M. de Vries
    • , J. C. Textor
    • , E. H. van den Bogaard
    • , M. Tazzari
    •  & C. G. Figdor
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The MAF bZIP transcription factor B (MAFB) is present in postnatal human beta cells but its role is unclear. Here, the authors show that MAFB regulates endocrine pancreatic cell fate specification.

    • Ronan Russell
    • , Phichitpol P. Carnese
    • , Thomas G. Hennings
    • , Emily M. Walker
    • , Holger A. Russ
    • , Jennifer S. Liu
    • , Simone Giacometti
    • , Roland Stein
    •  & Matthias Hebrok
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The mechanism underlying periodicity of Plasmodium’s intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) is unclear. Here, Subudhi et al. show that serpentine receptor 10 (SR10) plays a role in regulating the schedule of the IDC in line with the timing of host daily rhythms.

    • Amit K. Subudhi
    • , Aidan J. O’Donnell
    • , Abhinay Ramaprasad
    • , Hussein M. Abkallo
    • , Abhinav Kaushik
    • , Hifzur R. Ansari
    • , Alyaa M. Abdel-Haleem
    • , Fathia Ben Rached
    • , Osamu Kaneko
    • , Richard Culleton
    • , Sarah E. Reece
    •  & Arnab Pain
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Anti-Ly6G or ant-Gr1 antibodies are commonly used to deplete neutrophils in vivo. Here the authors provide mechanistic insight into why these approaches may not specifically or durably reduce the number of neutrophils in mice, and also present a new method that overcomes these limitations to have potentially wide applicability in experimental studies.

    • Gael Boivin
    • , Julien Faget
    • , Pierre-Benoit Ancey
    • , Aspasia Gkasti
    • , Julie Mussard
    • , Camilla Engblom
    • , Christina Pfirschke
    • , Caroline Contat
    • , Justine Pascual
    • , Jessica Vazquez
    • , Nathalie Bendriss-Vermare
    • , Christophe Caux
    • , Marie-Catherine Vozenin
    • , Mikael J. Pittet
    • , Matthias Gunzer
    •  & Etienne Meylan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The bacterial effector MavC can ubiquitinate the host E2 enzyme UBE2N to dampen the host immune response. Here, the authors provide mechanistic insight into this non-canonical ubiquitination machinery and reveal the structural basis for the functional differences between MavC and its close homolog MvcA.

    • Yong Wang
    • , Qi Zhan
    • , Xinlu Wang
    • , Peipei Li
    • , Songqing Liu
    • , Guangxia Gao
    •  & Pu Gao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    T cell receptors (TCR) are internalized when activated by their ligands. Here the authors show that the internalized TCRs are localized to endosomes expressing IRAP and Syntaxin 6 to maintain intracellular signalling capacity, whose importance is shown by the absence of efficient polyclonal anti-tumour response in mice with T-specific conditional deletion of IRAP.

    • Irini Evnouchidou
    • , Pascal Chappert
    • , Samira Benadda
    • , Andres Zucchetti
    • , Mirjana Weimershaus
    • , Marcelle Bens
    • , Vivien Caillens
    • , Despoina Koumantou
    • , Sophie Lotersztajn
    • , Peter van Endert
    • , Jean Davoust
    • , Pierre Guermonprez
    • , Claire Hivroz
    • , David A. Gross
    •  & Loredana Saveanu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes exhibiting dramatic differences between different organs in same species. Here, the authors show programmed B chromosome elimination in goatgrass starts at the onset of embryo differentiation by nondisjunction of chromatids, anaphase lagging, and ends with the degradation of micronucleated DNA.

    • Alevtina Ruban
    • , Thomas Schmutzer
    • , Dan D. Wu
    • , Joerg Fuchs
    • , Anastassia Boudichevskaia
    • , Myroslava Rubtsova
    • , Klaus Pistrick
    • , Michael Melzer
    • , Axel Himmelbach
    • , Veit Schubert
    • , Uwe Scholz
    •  & Andreas Houben
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors show that rats’ performance on olfactory decision tasks is best explained by a Bayesian model that combines reinforcement-based learning with accumulation of uncertain sensory evidence. The results suggest that learning is a critical factor contributing to speed-accuracy tradeoffs.

    • André G. Mendonça
    • , Jan Drugowitsch
    • , M. Inês Vicente
    • , Eric E. J. DeWitt
    • , Alexandre Pouget
    •  & Zachary F. Mainen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Seasonal influenza epidemics vary in timing and size, but the causes of the variation remain unclear. Here, the authors analyse a 15-year city-level data set, and find that fluctuations in climatic factors do not predict onset timing, and that while antigenic change does not have a consistent effect on epidemic size, the timing of onset and heterosubtypic competition do.

    • Edward K. S. Lam
    • , Dylan H. Morris
    • , Aeron C. Hurt
    • , Ian G. Barr
    •  & Colin A. Russell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    White adipose inflammation can occur in obesity and is at least in part mediated by inflammatory immune cells. Here the authors show that the Type I Interferon/Interferon alpha-beta receptor axis promotes an inflammatory, glycolysis associated adipocyte phenotype.

    • Calvin C. Chan
    • , Michelle S. M. A. Damen
    • , Maria E. Moreno-Fernandez
    • , Traci E. Stankiewicz
    • , Monica Cappelletti
    • , Pablo C. Alarcon
    • , Jarren R. Oates
    • , Jessica R. Doll
    • , Rajib Mukherjee
    • , Xiaoting Chen
    • , Rebekah Karns
    • , Matthew T. Weirauch
    • , Michael A. Helmrath
    • , Thomas H. Inge
    •  & Senad Divanovic
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in plasma can affect pathogenesis of parasites, but details remain unclear. Here, Toda et al. characterize plasma-derived EVs from Plasmodium vivax patients and show that PvEVs are preferentially taken up by human spleen fibroblasts, facilitating parasite cytoadherence.

    • Haruka Toda
    • , Miriam Diaz-Varela
    • , Joan Segui-Barber
    • , Wanlapa Roobsoong
    • , Barbara Baro
    • , Susana Garcia-Silva
    • , Alicia Galiano
    • , Melisa Gualdrón-López
    • , Anne C. G. Almeida
    • , Marcelo A. M. Brito
    • , Gisely Cardoso de Melo
    • , Iris Aparici-Herraiz
    • , Carlos Castro-Cavadía
    • , Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
    • , Eva Borràs
    • , Eduard Sabidó
    • , Igor C. Almeida
    • , Jakub Chojnacki
    • , Javier Martinez-Picado
    • , Maria Calvo
    • , Pilar Armengol
    • , Jaime Carmona-Fonseca
    • , Maria Fernanda Yasnot
    • , Ricardo Lauzurica
    • , Antonio Marcilla
    • , Hector Peinado
    • , Mary R. Galinski
    • , Marcus V. G. Lacerda
    • , Jetsumon Sattabongkot
    • , Carmen Fernandez-Becerra
    •  & Hernando A. del Portillo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The impact of late Pleistocene climate change on ecosystems has been hard to assess. Here, the authors sequence ancient DNA from Hall’s Cave, Texas and find that both plant and vertebrate diversity decreased with cooling, and though plant diversity recovered with rewarming, megafauna went extinct.

    • Frederik V. Seersholm
    • , Daniel J. Werndly
    • , Alicia Grealy
    • , Taryn Johnson
    • , Erin M. Keenan Early
    • , Ernest L. Lundelius Jr.
    • , Barbara Winsborough
    • , Grayal Earle Farr
    • , Rickard Toomey
    • , Anders J. Hansen
    • , Beth Shapiro
    • , Michael R. Waters
    • , Gregory McDonald
    • , Anna Linderholm
    • , Thomas W. Stafford Jr.
    •  & Michael Bunce
  • Article
    | Open Access

    3′ end of microRNAs binds to the PAZ domain of Argonaute (AGO) proteins. Here the authors show that terminal nucleotidyltransferases TUT4/7 and exonuclease DIS3L2 induce tailing and decay of 3’ end exposed-microRNAs in AGO PAZ mutant expressing- or cancer cells.

    • Acong Yang
    • , Tie-Juan Shao
    • , Xavier Bofill-De Ros
    • , Chuanjiang Lian
    • , Patricia Villanueva
    • , Lisheng Dai
    •  & Shuo Gu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Methods to generate beige adipocytes from a human cell source are inefficient. Here, the authors present a protocol that efficiently generates beige adipocytes from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which have potential utility in therapeutic development relating to metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes.

    • Amar M. Singh
    • , Liang Zhang
    • , John Avery
    • , Amelia Yin
    • , Yuhong Du
    • , Hui Wang
    • , Zibo Li
    • , Haian Fu
    • , Hang Yin
    •  & Stephen Dalton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The teleost Astyanax mexicanus has sighted morphs living in surface rivers and various blind morphs living in caves. Here, the authors suggest that loss of eyes in cave morphs is linked to mutations in the cystathionine ß-synthase a (cbsa) gene, which cause eye degeneration by disrupting function of the optic circulatory system.

    • Li Ma
    • , Aniket V. Gore
    • , Daniel Castranova
    • , Janet Shi
    • , Mandy Ng
    • , Kelly A. Tomins
    • , Corine M. van der Weele
    • , Brant M. Weinstein
    •  & William R. Jeffery
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dorsal raphe 5HT(DRSert) neurons regulate arousal from hypercapnia by their projections to the neurons in the external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBel) that are glutamatergic and also express calcitonin gene related peptide (PBelCGRP). The DRSert input to the PBel modulates the arousal system to rising levels of blood CO2, and may be mediated by 5HT2a receptors on the PBelCGRP neurons.

    • Satvinder Kaur
    • , Roberto De Luca
    • , Mudasir A. Khanday
    • , Sathyajit S. Bandaru
    • , Renner C. Thomas
    • , Rebecca Y. Broadhurst
    • , Anne Venner
    • , William D. Todd
    • , Patrick M. Fuller
    • , Elda Arrigoni
    •  & Clifford B. Saper
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Study of human heart failure is limited by access to human tissue. Here, the authors apply multi-omic screening in human ischaemic and dilated myocardial tissue and matched controls to determine molecular changes common and unique to each aetiology and to reveal differences between male and female hearts.

    • Mengbo Li
    • , Benjamin L. Parker
    • , Evangeline Pearson
    • , Benjamin Hunter
    • , Jacob Cao
    • , Yen Chin Koay
    • , Oneka Guneratne
    • , David E. James
    • , Jean Yang
    • , Sean Lal
    •  & John F. O’Sullivan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Parasitic interactions are difficult to document in the fossil record. Here, Zhang et al. analyze a large population of a Cambrian brachiopod and show it was frequently encrusted by tubes aligned to its feeding currents and that encrustation was associated with reduced biomass, suggesting a fitness cost.

    • Zhifei Zhang
    • , Luke C. Strotz
    • , Timothy P. Topper
    • , Feiyang Chen
    • , Yanlong Chen
    • , Yue Liang
    • , Zhiliang Zhang
    • , Christian B. Skovsted
    •  & Glenn A. Brock
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors are widely used both in the clinic and for basic research aimed at dissecting the specific cellular functions of specific CDKs. Here, the authors report the development of a panel of fluorescent reporter probes and provide a comprehensive profile of the inhibitory activity of several CDK inhibitors towards all 21 CDKs in living cells.

    • Carrow I. Wells
    • , James D. Vasta
    • , Cesear R. Corona
    • , Jennifer Wilkinson
    • , Chad A. Zimprich
    • , Morgan R. Ingold
    • , Julie E. Pickett
    • , David H. Drewry
    • , Kathryn M. Pugh
    • , Marie K. Schwinn
    • , Byounghoon (Brian) Hwang
    • , Hicham Zegzouti
    • , Kilian V. M. Huber
    • , Mei Cong
    • , Poncho L. Meisenheimer
    • , Timothy M. Willson
    •  & Matthew B. Robers