Biochemistry

  • Article | | open

    Membrane elongation is fundamental to autophagy and is controlled by an ubiquitin-conjugating cascade orchestrated by ATG16L1. Here, the authors identify that the E3 ligase Gigaxonin regulates autophagosome formation by controlling ATG16L1 turnover.

    • Aurora Scrivo
    • , Patrice Codogno
    •  & Pascale Bomont
  • Article | | open

    Large-scale deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with different human mitochondrial diseases and normal human ageing. Here the authors present a model for mtDNA formation based on generation sequencing analysis of patients samples and in vitro reconstituted mtDNA deletion using purified proteins.

    • Örjan Persson
    • , Yazh Muthukumar
    • , Swaraj Basu
    • , Louise Jenninger
    • , Jay P. Uhler
    • , Anna-Karin Berglund
    • , Robert McFarland
    • , Robert W. Taylor
    • , Claes M. Gustafsson
    • , Erik Larsson
    •  & Maria Falkenberg
  • Article | | open

    SecB homologs can be associated with stress-responsive type II toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems and form tripartite toxin-antitoxin-chaperone systems (TAC). Here the authors provide structural insights into TACs by presenting the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis TA-associated SecB chaperone in complex with the C-terminal ChAD (chaperone addiction) extension of the antitoxin HigA1.

    • Valérie Guillet
    • , Patricia Bordes
    • , Cécile Bon
    • , Julien Marcoux
    • , Virginie Gervais
    • , Ambre Julie Sala
    • , Suzana Dos Reis
    • , Nawel Slama
    • , Israel Mares-Mejía
    • , Anne-Marie Cirinesi
    • , Laurent Maveyraud
    • , Pierre Genevaux
    •  & Lionel Mourey
  • Article | | open

    Serine/threonine phosphatases such as PP1 associate with a large array of subunit proteins, such as ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) to achieve selective targeting. Here authors solved the crystal structure of the human ASPP2/PP1 complex and explain how ASPP2 can distinguish between PP1 isoforms.

    • M. Teresa Bertran
    • , Stéphane Mouilleron
    • , Yanxiang Zhou
    • , Rakhi Bajaj
    • , Federico Uliana
    • , Ganesan Senthil Kumar
    • , Audrey van Drogen
    • , Rebecca Lee
    • , Jennifer J. Banerjee
    • , Simon Hauri
    • , Nicola O’Reilly
    • , Matthias Gstaiger
    • , Rebecca Page
    • , Wolfgang Peti
    •  & Nicolas Tapon
  • Article | | open

    The fusion peptide (FP) of HIV envelope (Env) is critical in the cell entry process. Here, Kumar et al. present crystal structures of B41 SOSIP.664 Env trimer and show the dynamic nature of the FP and proximal region, which likely relates to conformational rearrangements required for membrane fusion.

    • Sonu Kumar
    • , Anita Sarkar
    • , Pavel Pugach
    • , Rogier W. Sanders
    • , John P. Moore
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    •  & Ian A. Wilson
  • Article | | open

    It is unclear whether CO2-stimulation of photosynthesis can propagate through slower ecosystem processes and lead to long-term increases in terrestrial carbon. Here the authors show that CO2-stimulation of photosynthesis leads to a 30% increase in forest regrowth over a decade of CO2 enrichment.

    • Anthony P. Walker
    • , Martin G. De Kauwe
    • , Belinda E. Medlyn
    • , Sönke Zaehle
    • , Colleen M. Iversen
    • , Shinichi Asao
    • , Bertrand Guenet
    • , Anna Harper
    • , Thomas Hickler
    • , Bruce A. Hungate
    • , Atul K. Jain
    • , Yiqi Luo
    • , Xingjie Lu
    • , Meng Lu
    • , Kristina Luus
    • , J. Patrick Megonigal
    • , Ram Oren
    • , Edmund Ryan
    • , Shijie Shu
    • , Alan Talhelm
    • , Ying-Ping Wang
    • , Jeffrey M. Warren
    • , Christian Werner
    • , Jianyang Xia
    • , Bai Yang
    • , Donald R. Zak
    •  & Richard J. Norby
  • Article | | open

    Adenovirus based (AdV) vectors are promising platforms for therapeutics and vaccines, but receptor usage of serotypes in clinical development remains unclear. Here, based on crystal structures and modeling, Baker et al. show that HAdV-D26/48 fiber knob protein interacts weakly with CAR but not with CD46 or DSG2.

    • Alexander T. Baker
    • , Alexander Greenshields-Watson
    • , Lynda Coughlan
    • , James A. Davies
    • , Hanni Uusi-Kerttula
    • , David K. Cole
    • , Pierre J. Rizkallah
    •  & Alan L. Parker
  • Article | | open

    Historical and future trends in net primary productivity (NPP) and its sensitivity to global change are largely unknown because of the lack of long-term, high-resolution data. Here the authors show that tree-ring isotopes can be used for inferring interannual variability and long-term changes in NPP.

    • Mathieu Levesque
    • , Laia Andreu-Hayles
    • , William Kolby Smith
    • , A. Park Williams
    • , Martina L. Hobi
    • , Brady W. Allred
    •  & Neil Pederson
  • Article | | open

    Quaternary contacts mediated by an extended heavy-chain framework region 3 (FR3) have been shown to improve binding to HIV envelope and virus neutralization for a few antibodies. Here, Liu et al. engraft such an FR3 loop onto several potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, resulting in improved neutralization activity and pharmacokinetics.

    • Qingbo Liu
    • , Yen-Ting Lai
    • , Peng Zhang
    • , Mark K. Louder
    • , Amarendra Pegu
    • , Reda Rawi
    • , Mangaiarkarasi Asokan
    • , Xuejun Chen
    • , Chen-Hsiang Shen
    • , Gwo-Yu Chuang
    • , Eun Sung Yang
    • , Huiyi Miao
    • , Yuge Wang
    • , Anthony S. Fauci
    • , Peter D. Kwong
    • , John R. Mascola
    •  & Paolo Lusso
  • Article | | open

    Abandoned and degraded agricultural lands undergo ecological succession that sequesters atmospheric CO2 as soil carbon, but at low rates. Here the authors show that restoration of high plant diversity provides a greenhouse gas benefit by greatly increasing the rate of soil carbon sequestration on such lands.

    • Yi Yang
    • , David Tilman
    • , George Furey
    •  & Clarence Lehman
  • Article | | open

    No structural data have been available for RNA polymerase holoenzymes or transcription initiation complexes that contain extracytoplasmic σ factors. Here the authors report the crystal structures of transcription initiation complexes comprising Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase, extracytoplasmic σ factor σL and promoter DNA.

    • Wei Lin
    • , Sukhendu Mandal
    • , David Degen
    • , Min Sung Cho
    • , Yu Feng
    • , Kalyan Das
    •  & Richard H. Ebright
  • Article | | open

    Oxidation of magnetite has broad implications in geochemistry and environmental science, but its reaction mechanisms are not fully understood yet. Here the authors use Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to show oxidative dissolution of magnetite inducing a rich array of strain and defect structures.

    • Ke Yuan
    • , Sang Soo Lee
    • , Wonsuk Cha
    • , Andrew Ulvestad
    • , Hyunjung Kim
    • , Bektur Abdilla
    • , Neil C. Sturchio
    •  & Paul Fenter
  • Article | | open

    The antitermination factor RfaH adopts two functional states where its C-terminal domain is folded either as an α-helical hairpin or β-barrel. Here the authors employ solution state NMR measurements to show that the C-terminal domain transforms into the β-barrel only upon binding to the elongation complex and refolds back after dissociation.

    • Philipp Konrad Zuber
    • , Kristian Schweimer
    • , Paul Rösch
    • , Irina Artsimovitch
    •  & Stefan H. Knauer
  • Article | | open

    Ubiquitination may control protein stability or function. Here the authors show that an ubiquitination enzyme, Hectd3, ubiquitinates Stat3 and Malt1 to modulate their function but not degradation in T cells, and thereby promoting the differentiation of pathogenic Th17 cells and susceptibility to a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    • Jonathan J. Cho
    • , Zhiwei Xu
    • , Upasana Parthasarathy
    • , Theodore T. Drashansky
    • , Eric Y. Helm
    • , Ashley N. Zuniga
    • , Kyle J. Lorentsen
    • , Samira Mansouri
    • , Joshua Y. Cho
    • , Mariola J. Edelmann
    • , Duc M. Duong
    • , Torben Gehring
    • , Thomas Seeholzer
    • , Daniel Krappmann
    • , Mohammad N. Uddin
    • , Danielle Califano
    • , Rejean L. Wang
    • , Lei Jin
    • , Hongmin Li
    • , Dongwen Lv
    • , Daohong Zhou
    • , Liang Zhou
    •  & Dorina Avram
  • Article | | open

    How the chromosome passenger complex (CPC) phosphorylates the kinetochores that can be a micron away to control mitotic events is unknown. Here the authors find that the CPC directly binds microtubules near inner centromeres, which controls its ability to phosphorylate kinetochores independently of tension generated by kinetochore microtubule attachments.

    • Prasad Trivedi
    • , Anatoly V. Zaytsev
    • , Maxim Godzi
    • , Fazly I. Ataullakhanov
    • , Ekaterina L. Grishchuk
    •  & P. Todd Stukenberg
  • Article | | open

    Fire-derived organic matter (OM) is present throughout the environment, and its impact on nutrient cycling remains poorly understood. Here, the authors show that this pyrogenic OM can retain large quantities of ammonia through covalent bond formation, thereby exerting an important control on nitrogen cycling.

    • Rachel Hestrin
    • , Dorisel Torres-Rojas
    • , James J. Dynes
    • , James M. Hook
    • , Tom Z. Regier
    • , Adam W. Gillespie
    • , Ronald J. Smernik
    •  & Johannes Lehmann
  • Article | | open

    Class F receptors are therapeutic targets in human disease and understanding their structural changes during receptor activation may provide important pharmacological insight. Here, the authors combine computational and experimental methods to identify a molecular switch in TM6/7 of Class F receptors that mediates receptor activation.

    • Shane C. Wright
    • , Paweł Kozielewicz
    • , Maria Kowalski-Jahn
    • , Julian Petersen
    • , Carl-Fredrik Bowin
    • , Greg Slodkowicz
    • , Maria Marti-Solano
    • , David Rodríguez
    • , Belma Hot
    • , Najeah Okashah
    • , Katerina Strakova
    • , Jana Valnohova
    • , M. Madan Babu
    • , Nevin A. Lambert
    • , Jens Carlsson
    •  & Gunnar Schulte
  • Article | | open

    Cryo-electron microscopy can determine the structure but not the nanomechanics of biological matter. Here the authors combine force spectroscopy in cryogenic conditions with computer simulations to characterize the properties of DNA simultaneously down to the sub-nm level.

    • Rémy Pawlak
    • , J. G. Vilhena
    • , Antoine Hinaut
    • , Tobias Meier
    • , Thilo Glatzel
    • , Alexis Baratoff
    • , Enrico Gnecco
    • , Rubén Pérez
    •  & Ernst Meyer
  • Article | | open

    Microfold cells (M-cell) are specialized cells of the intestine that sample luminal microbiota and dietary antigens. Here the authors show that epithelial non-canonical NFκB signalling, as induced by NIK, is important for M-cells maintenance, yet constitutive NIK activation is associated with gut inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease.

    • Sadeesh K. Ramakrishnan
    • , Huabing Zhang
    • , Xiaoya Ma
    • , Inkyung Jung
    • , Andrew J. Schwartz
    • , Daniel Triner
    • , Samantha N. Devenport
    • , Nupur K. Das
    • , Xiang Xue
    • , Melody Y. Zeng
    • , Yinling Hu
    • , Richard M. Mortensen
    • , Joel K Greenson
    • , Marilia Cascalho
    • , Christiane E. Wobus
    • , Justin A. Colacino
    • , Gabriel Nunez
    • , Liangyou Rui
    •  & Yatrik M. Shah
  • Article | | open

    Many 2-Cystein Peroxiredoxins (Prx) can either function as peroxidases or chaperones when exposed to stress. Here the authors present the structures of Leishmania infantum mitochondrial Prx alone and with a bound model client protein, use crosslinking to reveal interaction regions that stabilize the bound client, and provide insights into the mechanism by which Prx’s adopt chaperone activity.

    • Filipa Teixeira
    • , Eric Tse
    • , Helena Castro
    • , Karl A. T. Makepeace
    • , Ben A. Meinen
    • , Christoph H. Borchers
    • , Leslie B. Poole
    • , James C. Bardwell
    • , Ana M. Tomás
    • , Daniel R. Southworth
    •  & Ursula Jakob
  • Article | | open

    A fundamental step in membrane protein biogenesis is their integration into the lipid bilayer with a defined orientation of each transmembrane segment. Here, the authors show that mutations in connexin 32 can cause failures in membrane integration which is detected by the ER chaperone machinery.

    • João P. L. Coelho
    • , Matthias Stahl
    • , Nicolas Bloemeke
    • , Kevin Meighen-Berger
    • , Carlos Piedrafita Alvira
    • , Zai-Rong Zhang
    • , Stephan A. Sieber
    •  & Matthias J. Feige
  • Article | | open

    Insulin-related gene (Insig) negatively regulates hepatic fatty acid synthesis, a process involved in development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, the authors show that AMPK activation by metformin promotes Insig phosphorylation, stabilizing it and inhibiting lipogenic gene expression. This is protective against steatosis in diabetic mice.

    • Yamei Han
    • , Zhimin Hu
    • , Aoyuan Cui
    • , Zhengshuai Liu
    • , Fengguang Ma
    • , Yaqian Xue
    • , Yuxiao Liu
    • , Feifei Zhang
    • , Zehua Zhao
    • , Yanyan Yu
    • , Jing Gao
    • , Chun Wei
    • , Jingya Li
    • , Jing Fang
    • , Jia Li
    • , Jian-Gao Fan
    • , Bao-Liang Song
    •  & Yu Li
  • Article | | open

    Many Gram-negative bacteria rely on a type III secretion system (T3SS) for their pathogenicity. Here authors present the cryo-EM structure of the E.coli T3SS ATPase-central stalk complex, which forms a homohexameric, asymmetric pore with different functional states.

    • Dorothy D. Majewski
    • , Liam J. Worrall
    • , Chuan Hong
    • , Claire E. Atkinson
    • , Marija Vuckovic
    • , Nobuhiko Watanabe
    • , Zhiheng Yu
    •  & Natalie C. J. Strynadka
  • Article | | open

    Elp3 is the catalytic subunit of the eukaryotic Elongator complex that catalyzes posttranscriptional tRNA modifications. Here the authors present the crystal structures of an acetyl-CoA analog bound bacterial Elp3 and a monomeric archaeal Elp3 and show that Elp3 functions as a tRNA modification enzyme in all domains of life.

    • Ting-Yu Lin
    • , Nour El Hana Abbassi
    • , Karol Zakrzewski
    • , Andrzej Chramiec-Głąbik
    • , Małgorzata Jemioła-Rzemińska
    • , Jan Różycki
    •  & Sebastian Glatt
  • Article | | open

    The FDA approved drug aprepitant is an antagonist of the Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R). Here the authors present aprepitant bound NK1R crystal structures and use NMR spectroscopy to gain further insights into the dynamics of aprepitant binding, which is of interest for further drug development.

    • Shuanghong Chen
    • , Mengjie Lu
    • , Dongsheng Liu
    • , Lingyun Yang
    • , Cuiying Yi
    • , Limin Ma
    • , Hui Zhang
    • , Qing Liu
    • , Thomas M. Frimurer
    • , Ming-Wei Wang
    • , Thue W. Schwartz
    • , Raymond C. Stevens
    • , Beili Wu
    • , Kurt Wüthrich
    •  & Qiang Zhao
  • Article | | open

    PTEN is a lipid phosphatase that functions as a dose-dependent tumor suppressor through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Here the authors describe a signaling feedback mechanism where PTEN stability is regulated through transcriptional upregulation of X-linked ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11) via the PI3K/FOXO pathway.

    • Mi Kyung Park
    • , Yixin Yao
    • , Weiya Xia
    • , Stephanie Rebecca Setijono
    • , Jae Hwan Kim
    • , Isabelle K. Vila
    • , Hui-Hsuan Chiu
    • , Yun Wu
    • , Enrique González Billalabeitia
    • , Min Gyu Lee
    • , Robert G. Kalb
    • , Mien-Chie Hung
    • , Pier Paolo Pandolfi
    • , Su Jung Song
    •  & Min Sup Song
  • Article | | open

    Ferromanganese minerals are abundant in marine environments but the extent of these minerals in subseafloor sediments remains unknown. Here the authors find abundant ferromanganese microparticles in oxic pelagic clays, accounting for 14–16% of the new estimate of the global manganese budget (9.2–47.4 Tt).

    • Go-Ichiro Uramoto
    • , Yuki Morono
    • , Naotaka Tomioka
    • , Shigeyuki Wakaki
    • , Ryoichi Nakada
    • , Rota Wagai
    • , Kentaro Uesugi
    • , Akihisa Takeuchi
    • , Masato Hoshino
    • , Yoshio Suzuki
    • , Fumito Shiraishi
    • , Satoshi Mitsunobu
    • , Hiroki Suga
    • , Yasuo Takeichi
    • , Yoshio Takahashi
    •  & Fumio Inagaki
  • Article | | open

    Zinc ions (Zn2+) are imported by Golgi-resident transporters but the function of zinc in the early secretory pathway has remained unknown. Here the authors find that Zn2+ regulates protein quality control in the early secretory pathway by demonstrating that the pH-sensitive chaperone ERp44 binds Zn2+ and solving the Zn2+-bound ERp44 structure.

    • Satoshi Watanabe
    • , Yuta Amagai
    • , Sara Sannino
    • , Tiziana Tempio
    • , Tiziana Anelli
    • , Manami Harayama
    • , Shoji Masui
    • , Ilaria Sorrentino
    • , Momo Yamada
    • , Roberto Sitia
    •  & Kenji Inaba
  • Article | | open

    Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum merozoites that fix complement can inhibit blood-stage replication. Here, Reiling et al. show that complement-fixing antibodies strongly correlate with protective immunity in children, identify the merozoite targets, and predict antigen combinations that should result in strong protection.

    • Linda Reiling
    • , Michelle J. Boyle
    • , Michael T. White
    • , Danny W. Wilson
    • , Gaoqian Feng
    • , Rupert Weaver
    • , D. Herbert Opi
    • , Kristina E. M. Persson
    • , Jack S. Richards
    • , Peter M. Siba
    • , Freya J. I. Fowkes
    • , Eizo Takashima
    • , Takafumi Tsuboi
    • , Ivo Mueller
    •  & James G. Beeson
  • Article | | open

    Kinetochore function depends on H4K20 monomethylation in centromeric nucleosomes but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, the authors provide evidence that the centromere-specific nucleosome subunit CENP-A facilitates H4K20 methylation by enabling a conformational change of the H4 N-terminal tail.

    • Yasuhiro Arimura
    • , Hiroaki Tachiwana
    • , Hiroki Takagi
    • , Tetsuya Hori
    • , Hiroshi Kimura
    • , Tatsuo Fukagawa
    •  & Hitoshi Kurumizaka
  • Article | | open

    The TERB1-TERB2-MAJIN complex mediates the attachment of telomeres to the nuclear envelope. Here the authors present the crystal structures of the human TERB1-TERB2 and TERB2-MAJIN subcomplexes and show that Terb2 mutations, which abolish complex formation cause aberrant homologous pairing and disordered synapsis in mouse.

    • Yan Wang
    • , Yanyan Chen
    • , Juan Chen
    • , Lijun Wang
    • , Leitong Nie
    • , Juanjuan Long
    • , Haishuang Chang
    • , Jian Wu
    • , Chenhui Huang
    •  & Ming Lei
  • Article | | open

    Producing individual cannabinoids by metabolically engineered microbes has proven challenging. Here, the authors develop a cell-free enzymatic prenylating system to generate isoprenyl pyrophosphate substrates directly from glucose and produce both common and rare cannabinoids at >1 g/L.

    • Meaghan A. Valliere
    • , Tyler P. Korman
    • , Nicholas B. Woodall
    • , Gregory A. Khitrov
    • , Robert E. Taylor
    • , David Baker
    •  & James U. Bowie
  • Article | | open

    Ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) pathways monitor and respond to stalling of the translating ribosome. Here the authors show that the ribosome associated RQC factor Hel2/ZNF598, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, generally interacts with mRNAs in the vicinity of stop codons.

    • Marie-Luise Winz
    • , Lauri Peil
    • , Tomasz W. Turowski
    • , Juri Rappsilber
    •  & David Tollervey
  • Article | | open

    Mother Nature is a valuable resource for the discovery of drug and agricultural chemicals. Here, the authors show that 7-deoxy-sedoheptulose produced by a cyanobacterium is an antimicrobial and herbicidal compound that acts through inhibition of 3-dehydroquniate synthase in the shikimate pathway.

    • Klaus Brilisauer
    • , Johanna Rapp
    • , Pascal Rath
    • , Anna Schöllhorn
    • , Lisa Bleul
    • , Elisabeth Weiß
    • , Mark Stahl
    • , Stephanie Grond
    •  & Karl Forchhammer
  • Article | | open

    The role of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) in maintenance of protein folding homeostasis inside the ER has remained unclear. Here the authors determine the structure of the complex between MANF and the ER-localized chaperone BiP and provide evidence that MANF serves as an anti-nucleotide exchange factor for BiP.

    • Yahui Yan
    • , Claudia Rato
    • , Lukas Rohland
    • , Steffen Preissler
    •  & David Ron
  • Article | | open

    Rix7 is a type II AAA-ATPase that is required for the assembly of the large ribosomal subunit. Here the authors present the 4.5 Å cryo-EM structure of the Rix7 homohexamer with a polypeptide fragment bound in its central channel and provide insights into the function of Rix7 as a molecular unfoldase.

    • Yu-Hua Lo
    • , Mack Sobhany
    • , Allen L. Hsu
    • , Brittany L. Ford
    • , Juno M. Krahn
    • , Mario J. Borgnia
    •  & Robin E. Stanley
  • Article | | open

    PGAM5 is a mitochondrial protein phosphatase whose functions include regulation of mitophagy and cell death. Here, the authors use x-ray crystallography and EM to show that PGAM5 forms dodecameric rings and filaments in solution, and find that PGAM5 rings are essential for catalysis and for a structural effect PGAM5 has on mitochondrial membranes, independently of catalytic activity.

    • Karen Ruiz
    • , Tarjani M. Thaker
    • , Christopher Agnew
    • , Lakshmi Miller-Vedam
    • , Raphael Trenker
    • , Clara Herrera
    • , Maria Ingaramo
    • , Daniel Toso
    • , Adam Frost
    •  & Natalia Jura
  • Article | | open

    Membraneless compartments have been theorized to be prebiotic micro-compartments as they spontaneously encapsulate RNA and proteins. Here, the authors report membraneless compartments can enhance RNA chemistries, affecting template directed RNA polymerization and stimulating nucleic acid enzymes.

    • Raghav R. Poudyal
    • , Rebecca M. Guth-Metzler
    • , Andrew J. Veenis
    • , Erica A. Frankel
    • , Christine D. Keating
    •  & Philip C. Bevilacqua
  • Article | | open

    Metabolic pathways are increasingly recognized as crucial determinants of T cell function. Here the authors show that the balance between IFNγ and IL-10 production in human CD4 T cells is modulated by the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.

    • Esperanza Perucha
    • , Rossella Melchiotti
    • , Jack A Bibby
    • , Wing Wu
    • , Klaus Stensgaard Frederiksen
    • , Ceri A. Roberts
    • , Zoe Hall
    • , Gaelle LeFriec
    • , Kevin A. Robertson
    • , Paul Lavender
    • , Jens Gammeltoft Gerwien
    • , Leonie S. Taams
    • , Julian L. Griffin
    • , Emanuele de Rinaldis
    • , Lisa G. M. van Baarsen
    • , Claudia Kemper
    • , Peter Ghazal
    •  & Andrew P. Cope
  • Article | | open

    IRSp53 is a key regulator of filopodia formation and cell migration. Here, the authors elucidate a mechanism of phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of IRSp53 by 14-3-3, which impedes the interactions of IRSp53 with membranes and downstream cytoskeletal effectors.

    • David J. Kast
    •  & Roberto Dominguez
  • Article | | open

    It remains unclear when and why the world’s oceans, once largely occupied by bacteria, became dominated by photosynthetic algae. Here, using fossil lipids in million year old rocks, the authors show that predation after the Snowball Earth glaciations created the opportunity for a global shift to algal ecosystems.

    • Lennart M. van Maldegem
    • , Pierre Sansjofre
    • , Johan W. H. Weijers
    • , Klaus Wolkenstein
    • , Paul K. Strother
    • , Lars Wörmer
    • , Jens Hefter
    • , Benjamin J. Nettersheim
    • , Yosuke Hoshino
    • , Stefan Schouten
    • , Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
    • , Nilamoni Nath
    • , Christian Griesinger
    • , Nikolay B. Kuznetsov
    • , Marcel Elie
    • , Marcus Elvert
    • , Erik Tegelaar
    • , Gerd Gleixner
    •  & Christian Hallmann
  • Article | | open

    The underlying mechanisms structuring dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and reactivity in rivers remain poorly quantified. Here, the authors pair mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy to show that hydrology and river geomorphology both shape molecular patterns in DOM composition.

    • Laurel M. Lynch
    • , Nicholas A. Sutfin
    • , Timothy S. Fegel
    • , Claudia M. Boot
    • , Timothy P. Covino
    •  & Matthew D. Wallenstein
  • Article | | open

    The origin and physiological significance of lipid droplets (LDs) in the nucleus is not clear. Here authors show that nucleoplasmic LDs in hepatocytes are derived from apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-free lumenal LDs and constitute a feedback mechanism to regulate PC synthesis in accordance with ER stress.

    • Kamil Sołtysik
    • , Yuki Ohsaki
    • , Tsuyako Tatematsu
    • , Jinglei Cheng
    •  & Toyoshi Fujimoto
  • Article | | open

    The inactive X chromosome (Xi) is a model for establishment and maintenance of repressed chromatin and the function of polycomb repressive complexes. Here the authors show that Xi transiently relocates from the nuclear periphery during replication in a CIZ1-dependent manner, which plays a role in maintaining PRC-mediated repressed chromatin.

    • Emma R. Stewart
    • , Robert M. L. Turner
    • , Katherine Newling
    • , Rebeca Ridings-Figueroa
    • , Victoria Scott
    • , Peter D. Ashton
    • , Justin F. X. Ainscough
    •  & Dawn Coverley
  • Article | | open

    Learning improves perceptual decisions by enhancing the brain's ability to filter noise and irrelevant information. Here, the authors show that GABAergic inhibition in decision-making circuits supports our ability to optimize perceptual judgments through learning and experience.

    • Polytimi Frangou
    • , Uzay E. Emir
    • , Vasilis M. Karlaftis
    • , Caroline Nettekoven
    • , Emily L. Hinson
    • , Stephanie Larcombe
    • , Holly Bridge
    • , Charlotte J. Stagg
    •  & Zoe Kourtzi
  • Article | | open

    Designing interfaces that can induce protein-protein interactions is a challenging problem. Here the authors show that a five amino acid sequence known to mediate domain swapping in cystatins can drive oligomerization when grafted onto functionally and structurally unrelated host proteins, providing a simple approach to the design of protein assemblies.

    • Neha Nandwani
    • , Parag Surana
    • , Hitendra Negi
    • , Nahren M. Mascarenhas
    • , Jayant B. Udgaonkar
    • , Ranabir Das
    •  & Shachi Gosavi
  • Article | | open

    The chaperone Hsp90 is a potential target for the development of drugs against fungal pathogens. Here the authors determine the structure of the Hsp90 nucleotide-binding domain from Candida albicans, which they use to design an inhibitor and demonstrate its selectivity for the fungal enzyme, both biochemically and in cells.

    • Luke Whitesell
    • , Nicole Robbins
    • , David S. Huang
    • , Catherine A. McLellan
    • , Tanvi Shekhar-Guturja
    • , Emmanuelle V. LeBlanc
    • , Catherine S. Nation
    • , Raymond Hui
    • , Ashley Hutchinson
    • , Cathy Collins
    • , Sharanya Chatterjee
    • , Richard Trilles
    • , Jinglin L. Xie
    • , Damian J. Krysan
    • , Susan Lindquist
    • , John A. Porco Jr.
    • , Utpal Tatu
    • , Lauren E. Brown
    • , Juan Pizarro
    •  & Leah E. Cowen
  • Article | | open

    Hippo signaling leads to the phosphorylation of the key transcriptional effector, Yap/Yki, although how Yap/Yki stability is regulated has remained unclear. Here, Sun et al. identify HAUSP/Usp7 as a conserved and clinically relevant regulator of the Hippo pathway that increases Yap/Yki stability.

    • Xiaohan Sun
    • , Yan Ding
    • , Meixiao Zhan
    • , Yan Li
    • , Dongqing Gao
    • , Guiping Wang
    • , Yang Gao
    • , Yong Li
    • , Shian Wu
    • , Ligong Lu
    • , Qingxin Liu
    •  & Zizhang Zhou
  • Article | | open

    Plants are dependent on controlled sugar uptake via Monosaccharide Transporters, such as STP10, for correct organ development, sugar accumulation in fruits and microbial defense. Here authors present the crystal structure of STP10 bound to glucose which sheds light on the fundamental principles of sugar transport in the plant-unique MST superfamily.

    • Peter Aasted Paulsen
    • , Tânia F. Custódio
    •  & Bjørn Panyella Pedersen
  • Article | | open

    Septins are cytoskeletal filaments that localize at constriction sites and impact membrane remodeling. Here authors examine the curvature sensitivity of septins using bilayers on wavy patterns and derive a theoretical model that quantitatively describe the results.

    • Alexandre Beber
    • , Cyntia Taveneau
    • , Manuela Nania
    • , Feng-Ching Tsai
    • , Aurelie Di Cicco
    • , Patricia Bassereau
    • , Daniel Lévy
    • , João T. Cabral
    • , Hervé Isambert
    • , Stéphanie Mangenot
    •  & Aurélie Bertin