Astronomy and planetary science

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Asteroid shapes and hydration levels can serve as tracers of their history and origin. Here, the authors show top shape asteroids can form directly through gravitational reaccumulation and rubble piles formed in a single disruption can have similar porosities but variable degrees of hydration.

    • P. Michel
    • , R.-L. Ballouz
    • , O. S. Barnouin
    • , M. Jutzi
    • , K. J. Walsh
    • , B. H. May
    • , C. Manzoni
    • , D. C. Richardson
    • , S. R. Schwartz
    • , S. Sugita
    • , S. Watanabe
    • , H. Miyamoto
    • , M. Hirabayashi
    • , W. F. Bottke
    • , H. C. Connolly
    • , M. Yoshikawa
    •  & D. S. Lauretta
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors here present a 3D model that simulates the formation of the Chicxulub impact crater. Based on asymmetries in the subsurface structure of the Chicxulub crater, the authors diagnose impact angle and direction and suggest a steeply inclined (60° to horizontal) impact from the northeast.

    • G. S. Collins
    • , N. Patel
    • , T. M. Davison
    • , A. S. P. Rae
    • , J. V. Morgan
    • , S. P. S. Gulick
    • , G. L. Christeson
    • , E. Chenot
    • , P. Claeys
    • , C. S. Cockell
    • , M. J. L. Coolen
    • , L. Ferrière
    • , C. Gebhardt
    • , K. Goto
    • , H. Jones
    • , D. A. Kring
    • , J. Lofi
    • , C. M. Lowery
    • , R. Ocampo-Torres
    • , L. Perez-Cruz
    • , A. E. Pickersgill
    • , M. H. Poelchau
    • , C. Rasmussen
    • , M. Rebolledo-Vieyra
    • , U. Riller
    • , H. Sato
    • , J. Smit
    • , S. M. Tikoo
    • , N. Tomioka
    • , J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi
    • , M. T. Whalen
    • , A. Wittmann
    • , L. Xiao
    • , K. E. Yamaguchi
    • , N. Artemieva
    •  & T. J. Bralower
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Independently measuring the tidal deformability and the fundamental oscillation mode (fmode) frequency enables tests of gravity and the nature of compact binaries. Here, the authors constrain the f-mode frequencies of the companions of GW170817 from direct measurements, demonstrating gravitational wave asteroseismology with binary inspiral signals alone.

    • Geraint Pratten
    • , Patricia Schmidt
    •  & Tanja Hinderer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Applying high-pressure and -temperature experiments, the authors here measure sound velocities in various liquid Fe-S alloys under conditions expected for the upper Martian core. The results together with future InSight mission data will help to understand whether the Martian core is molten Fe-S.

    • Keisuke Nishida
    • , Yuki Shibazaki
    • , Hidenori Terasaki
    • , Yuji Higo
    • , Akio Suzuki
    • , Nobumasa Funamori
    •  & Kei Hirose
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors analyze a system of multi-layered hazes above Saturn’s hexagonal-wave cloud tops in the visual range. Analyses suggest the formation to be caused by condensation processes, and the vertical distribution of stacked layers by the upward propagation of internal gravity waves.

    • A. Sánchez-Lavega
    • , A. García-Muñoz
    • , T. del Río-Gaztelurrutia
    • , S. Pérez-Hoyos
    • , J. F. Sanz-Requena
    • , R. Hueso
    • , S. Guerlet
    •  & J. Peralta
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Earth rotation variation reflects the physics, dynamics and the magnetic field changes of Earth’s interior. The authors find a significant ~8.6 year periodic increasing oscillation in length of day and its good link to geomagnetic jerks related to Earth’s core oscillations, which may be used to predict the future jerk timings.

    • Pengshuo Duan
    •  & Chengli Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Using high-resolution orbital imagery of the Martian surface, the authors Salese et al. here describe the first discovered stratigraphic product of multiple extensive fluvial-channel belts in an exposed vertical section at Izola Mensa in the northwestern rim of the Hellas Basin.

    • Francesco Salese
    • , William J. McMahon
    • , Matthew R. Balme
    • , Veronique Ansan
    • , Joel M. Davis
    •  & Maarten G. Kleinhans
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The surface of active asteroid (3200) Phaethon, parent body of the Geminid meteor shower, reaches temperatures sufficient to destabilize hydrated materials. Here, the authors show that the northern hemisphere and the equatorial region of this asteroid reveal no evidence of hydration in the near-infrared spectra.

    • Driss Takir
    • , Theodore Kareta
    • , Joshua P. Emery
    • , Josef Hanuš
    • , Vishnu Reddy
    • , Ellen S. Howell
    • , Andrew S. Rivkin
    •  & Tomoko Arai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Theoretical studies suggested that plasmapause surface waves related to the sharp inhomogeneity exist and act as a source of geomagnetic pulsations. Here, the authors show direct observations of a plasmapause surface wave and its impacts during a geomagnetic storm using multi-satellite and ground-based observations.

    • Fei He
    • , Rui-Long Guo
    • , William R. Dunn
    • , Zhong-Hua Yao
    • , Hua-Sen Zhang
    • , Yi-Xin Hao
    • , Quan-Qi Shi
    • , Zhao-Jin Rong
    • , Jiang Liu
    • , An-Min Tian
    • , Xiao-Xin Zhang
    • , Yong Wei
    • , Yong-Liang Zhang
    • , Qiu-Gang Zong
    • , Zu-Yin Pu
    •  & Wei-Xing Wan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sulfur is abundant in the Universe, but the observed abundance ratio of SH to H2S doesn’t agree with astrochemical models. The authors measure product state-resolved translational energy spectra of photoproducts in a jet-cooled H2S beam as a function of wavelength, showing that SH yield is lower than assumed in the models.

    • Jiami Zhou
    • , Yarui Zhao
    • , Christopher S. Hansen
    • , Jiayue Yang
    • , Yao Chang
    • , Yong Yu
    • , Gongkui Cheng
    • , Zhichao Chen
    • , Zhigang He
    • , Shengrui Yu
    • , Hongbin Ding
    • , Weiqing Zhang
    • , Guorong Wu
    • , Dongxu Dai
    • , Colin M. Western
    • , Michael N. R. Ashfold
    • , Kaijun Yuan
    •  & Xueming Yang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors here investigate troilite (FeS) grains recovered from the regolith of asteroid Itokawa. Finding wide-spread occurrence of metallic iron whiskers, the authors suggest them to be a decomposition product formed through irradiation of the sulfide by energetic ions of the solar wind.

    • Toru Matsumoto
    • , Dennis Harries
    • , Falko Langenhorst
    • , Akira Miyake
    •  & Takaaki Noguchi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The InSight spacecraft landed on Mars on November 2018. Here, the authors characterize the surficial geology of the landing site and compare with observations and models derived from remote sensing data prior to landing and from ongoing in situ geophysical investigations of the subsurface.

    • M. Golombek
    • , N. H. Warner
    • , J. A. Grant
    • , E. Hauber
    • , V. Ansan
    • , C. M. Weitz
    • , N. Williams
    • , C. Charalambous
    • , S. A. Wilson
    • , A. DeMott
    • , M. Kopp
    • , H. Lethcoe-Wilson
    • , L. Berger
    • , R. Hausmann
    • , E. Marteau
    • , C. Vrettos
    • , A. Trussell
    • , W. Folkner
    • , S. Le Maistre
    • , N. Mueller
    • , M. Grott
    • , T. Spohn
    • , S. Piqueux
    • , E. Millour
    • , F. Forget
    • , I. Daubar
    • , N. Murdoch
    • , P. Lognonné
    • , C. Perrin
    • , S. Rodriguez
    • , W. T. Pike
    • , T. Parker
    • , J. Maki
    • , H. Abarca
    • , R. Deen
    • , J. Hall
    • , P. Andres
    • , N. Ruoff
    • , F. Calef
    • , S. Smrekar
    • , M. M. Baker
    • , M. Banks
    • , A. Spiga
    • , D. Banfield
    • , J. Garvin
    • , C. E. Newman
    •  & W. B. Banerdt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors here present the diurnal tides of dust within the southern Martian atmosphere. The dust tides imply a fast meridional exchange of heat and materials on Mars and allow water content near the summer pole to be rapidly transported to the middle latitudes in the nighttime which is then lifted by daytime deep convection.

    • Zhaopeng Wu
    • , Tao Li
    • , Xi Zhang
    • , Jing Li
    •  & Jun Cui
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Telecommunication, navigation and remote sensing services are highly dependent on how well satellites provide global coverage. Here the authors show a pair of four-satellite low-cost longer-life constellations that provide nearly continuous global coverage to support Earth observation.

    • Lake A. Singh
    • , William R. Whittecar
    • , Marc D. DiPrinzio
    • , Jonathan D. Herman
    • , Matthew P. Ferringer
    •  & Patrick M. Reed
  • Article
    | Open Access

    High redshift blazars are efficient probes of supermassive black holes and their environment in the early Universe. Here the authors show measurements of polarised emission and proper motion in the blazar J0906+6930 (redshift of 5.47) characterised by a nascent jet embedded in and interacting with a dense medium.

    • Tao An
    • , Prashanth Mohan
    • , Yingkang Zhang
    • , Sándor Frey
    • , Jun Yang
    • , Krisztina É. Gabányi
    • , Leonid I. Gurvits
    • , Zsolt Paragi
    • , Krisztina Perger
    •  & Zhenya Zheng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Various types of plasma waves are generated around electron diffusion regions (EDRs). Here the authors show electron Bernstein waves (EBWs), at the electron-scale boundary of the Hall current reversal near EDR, are sufficiently strong to diffuse electrons and modify electron pressure tensor.

    • W. Y. Li
    • , D. B. Graham
    • , Yu. V. Khotyaintsev
    • , A. Vaivads
    • , M. André
    • , K. Min
    • , K. Liu
    • , B. B. Tang
    • , C. Wang
    • , K. Fujimoto
    • , C. Norgren
    • , S. Toledo-Redondo
    • , P.-A. Lindqvist
    • , R. E. Ergun
    • , R. B. Torbert
    • , A. C. Rager
    • , J. C. Dorelli
    • , D. J. Gershman
    • , B. L. Giles
    • , B. Lavraud
    • , F. Plaschke
    • , W. Magnes
    • , O. Le Contel
    • , C. T. Russell
    •  & J. L. Burch
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Banded iron formations could have formed in the early oceans due to microbial metabolism. Here Dodd and colleagues find little organic carbon in these formations, indicating microbial iron cycling was minimal and could have limited the recycling of important nutrients to overlying waters.

    • Matthew S. Dodd
    • , Dominic Papineau
    • , Franco Pirajno
    • , Yusheng Wan
    •  & Juha A. Karhu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The occurrence of longitudinal ridges on large landslide masses on planetary bodies is enabled by long runout distances, which have so far been attributed to the presence of ice. The authors here present a challenging model based on mechanical instabilities within the flow, suggesting that ice is not needed.

    • Giulia Magnarini
    • , Thomas M. Mitchell
    • , Peter M. Grindrod
    • , Liran Goren
    •  & Harrison H. Schmitt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chorus waves are crucial on radiation belt dynamics in the space of magnetized planets. Here, the authors show that initially excited single-band chorus waves can quickly accelerate medium energy electrons, and divide the anisotropic electrons into low and high energy components, which subsequently excite two-band chorus waves.

    • Jinxing Li
    • , Jacob Bortnik
    • , Xin An
    • , Wen Li
    • , Vassilis Angelopoulos
    • , Richard M. Thorne
    • , Christopher T. Russell
    • , Binbin Ni
    • , Xiaochen Shen
    • , William S. Kurth
    • , George B. Hospodarsky
    • , David P. Hartley
    • , Herbert O. Funsten
    • , Harlan E. Spence
    •  & Daniel N. Baker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The formation of nucleobases can take place in extraterrestrial environments. Here the authors show the simultaneous synthesis of three purine nucleobases and three pyrimidine from interstellar ice analogues that suggest the evolution from molecular clouds to stars and planets provide suitable environment for nucleobase synthesis in space.

    • Yasuhiro Oba
    • , Yoshinori Takano
    • , Hiroshi Naraoka
    • , Naoki Watanabe
    •  & Akira Kouchi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gigantic jets, lightning discharges originating from tropical thunderstorms that can reach the base of the ionosphere at 90 km altitude, have not been captured using high-speed video cameras before. Here, the first such images are reported, showing a step-wise evolution of gigantic jets during their rising phase.

    • Oscar A. van der Velde
    • , Joan Montanyà
    • , Jesús A. López
    •  & Steven A. Cummer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Chang’E-4 mission in January 2019 had the major challenge to land on the lunar far side without traditional radiometric techniques due to the missing line-of-sight. The authors here describe landing trajectory reconstruction and positioning techniques based upon the Moon’s digital terrain model that allowed reproducing the entire process of a successful landing.

    • Jianjun Liu
    • , Xin Ren
    • , Wei Yan
    • , Chunlai Li
    • , He Zhang
    • , Yang Jia
    • , Xingguo Zeng
    • , Wangli Chen
    • , Xingye Gao
    • , Dawei Liu
    • , Xu Tan
    • , Xiaoxia Zhang
    • , Tao Ni
    • , Hongbo Zhang
    • , Wei Zuo
    • , Yan Su
    •  & Weibin Wen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Due to active geological resurfacing, the record of large impact basins (e.g. in Chryse Planitia) on Mars seems to be widely absent. Based on high-quality global datasets, the authors here propose a buried impact basin, covered by up to 1 km of sediments or lava flows after its formation more than 4 billion years ago.

    • Lu Pan
    • , Cathy Quantin-Nataf
    • , Sylvain Breton
    •  & Chloé Michaut
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The ionisation fraction of protostellar jets is key to establish their true energetics. Here, the authors determine it in a jet from a high-mass young stellar object, using multi-wavelengths observations, confirming that the ionising mechanism giving rise to the radio emission originates from shocks.

    • R. Fedriani
    • , A. Caratti o Garatti
    • , S. J. D. Purser
    • , A. Sanna
    • , J. C. Tan
    • , R. Garcia-Lopez
    • , T. P. Ray
    • , D. Coffey
    • , B. Stecklum
    •  & M. Hoare
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Heating of the upper solar atmospheric layers is an open question. Here, the authors show observational evidence that ubiquitous Alfven pulses are excited by prevalent photospheric swirls, which are found to propagate upwards and carry enough energy flux needed to balance the local upper chromospheric energy loss.

    • Jiajia Liu
    • , Chris J. Nelson
    • , Ben Snow
    • , Yuming Wang
    •  & Robert Erdélyi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Interstellar magnetic fields determined from pulsar polarimetry in the GHz-band may be biased by mechanical-optical rotation in pulsars’ magnetospheres. Here the authors show how observations at sub-GHz frequencies can be used to resolve such a bias and determine pulsar rotation directions.

    • Renaud Gueroult
    • , Yuan Shi
    • , Jean-Marcel Rax
    •  & Nathaniel J. Fisch
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Carbon monoxide is the main C and O reservoir in interstellar media, where it undergoes photochemistry. The authors show that isotopic substitution affects not only its absorption. spectrum and photodissociation rates but also the branching ratio, key to understand isotopic. fractionation in the solar system

    • Pan Jiang
    • , Xiaoping Chi
    • , Qihe Zhu
    • , Min Cheng
    •  & Hong Gao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Galaxy clusters contain vast amount of dark matter and baryonic matter. Here the authors show the observational detection of the anti-correlation of gas mass and stellar mass observables in the most massive galaxy clusters, indicating such clusters retain close to the cosmic mix of baryons and dark matter.

    • Arya Farahi
    • , Sarah L. Mulroy
    • , August E. Evrard
    • , Graham P. Smith
    • , Alexis Finoguenov
    • , Hervé Bourdin
    • , John E. Carlstrom
    • , Chris P. Haines
    • , Daniel P. Marrone
    • , Rossella Martino
    • , Pasquale Mazzotta
    • , Christine O’Donnell
    •  & Nobuhiro Okabe
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Intense electromagnetic impulses induced by Jupiter’s lightning can produce both low-frequency dispersed whistler emissions and non-dispersed radio pulses. Here, the authors show Jupiter dispersed pulses associated with Jovian lightning that are evidence of low density holes in Jupiter’s ionosphere.

    • Masafumi Imai
    • , Ivana Kolmašová
    • , William S. Kurth
    • , Ondřej Santolík
    • , George B. Hospodarsky
    • , Donald A. Gurnett
    • , Shannon T. Brown
    • , Scott J. Bolton
    • , John E. P. Connerney
    •  & Steven M. Levin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and plasma instabilities can be studied during solar flares. Here the authors show evidence for an MHD sausage mode oscillation periodically triggering electron acceleration at a magnetic null point in the solar corona, indicating MHD oscillations in plasma can indirectly lead to loss-cone instability modulation.

    • Eoin P. Carley
    • , Laura A. Hayes
    • , Sophie A. Murray
    • , Diana E. Morosan
    • , Warren Shelley
    • , Nicole Vilmer
    •  & Peter T. Gallagher
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sublimation of ice is believed to have generated a variety of landforms on Mars and other planetary bodies. Here the authors show the first long-term in situ effective diffusion coefficient of terrestrial ice-free loess (Mars analog soil), scaled to Mars average pressure, temperature and CO2 atmosphere.

    • Thomas A. Douglas
    •  & Michael T. Mellon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Recent studies have shown that lightning is initiated by a newly-recognized discharge process called fast positive breakdown. Here, the authors present observational evidence of fast breakdown but of negative polarity, seemingly contrary to current understanding of discharge physics.

    • Julia N. Tilles
    • , Ningyu Liu
    • , Mark A. Stanley
    • , Paul R. Krehbiel
    • , William Rison
    • , Michael G. Stock
    • , Joseph R. Dwyer
    • , Robert Brown
    •  & Jennifer Wilson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Yonetoku relation provides a diagnostic for the radiation mechanism in the prompt phase of gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. Here, Ito et al. show the reproduction of this relation in 3D hydrodynamical simulations followed by radiative transfer calculations, which suggest the photospheric emission is the dominant component in the prompt phase of GRBs.

    • Hirotaka Ito
    • , Jin Matsumoto
    • , Shigehiro Nagataki
    • , Donald C. Warren
    • , Maxim V. Barkov
    •  & Daisuke Yonetoku
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Vicinity of small bodies might be dangerous to the spacecrafts and to their instrumentation. Here the authors show the operational environment of asteroid Bennu, validate its photometric phase function and demonstrate the accelerating rotational rate due to YORP effect using the data acquired during the approach phase of OSIRIS-REx mission.

    • C. W. Hergenrother
    • , C. K. Maleszewski
    • , M. C. Nolan
    • , J.-Y. Li
    • , C. Y. Drouet d’Aubigny
    • , F. C. Shelly
    • , E. S. Howell
    • , T. R. Kareta
    • , M. R. M. Izawa
    • , M. A. Barucci
    • , E. B. Bierhaus
    • , H. Campins
    • , S. R. Chesley
    • , B. E. Clark
    • , E. J. Christensen
    • , D. N. DellaGiustina
    • , S. Fornasier
    • , D. R. Golish
    • , C. M. Hartzell
    • , B. Rizk
    • , D. J. Scheeres
    • , P. H. Smith
    • , X.-D. Zou
    • , D. S. Lauretta
    • , D. E. Highsmith
    • , J. Small
    • , D. Vokrouhlický
    • , N. E. Bowles
    • , E. Brown
    • , K. L. Donaldson Hanna
    • , T. Warren
    • , C. Brunet
    • , R. A. Chicoine
    • , S. Desjardins
    • , D. Gaudreau
    • , T. Haltigin
    • , S. Millington-Veloza
    • , A. Rubi
    • , J. Aponte
    • , N. Gorius
    • , A. Lunsford
    • , B. Allen
    • , J. Grindlay
    • , D. Guevel
    • , D. Hoak
    • , J. Hong
    • , D. L. Schrader
    • , J. Bayron
    • , O. Golubov
    • , P. Sánchez
    • , J. Stromberg
    • , M. Hirabayashi
    • , C. M. Hartzell
    • , S. Oliver
    • , M. Rascon
    • , A. Harch
    • , J. Joseph
    • , S. Squyres
    • , D. Richardson
    • , J. P. Emery
    • , L. McGraw
    • , R. Ghent
    • , R. P. Binzel
    • , M. M. Al Asad
    • , C. L. Johnson
    • , L. Philpott
    • , H. C. M. Susorney
    • , E. A. Cloutis
    • , R. D. Hanna
    • , H. C. Connolly Jr.
    • , F. Ciceri
    • , A. R. Hildebrand
    • , E.-M. Ibrahim
    • , L. Breitenfeld
    • , T. Glotch
    • , A. D. Rogers
    • , B. E. Clark
    • , S. Ferrone
    • , C. A. Thomas
    • , H. Campins
    • , Y. Fernandez
    • , W. Chang
    • , A. Cheuvront
    • , D. Trang
    • , S. Tachibana
    • , H. Yurimoto
    • , J. R. Brucato
    • , G. Poggiali
    • , M. Pajola
    • , E. Dotto
    • , E. Mazzotta Epifani
    • , M. K. Crombie
    • , C. Lantz
    • , M. R. M. Izawa
    • , J. de Leon
    • , J. Licandro
    • , J. L. Rizos Garcia
    • , S. Clemett
    • , K. Thomas-Keprta
    • , S. Van wal
    • , M. Yoshikawa
    • , J. Bellerose
    • , S. Bhaskaran
    • , C. Boyles
    • , S. R. Chesley
    • , C. M. Elder
    • , D. Farnocchia
    • , A. Harbison
    • , B. Kennedy
    • , A. Knight
    • , N. Martinez-Vlasoff
    • , N. Mastrodemos
    • , T. McElrath
    • , W. Owen
    • , R. Park
    • , B. Rush
    • , L. Swanson
    • , Y. Takahashi
    • , D. Velez
    • , K. Yetter
    • , C. Thayer
    • , C. Adam
    • , P. Antreasian
    • , J. Bauman
    • , C. Bryan
    • , B. Carcich
    • , M. Corvin
    • , J. Geeraert
    • , J. Hoffman
    • , J. M. Leonard
    • , E. Lessac-Chenen
    • , A. Levine
    • , J. McAdams
    • , L. McCarthy
    • , D. Nelson
    • , B. Page
    • , J. Pelgrift
    • , E. Sahr
    • , K. Stakkestad
    • , D. Stanbridge
    • , D. Wibben
    • , B. Williams
    • , K. Williams
    • , P. Wolff
    • , P. Hayne
    • , D. Kubitschek
    • , M. A. Barucci
    • , J. D. P. Deshapriya
    • , S. Fornasier
    • , M. Fulchignoni
    • , P. Hasselmann
    • , F. Merlin
    • , A. Praet
    • , E. B. Bierhaus
    • , O. Billett
    • , A. Boggs
    • , B. Buck
    • , S. Carlson-Kelly
    • , J. Cerna
    • , K. Chaffin
    • , E. Church
    • , M. Coltrin
    • , J. Daly
    • , A. Deguzman
    • , R. Dubisher
    • , D. Eckart
    • , D. Ellis
    • , P. Falkenstern
    • , A. Fisher
    • , M. E. Fisher
    • , P. Fleming
    • , K. Fortney
    • , S. Francis
    • , S. Freund
    • , S. Gonzales
    • , P. Haas
    • , A. Hasten
    • , D. Hauf
    • , A. Hilbert
    • , D. Howell
    • , F. Jaen
    • , N. Jayakody
    • , M. Jenkins
    • , K. Johnson
    • , M. Lefevre
    • , H. Ma
    • , C. Mario
    • , K. Martin
    • , C. May
    • , M. McGee
    • , B. Miller
    • , C. Miller
    • , G. Miller
    • , A. Mirfakhrai
    • , E. Muhle
    • , C. Norman
    • , R. Olds
    • , C. Parish
    • , M. Ryle
    • , M. Schmitzer
    • , P. Sherman
    • , M. Skeen
    • , M. Susak
    • , B. Sutter
    • , Q. Tran
    • , C. Welch
    • , R. Witherspoon
    • , J. Wood
    • , J. Zareski
    • , M. Arvizu-Jakubicki
    • , E. Asphaug
    • , E. Audi
    • , R.-L. Ballouz
    • , R. Bandrowski
    • , K. J. Becker
    • , T. L. Becker
    • , S. Bendall
    • , C. A. Bennett
    • , H. Bloomenthal
    • , D. Blum
    • , W. V. Boynton
    • , J. Brodbeck
    • , K. N. Burke
    • , M. Chojnacki
    • , A. Colpo
    • , J. Contreras
    • , J. Cutts
    • , C. Y. Drouet d’Aubigny
    • , D. Dean
    • , D. N. DellaGiustina
    • , B. Diallo
    • , D. Drinnon
    • , K. Drozd
    • , H. L. Enos
    • , R. Enos
    • , C. Fellows
    • , T. Ferro
    • , M. R. Fisher
    • , G. Fitzgibbon
    • , M. Fitzgibbon
    • , J. Forelli
    • , T. Forrester
    • , I. Galinsky
    • , R. Garcia
    • , A. Gardner
    • , D. R. Golish
    • , N. Habib
    • , D. Hamara
    • , D. Hammond
    • , K. Hanley
    • , K. Harshman
    • , C. W. Hergenrother
    • , K. Herzog
    • , D. Hill
    • , C. Hoekenga
    • , S. Hooven
    • , E. S. Howell
    • , E. Huettner
    • , A. Janakus
    • , J. Jones
    • , T. R. Kareta
    • , J. Kidd
    • , K. Kingsbury
    • , S. S. Balram-Knutson
    • , L. Koelbel
    • , J. Kreiner
    • , D. Lambert
    • , D. S. Lauretta
    • , C. Lewin
    • , B. Lovelace
    • , M. Loveridge
    • , M. Lujan
    • , C. K. Maleszewski
    • , R. Malhotra
    • , K. Marchese
    • , E. McDonough
    • , N. Mogk
    • , V. Morrison
    • , E. Morton
    • , R. Munoz
    • , J. Nelson
    • , M. C. Nolan
    • , J. Padilla
    • , R. Pennington
    • , A. Polit
    • , N. Ramos
    • , V. Reddy
    • , M. Riehl
    • , B. Rizk
    • , H. L. Roper
    • , S. Salazar
    • , S. R. Schwartz
    • , S. Selznick
    • , N. Shultz
    • , P. H. Smith
    • , S. Stewart
    • , S. Sutton
    • , T. Swindle
    • , Y. H. Tang
    • , M. Westermann
    • , C. W. V. Wolner
    • , D. Worden
    • , T. Zega
    • , Z. Zeszut
    • , A. Bjurstrom
    • , L. Bloomquist
    • , C. Dickinson
    • , E. Keates
    • , J. Liang
    • , V. Nifo
    • , A. Taylor
    • , F. Teti
    • , M. Caplinger
    • , H. Bowles
    • , S. Carter
    • , S. Dickenshied
    • , D. Doerres
    • , T. Fisher
    • , W. Hagee
    • , J. Hill
    • , M. Miner
    • , D. Noss
    • , N. Piacentine
    • , M. Smith
    • , A. Toland
    • , P. Wren
    • , M. Bernacki
    • , D. Pino Munoz
    • , S.-i. Watanabe
    • , S. A. Sandford
    • , A. Aqueche
    • , B. Ashman
    • , M. Barker
    • , A. Bartels
    • , K. Berry
    • , B. Bos
    • , R. Burns
    • , A. Calloway
    • , R. Carpenter
    • , N. Castro
    • , R. Cosentino
    • , J. Donaldson
    • , J. P. Dworkin
    • , J. Elsila Cook
    • , C. Emr
    • , D. Everett
    • , D. Fennell
    • , K. Fleshman
    • , D. Folta
    • , D. Gallagher
    • , J. Garvin
    • , K. Getzandanner
    • , D. Glavin
    • , S. Hull
    • , K. Hyde
    • , H. Ido
    • , A. Ingegneri
    • , N. Jones
    • , P. Kaotira
    • , L. F. Lim
    • , A. Liounis
    • , C. Lorentson
    • , D. Lorenz
    • , J. Lyzhoft
    • , E. M. Mazarico
    • , R. Mink
    • , W. Moore
    • , M. Moreau
    • , S. Mullen
    • , J. Nagy
    • , G. Neumann
    • , J. Nuth
    • , D. Poland
    • , D. C. Reuter
    • , L. Rhoads
    • , S. Rieger
    • , D. Rowlands
    • , D. Sallitt
    • , A. Scroggins
    • , G. Shaw
    • , A. A. Simon
    • , J. Swenson
    • , P. Vasudeva
    • , M. Wasser
    • , R. Zellar
    • , J. Grossman
    • , G. Johnston
    • , M. Morris
    • , J. Wendel
    • , A. Burton
    • , L. P. Keller
    • , L. McNamara
    • , S. Messenger
    • , K. Nakamura-Messenger
    • , A. Nguyen
    • , K. Righter
    • , E. Queen
    • , K. Bellamy
    • , K. Dill
    • , S. Gardner
    • , M. Giuntini
    • , B. Key
    • , J. Kissell
    • , D. Patterson
    • , D. Vaughan
    • , B. Wright
    • , R. W. Gaskell
    • , L. Le Corre
    • , J.-Y. Li
    • , J. L. Molaro
    • , E. E. Palmer
    • , M. A. Siegler
    • , P. Tricarico
    • , J. R. Weirich
    • , X.-D. Zou
    • , T. Ireland
    • , K. Tait
    • , P. Bland
    • , S. Anwar
    • , N. Bojorquez-Murphy
    • , P. R. Christensen
    • , C. W. Haberle
    • , G. Mehall
    • , K. Rios
    • , I. Franchi
    • , B. Rozitis
    • , C. B. Beddingfield
    • , J. Marshall
    • , D. N. Brack
    • , A. S. French
    • , J. W. McMahon
    • , D. J. Scheeres
    • , E. R. Jawin
    • , T. J. McCoy
    • , S. Russell
    • , M. Killgore
    • , W. F. Bottke
    • , V. E. Hamilton
    • , H. H. Kaplan
    • , K. J. Walsh
    • , J. L. Bandfield
    • , B. C. Clark
    • , M. Chodas
    • , M. Lambert
    • , R. A. Masterson
    • , M. G. Daly
    • , J. Freemantle
    • , J. A. Seabrook
    • , O. S. Barnouin
    • , K. Craft
    • , R. T. Daly
    • , C. Ernst
    • , R. C. Espiritu
    • , M. Holdridge
    • , M. Jones
    • , A. H. Nair
    • , L. Nguyen
    • , J. Peachey
    • , M. E. Perry
    • , J. Plescia
    • , J. H. Roberts
    • , R. Steele
    • , R. Turner
    • , J. Backer
    • , K. Edmundson
    • , J. Mapel
    • , M. Milazzo
    • , S. Sides
    • , C. Manzoni
    • , B. May
    • , M. Delbo’
    • , G. Libourel
    • , P. Michel
    • , A. Ryan
    • , F. Thuillet
    •  & B. Marty
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Free electron lasers provide a state-of-the-art tool to investigate the photochemistry of water. Here, the authors show that highly rotationally excited hydroxyl radicals, so-called “super rotors” existing above the bond dissociation energy, are observed from the photodissociation of water, which may have implications for understanding the interstellar medium.

    • Yao Chang
    • , Yong Yu
    • , Heilong Wang
    • , Xixi Hu
    • , Qinming Li
    • , Jiayue Yang
    • , Shu Su
    • , Zhigang He
    • , Zhichao Chen
    • , Li Che
    • , Xingan Wang
    • , Weiqing Zhang
    • , Guorong Wu
    • , Daiqian Xie
    • , Michael N. R. Ashfold
    • , Kaijun Yuan
    •  & Xueming Yang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Magnetic cavities are universal phenomena existing in cosmic plasma environments. Here Liu et al. show electron scale magnetic cavities in proton scale magnetic cavities observed by Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft in the Earth’s magnetosheath, and depict the boundary of the electron scale magnetic cavity using particle sounding technique.

    • H. Liu
    • , Q.-G. Zong
    • , H. Zhang
    • , C. J. Xiao
    • , Q. Q. Shi
    • , S. T. Yao
    • , J. S. He
    • , X.-Z. Zhou
    • , C. Pollock
    • , W. J. Sun
    • , G. Le
    • , J. L. Burch
    •  & R. Rankin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Various physical mechanisms are proposed to explain the heating observed in turbulent astrophysical plasmas. Here, Chen et al. find a signature consistent with one of these mechanisms, electron Landau damping, by applying a field-particle correlation technique to in situ spacecraft data of turbulence in the Earth’s magnetosheath.

    • C. H. K. Chen
    • , K. G. Klein
    •  & G. G. Howes
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Surface waves on the boundary between a magnetosphere and the surrounding plasma might get trapped by the ionosphere forming an eigenmode. Here, Archer et al. show direct observations of this proposed mechanism at Earth’s magnetosphere by analyzing the response to an isolated fast plasma jet detected by the THEMIS satellites.

    • M. O. Archer
    • , H. Hietala
    • , M. D. Hartinger
    • , F. Plaschke
    •  & V. Angelopoulos
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A new regime of planetary magnetic fields was revealed through the MESSENGER spacecraft mission to Mercury. Here, the authors present a numerical dynamo model that can re-produce both the axisymmetric and anomalously axially offset dipolar magnetic field of Mercury.

    • Futoshi Takahashi
    • , Hisayoshi Shimizu
    •  & Hideo Tsunakawa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There is significant interest in providing real-world applications for metamaterials. Here, the authors design an Advanced Short Backfire Antenna, augmented with anisotropic metamaterial surfaces to achieve high aperture efficiency across two frequency bands, making the antenna ideal for spaceborne applications.

    • J. Daniel Binion
    • , Erik Lier
    • , Thomas H. Hand
    • , Zhi Hao Jiang
    •  & Douglas H. Werner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sugars are known to form from the UV photoprocessing of ices under astrophysical conditions. Here, the authors report the detection of deoxyribose, the sugar of DNA, and other deoxysugars from the UV photoprocessing of H2O:CH3OH ice mixtures, which are compared with materials from carbonaceous meteorites.

    • Michel Nuevo
    • , George Cooper
    •  & Scott A. Sandford
  • Article
    | Open Access

    H2 roaming is associated with H3+ formation when certain organic molecules are exposed to strong laser fields. Here, the mechanistic details and time-resolved dynamics of H3+ formation from a series of alcohols were obtained and found that the product yield decreases as the carbon chain length increases.

    • Nagitha Ekanayake
    • , Travis Severt
    • , Muath Nairat
    • , Nicholas P. Weingartz
    • , Benjamin M. Farris
    • , Balram Kaderiya
    • , Peyman Feizollah
    • , Bethany Jochim
    • , Farzaneh Ziaee
    • , Kurtis Borne
    • , Kanaka Raju P.
    • , Kevin D. Carnes
    • , Daniel Rolles
    • , Artem Rudenko
    • , Benjamin G. Levine
    • , James E. Jackson
    • , Itzik Ben-Itzhak
    •  & Marcos Dantus
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Magnetic reconnection is the process of releasing energy by magnetized and space plasma. Here the authors report experimental observation of magnetic reconnection in laser-produced plasma and the role of electron scaling on reconnection.

    • Y. Kuramitsu
    • , T. Moritaka
    • , Y. Sakawa
    • , T. Morita
    • , T. Sano
    • , M. Koenig
    • , C. D. Gregory
    • , N. Woolsey
    • , K. Tomita
    • , H. Takabe
    • , Y. L. Liu
    • , S. H. Chen
    • , S. Matsukiyo
    •  & M. Hoshino
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Radial diffusion is the only mechanism considered to accelerate trapped electrons to relativistic energies in Saturn’s magnetic field, forming radiation belts. Here the authors show another mechanism, electron acceleration via Doppler shifted cyclotron resonant interaction with Z-mode waves, which can form radiation belts inside the orbit of Enceladus.

    • E. E. Woodfield
    • , R. B. Horne
    • , S. A. Glauert
    • , J. D. Menietti
    • , Y. Y. Shprits
    •  & W. S. Kurth
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A unified model for the formation of martian rock types is required to understand Mars’s formation and evolution. Here the authors show that nakhlite and chassignite meteorites originate from melting of metasomatized depleted mantle lithosphere, whereas shergottite melts originate from deep plume sources.

    • James M. D. Day
    • , Kimberly T. Tait
    • , Arya Udry
    • , Frédéric Moynier
    • , Yang Liu
    •  & Clive R. Neal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The presence of magnetic fields in protostellar jets has been predicted theoretically, but its experimental confirmation has been elusive so far. Here, the authors report the detection of SiO line polarisation in the HH 211 protostellar jet, indicative of the onset of magnetic fields.

    • Chin-Fei Lee
    • , Hsiang-Chih Hwang
    • , Tao-Chung Ching
    • , Naomi Hirano
    • , Shih-Ping Lai
    • , Ramprasad Rao
    •  & Paul. T. P Ho
  • Article
    | Open Access

    PKS 2247–131 is an active galaxy that has been emitting gamma-ray flares since October 2016. Here, the authors used data obtained with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to find that PKS 2247–131 presents a relatively short, month-like flux oscillation at gamma-ray energies of 0.1–300 GeV.

    • Jianeng Zhou
    • , Zhongxiang Wang
    • , Liang Chen
    • , Paul J. Wiita
    • , Jithesh Vadakkumthani
    • , Nidia Morrell
    • , Pengfei Zhang
    •  & Jujia Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A faint gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) has been recently detected in coincidence with the gravitational wave (GW) event GW 170817. Here, the authors report that another faint short GRB at a cosmological distance (GRB150101B) and its late time emission are analogous to the neutron star merger event GRB 170817A.

    • E. Troja
    • , G. Ryan
    • , L. Piro
    • , H. van Eerten
    • , S. B. Cenko
    • , Y. Yoon
    • , S.-K. Lee
    • , M. Im
    • , T. Sakamoto
    • , P. Gatkine
    • , A. Kutyrev
    •  & S. Veilleux
  • Article
    | Open Access

    With the discovery of large rocky exoplanets called Super-Earths, questions have arisen regarding the properties of their interiors and their ability to produce a magnetic field. Here, the authors show that under high pressure, molten silicates are semi-metallic and that magma oceans would host a dynamo process.

    • François Soubiran
    •  & Burkhard Militzer