Antimicrobial responses

Antimicrobial responses refer to any host process triggered by the exposure to a microorganism that results in a change in state, activity or viability of the microorganism – for example, movement, secretion, enzyme production or gene expression.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research
    | Open Access

    Daisley et al. show that antibiotic treatment with oxytetracycline impairs the gut microbiota and immune system of honey bees, and reduces capped brood counts. They also show that supplementation with lactobacilli during antibiotic recovery can reverse the harmful effects of the antibiotic treatment. Their findings offer a simple microbial-based solution that aims to reduce honey bee disease burden, environmental pollution by xenobiotics, and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    • Brendan A. Daisley
    • , Andrew P. Pitek
    • , John A. Chmiel
    • , Shaeley Gibbons
    • , Anna M. Chernyshova
    • , Kait F. Al
    • , Kyrillos M. Faragalla
    • , Jeremy P. Burton
    • , Graham J. Thompson
    •  & Gregor Reid
  • Research
    | Open Access

    Some infants develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to HIV in a shorter time frame than adults, but the reasons aren’t well understood. Here, the authors study a cohort of 51 HIV-1 clade C perinatally infected infants of Indian origin and find that multivariant infection is associated with bnAbs in elite neutralizers.

    • Nitesh Mishra
    • , Shaifali Sharma
    • , Ayushman Dobhal
    • , Sanjeev Kumar
    • , Himanshi Chawla
    • , Ravinder Singh
    • , Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi
    • , Bimal Kumar Das
    • , Rakesh Lodha
    • , Sushil Kumar Kabra
    •  & Kalpana Luthra
  • Research
    | Open Access

    Qi et al. show that gut complement factor D (CFD) plays an important role in eliminating Escherichia coli, using gut specific CFD null mice. They find that E. coli isolated from inflamed guts are sensitive to both CFD and Reg4-mediated attack complexes. This study provides insights into how the level of E. Coli is kept low in the gut to prevent its inflammation.

    • Houbao Qi
    • , Jianmei Wei
    • , Yunhuan Gao
    • , Yazheng Yang
    • , Yuanyuan Li
    • , Hua Zhu
    • , Lei Su
    • , Xiaomin Su
    • , Yuan Zhang
    •  & Rongcun Yang
  • Research
    | Open Access

    Salt levels in culture affect the polarisation of Th17 cells, which normally protect the host from fungal and bacterial infections. Here, the authors study patients with salt-losing tubulopathies (SLT) to find that, while Th17 immunity is dampened in SLT patients, their Th17-inducing signaling pathways are intact and can be reinvigorated by exogenous salt.

    • Rhys D. R. Evans
    • , Marilina Antonelou
    • , Sanchutha Sathiananthamoorthy
    • , Marilena Rega
    • , Scott Henderson
    • , Lourdes Ceron-Gutierrez
    • , Gabriela Barcenas-Morales
    • , Christoph A. Müller
    • , Rainer Doffinger
    • , Stephen B. Walsh
    •  & Alan D. Salama
  • Research |

    Diamond and colleagues generate a K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that shares many features of severe COVID-19 infection and can be used to define the basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.

    • Emma S. Winkler
    • , Adam L. Bailey
    • , Natasha M. Kafai
    • , Sharmila Nair
    • , Broc T. McCune
    • , Jinsheng Yu
    • , Julie M. Fox
    • , Rita E. Chen
    • , James T. Earnest
    • , Shamus P. Keeler
    • , Jon H. Ritter
    • , Liang-I Kang
    • , Sarah Dort
    • , Annette Robichaud
    • , Richard Head
    • , Michael J. Holtzman
    •  & Michael S. Diamond
  • Research
    | Open Access

    Sakthivel et al. report two natural genetic variants of galectin-11 in sheep and demonstrate that their ability to dimerise correlates with the differences in their anti-parasitic activity that triggers larval arrest. This study provides a basis for genetic studies toward selective breeding of animals to improve their resistance to parasites.

    • Dhanasekaran Sakthivel
    • , Sarah Preston
    • , Robin B. Gasser
    • , Tatiana P. Soares da Costa
    • , Julia N. Hernandez
    • , Adam Shahine
    • , M. D. Shakif-Azam
    • , Peter Lock
    • , Jamie Rossjohn
    • , Matthew A. Perugini
    • , Jorge Francisco González
    • , Els Meeusen
    • , David Piedrafita
    •  & Travis Beddoe

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