Anatomy

  • Article | | open

    SIRPa is most commonly known as a phagocytosis inhibitory receptor expressed by myeloid cells. Here the authors show SIRPa is expressed on a subset of CD8+ T cells with higher proliferative and effector activity during the chronic phase of the immune response to viral infection.

    • Lara M. Myers
    • , Michal Caspi Tal
    • , Laughing Bear Torrez Dulgeroff
    • , Aaron B. Carmody
    • , Ronald J. Messer
    • , Gunsagar Gulati
    • , Ying Ying Yiu
    • , Matthew M. Staron
    • , Cesar Lopez Angel
    • , Rahul Sinha
    • , Maxim Markovic
    • , Edward A. Pham
    • , Benjamin Fram
    • , Aijaz Ahmed
    • , Aaron M. Newman
    • , Jeffrey S. Glenn
    • , Mark M. Davis
    • , Susan M. Kaech
    • , Irving L. Weissman
    •  & Kim J. Hasenkrug
  • Article | | open

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have immunomodulatory effects, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Here the authors show that a SCFA, pentanoate, suppresses autoimmune inflammation in mouse models of colitis and multiple sclerosis via epigenetic modulation of immune cell metabolic and functional pathways.

    • Maik Luu
    • , Sabine Pautz
    • , Vanessa Kohl
    • , Rajeev Singh
    • , Rossana Romero
    • , Sébastien Lucas
    • , Jörg Hofmann
    • , Hartmann Raifer
    • , Niyati Vachharajani
    • , Lucia Campos Carrascosa
    • , Boris Lamp
    • , Andrea Nist
    • , Thorsten Stiewe
    • , Yoav Shaul
    • , Till Adhikary
    • , Mario M. Zaiss
    • , Matthias Lauth
    • , Ulrich Steinhoff
    •  & Alexander Visekruna
  • Article | | open

    T cells express specific T cell receptors (TCR) to recognise antigens and initiate adaptive immune responses. Here the authors show, in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis, that memory-like CD4 T cells expressing unrelated TCR can also infiltrate the spinal cord and contribute to autoimmunity.

    • Hong-Gyun Lee
    • , Jae-Ung Lee
    • , Do-Hyun Kim
    • , Sangho Lim
    • , Insoo Kang
    •  & Je-Min Choi
  • Article | | open

    Ubiquitination may control protein stability or function. Here the authors show that an ubiquitination enzyme, Hectd3, ubiquitinates Stat3 and Malt1 to modulate their function but not degradation in T cells, and thereby promoting the differentiation of pathogenic Th17 cells and susceptibility to a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    • Jonathan J. Cho
    • , Zhiwei Xu
    • , Upasana Parthasarathy
    • , Theodore T. Drashansky
    • , Eric Y. Helm
    • , Ashley N. Zuniga
    • , Kyle J. Lorentsen
    • , Samira Mansouri
    • , Joshua Y. Cho
    • , Mariola J. Edelmann
    • , Duc M. Duong
    • , Torben Gehring
    • , Thomas Seeholzer
    • , Daniel Krappmann
    • , Mohammad N. Uddin
    • , Danielle Califano
    • , Rejean L. Wang
    • , Lei Jin
    • , Hongmin Li
    • , Dongwen Lv
    • , Daohong Zhou
    • , Liang Zhou
    •  & Dorina Avram
  • Article | | open

    Innate T cells (ITC) contain many subsets and are poised to promptly respond to antigens and pathogens, but how this poised state is maintained is still unclear. Here the authors perform single-cell RNA-seq to align the various ITC subsets along an ‘innateness gradient’ that is associated with changes in proliferation and effector functions.

    • Maria Gutierrez-Arcelus
    • , Nikola Teslovich
    • , Alex R. Mola
    • , Rafael B. Polidoro
    • , Aparna Nathan
    • , Hyun Kim
    • , Susan Hannes
    • , Kamil Slowikowski
    • , Gerald F. M. Watts
    • , Ilya Korsunsky
    • , Michael B. Brenner
    • , Soumya Raychaudhuri
    •  & Patrick J. Brennan
  • Article | | open

    The diversity of fibroblasts contributing to wound healing is unclear. Here, the authors use single-cell RNA-sequencing to identify heterogeneity among murine fibroblasts in the wound and find that recruited myeloid cells contribute to adipocyte regeneration during healing.

    • Christian F. Guerrero-Juarez
    • , Priya H. Dedhia
    • , Suoqin Jin
    • , Rolando Ruiz-Vega
    • , Dennis Ma
    • , Yuchen Liu
    • , Kosuke Yamaga
    • , Olga Shestova
    • , Denise L. Gay
    • , Zaixin Yang
    • , Kai Kessenbrock
    • , Qing Nie
    • , Warren S. Pear
    • , George Cotsarelis
    •  & Maksim V. Plikus
  • Article | | open

    Diverse interactions between the nervous and immune systems have been shown, but specific mechanistic insights are still lacking. Here the authors show, using both mouse inflammation models and clinical correlation, that adrenergic nerve may ameliorate inflammation by inducing repulsive guidance molecule A signalling.

    • Andreas Körner
    • , Martin Schlegel
    • , Torsten Kaussen
    • , Verena Gudernatsch
    • , Georg Hansmann
    • , Timo Schumacher
    • , Martin Giera
    •  & Valbona Mirakaj
  • Article | | open

    The use of pluripotent-stem cell derived organs for transplantation would be promising, if organs can be grown in a suitable host. Here, the authors use interspecific blastocyst complementation to generate a mouse pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney in anephric Sall1 mutant rats.

    • Teppei Goto
    • , Hiromasa Hara
    • , Makoto Sanbo
    • , Hideki Masaki
    • , Hideyuki Sato
    • , Tomoyuki Yamaguchi
    • , Shinichi Hochi
    • , Toshihiro Kobayashi
    • , Hiromitsu Nakauchi
    •  & Masumi Hirabayashi
  • Article | | open

    Mammalian joints have poor regenerative capacity following amputation. Here, the authors show that in mice, stimulation of the amputation wound with BMP2 and BMP9 stimulates regeneration of a synovial joint that includes bone, cartilage and a synovial cavity.

    • Ling Yu
    • , Lindsay A. Dawson
    • , Mingquan Yan
    • , Katherine Zimmel
    • , Yu-Lieh Lin
    • , Connor P. Dolan
    • , Manjong Han
    •  & Ken Muneoka
  • Article | | open

    The immunosuppressive tumor environment and the lack of functional anti-tumor immunity are major limiting factors in immunotherapy. Here the authors show that human and mouse tumors are infiltrated by virus-specific memory T cells, which can be harnessed by viral peptides to induce local and systemic anti-tumor immunity and synergize with checkpoint blockade.

    • Pamela C. Rosato
    • , Sathi Wijeyesinghe
    • , J. Michael Stolley
    • , Christine E. Nelson
    • , Rachel L. Davis
    • , Luke S. Manlove
    • , Christopher A. Pennell
    • , Bruce R. Blazar
    • , Clark C. Chen
    • , Melissa A. Geller
    • , Vaiva Vezys
    •  & David Masopust
  • Article | | open

    A chromatin remodelling factor Satb1 is essential for T cell lineage development in the thymus. Here the authors show that while Satb1 is dispensable for the differentiation of Th17 cells and their response to gut commensals, it plays a critical role in pathogenic Th17 effector function in EAE by directly activating Bhlhe40 and modulating PD-1.

    • Keiko Yasuda
    • , Yohko Kitagawa
    • , Ryoji Kawakami
    • , Yoshitaka Isaka
    • , Hitomi Watanabe
    • , Gen Kondoh
    • , Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu
    • , Shimon Sakaguchi
    •  & Keiji Hirota
  • Article | | open

    Metabolic pathways are increasingly recognized as crucial determinants of T cell function. Here the authors show that the balance between IFNγ and IL-10 production in human CD4 T cells is modulated by the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.

    • Esperanza Perucha
    • , Rossella Melchiotti
    • , Jack A Bibby
    • , Wing Wu
    • , Klaus Stensgaard Frederiksen
    • , Ceri A. Roberts
    • , Zoe Hall
    • , Gaelle LeFriec
    • , Kevin A. Robertson
    • , Paul Lavender
    • , Jens Gammeltoft Gerwien
    • , Leonie S. Taams
    • , Julian L. Griffin
    • , Emanuele de Rinaldis
    • , Lisa G. M. van Baarsen
    • , Claudia Kemper
    • , Peter Ghazal
    •  & Andrew P. Cope
  • Article | | open

    Learning improves perceptual decisions by enhancing the brain's ability to filter noise and irrelevant information. Here, the authors show that GABAergic inhibition in decision-making circuits supports our ability to optimize perceptual judgments through learning and experience.

    • Polytimi Frangou
    • , Uzay E. Emir
    • , Vasilis M. Karlaftis
    • , Caroline Nettekoven
    • , Emily L. Hinson
    • , Stephanie Larcombe
    • , Holly Bridge
    • , Charlotte J. Stagg
    •  & Zoe Kourtzi
  • Article | | open

    In atherosclerotic plaques, transformation of macrophages into foam cells is a key step in initiating the inflammatory response. Here Fan et al. show that casein kinase 2-interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) limits foam cell formation and atherosclerosis by preventing expression of the scavenger receptor LOX-1 through REGγ-mediated degradation of Oct-1.

    • Jiao Fan
    • , Lifeng Liu
    • , Qingyan Liu
    • , Yu Cui
    • , Binwei Yao
    • , Minghua Zhang
    • , Yabing Gao
    • , Yesheng Fu
    • , Hongmiao Dai
    • , Jingkun Pan
    • , Ya Qiu
    • , Cui Hua Liu
    • , Fuchu He
    • , Yu Wang
    •  & Lingqiang Zhang
  • Article | | open

    Transcription factors of the AP-1 family can play diverse roles despite recognizing the same DNA sequence. Here the authors investigate the DNA binding activities of AP-1 members in mouse macrophages and apply a machine learning approach to identify motifs predicted to drive factor-specific binding profiles.

    • Gregory J. Fonseca
    • , Jenhan Tao
    • , Emma M. Westin
    • , Sascha H. Duttke
    • , Nathanael J. Spann
    • , Tobias Strid
    • , Zeyang Shen
    • , Joshua D. Stender
    • , Mashito Sakai
    • , Verena M. Link
    • , Christopher Benner
    •  & Christopher K. Glass
  • Article | | open

    Insulin resistance is associated with development of type 2 diabetes. Here the authors show that TAZ interacts with c-Jun and Tead4, inducing expression of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) leading to increased glucose uptake in muscle, and that its activity is counteracted by statin administration.

    • Jun-Ha Hwang
    • , A Rum Kim
    • , Kyung Min Kim
    • , Jung Il Park
    • , Ho Taek Oh
    • , Sung A Moon
    • , Mi Ran Byun
    • , Hana Jeong
    • , Hyo Kyung Kim
    • , Michael B. Yaffe
    • , Eun Sook Hwang
    •  & Jeong-Ho Hong
  • Article | | open

    Mutations in the mechanotransduction channel component TMC1/2 cause deafness. Here, the authors use a synthetic AAV to replace TMC1 and 2 in the inner ear and show restoration of cochlear and vestibular function, of neuronal reponses in the auditory cortex and of hearing and balance in mice.

    • Carl A. Nist-Lund
    • , Bifeng Pan
    • , Amy Patterson
    • , Yukako Asai
    • , Tianwen Chen
    • , Wu Zhou
    • , Hong Zhu
    • , Sandra Romero
    • , Jennifer Resnik
    • , Daniel B. Polley
    • , Gwenaelle S. Géléoc
    •  & Jeffrey R. Holt
  • Article | | open

    The utility of UV vision for visualizing habitat structure is poorly known. Here, the authors use optical models and multispectral imaging to show that UV vision reveals sharp visual contrasts between leaf surfaces, potentially an advantage in navigating forest environments.

    • Cynthia Tedore
    •  & Dan-Eric Nilsson
  • Article | | open

    The transcription factor Foxp3 and Stat5 modulate lineage stability and function of regulatory T (Treg) cells to promote immune homeostasis. Here the authors show that O-GlcNAcylation of Foxp3 and Stat5, mediated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), is essential for Treg-mediate immune balance, with Treg-specific deficiency of OGT leading to severe autoimmunity.

    • Bing Liu
    • , Oscar C. Salgado
    • , Sangya Singh
    • , Keli L. Hippen
    • , Jason C. Maynard
    • , Alma L. Burlingame
    • , Lauren E. Ball
    • , Bruce R. Blazar
    • , Michael A. Farrar
    • , Kristin A. Hogquist
    •  & Hai-Bin Ruan
  • Article | | open

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with cartilage degeneration, and no effective therapy exists. Here, the authors show that the HPIP protein modulates OA progression by regulating Wnt signaling, and that its knockdown in joints via AAV-mediated gene silencing attentuates pathology.

    • Quanbo Ji
    • , Xiaojie Xu
    • , Lei Kang
    • , Yameng Xu
    • , Jingbo Xiao
    • , Stuart B. Goodman
    • , Xiang Zhu
    • , Wenchao Li
    • , Juan Liu
    • , Xu Gao
    • , Zhifeng Yan
    • , Yuxuan Zheng
    • , Zheng Wang
    • , William J. Maloney
    • , Qinong Ye
    •  & Yan Wang
  • Article | | open

    Engagement of T cell receptors (TCRs) induces the formation of microclusters that mediate the downstream signalling events. Here the authors show, using high resolution TIRF-SIM and live cell imaging, that ZAP70 and LAT are recruited to TCR with distinct kinetics, with the delayed ZAP70-TCR association modulated by TCR-induced calcium flux.

    • Jason Yi
    • , Lakshmi Balagopalan
    • , Tiffany Nguyen
    • , Katherine M. McIntire
    •  & Lawrence E. Samelson
  • Article | | open

    Tissue-resident macrophages are highly specialized phagocytes that serve multiple functions. Here, using high-dimension analyses and fate-mapping experiments, the authors show that fetal liver-derived macrophages dominate the mammary gland in neonatal and adult, and display characteristic phenotypes and functions.

    • Norma Jäppinen
    • , Inês Félix
    • , Emmi Lokka
    • , Sofia Tyystjärvi
    • , Anne Pynttäri
    • , Tiina Lahtela
    • , Heidi Gerke
    • , Kati Elima
    • , Pia Rantakari
    •  & Marko Salmi
  • Article | | open

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) uses weak electrical currents, applied to the head, to modulate brain activity. Here, the authors show that contrary to previous assumptions, the effects of tACS on the brain may be mediated by its effect on peripheral nerves in the skin, not direct.

    • Boateng Asamoah
    • , Ahmad Khatoun
    •  & Myles Mc Laughlin
  • Article | | open

    The role of the HisCl1 histamine receptor in the Drosophila visual system remains unclear. This study shows that HisCl1 is expressed in Rh6-photoreceptors where its function is sufficient for circadian entrainment by incorporating synaptic inputs from other photoreceptors.

    • Faredin Alejevski
    • , Alexandra Saint-Charles
    • , Christine Michard-Vanhée
    • , Béatrice Martin
    • , Sonya Galant
    • , Daniel Vasiliauskas
    •  & François Rouyer
  • Article | | open

    Bone is innervated, and its turnover is affected by sympathetic nerve activity. Here, the authors show that prostaglandin E2, secreted by osteoblasts, activates the EP4 receptor on sensory nerves, inhibiting sympathetic nerve activity and modulating bone formation in mice.

    • Hao Chen
    • , Bo Hu
    • , Xiao Lv
    • , Shouan Zhu
    • , Gehua Zhen
    • , Mei Wan
    • , Amit Jain
    • , Bo Gao
    • , Yu Chai
    • , Mi Yang
    • , Xiao Wang
    • , Ruoxian Deng
    • , Lei Wang
    • , Yong Cao
    • , Shuangfei Ni
    • , Shen Liu
    • , Wen Yuan
    • , Huajiang Chen
    • , Xinzhong Dong
    • , Yun Guan
    • , Huilin Yang
    •  & Xu Cao
  • Article | | open

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes do not encode protein products yet are emerging as key regulators of cellular processes such as transcription and translation. Here, by examining lncRNA profiles from human and mouse CD8 T cells, the authors show that stages of CD8+ T cell differentiation are defined by expression of lncRNA genes.

    • William H. Hudson
    • , Nataliya Prokhnevska
    • , Julia Gensheimer
    • , Rama Akondy
    • , Donald J. McGuire
    • , Rafi Ahmed
    •  & Haydn T. Kissick
  • Article | | open

    Recent evidence suggests that some olfactory receptor types (OR) may be indispensable to elicit certain innate odor-evoked behaviors. Here, the authors report that eliminating a single OR from the odor-activated ensemble leads to significant changes in odor perception and the evoked behavioral response.

    • Nao Horio
    • , Ken Murata
    • , Keiichi Yoshikawa
    • , Yoshihiro Yoshihara
    •  & Kazushige Touhara
  • Article | | open

    B cells produce antibodies to mediate various immune functions, but are also reported to negatively regulate immune responses. Here, the authors show that a subset of mature B cells expressing low levels of IgD, present in both mice and human, may pursue this regulatory function indirectly by inducing the proliferation of regulatory T cells via GITRL.

    • Avijit Ray
    • , Mohamed I. Khalil
    • , Kirthi L. Pulakanti
    • , Robert T. Burns
    • , Cody J. Gurski
    • , Sreemanti Basu
    • , Demin Wang
    • , Sridhar Rao
    •  & Bonnie N. Dittel
  • Article | | open

    Estrogen promotes negative energy balance and preserves skeletal physiology. Here the authors show that loss of estrogen signalling after ablating estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) in specific hypothalamic neuronal populations leads to a marked sex-dependent increase in bone mass in female mice.

    • Candice B. Herber
    • , William C. Krause
    • , Liping Wang
    • , James R. Bayrer
    • , Alfred Li
    • , Matthew Schmitz
    • , Aaron Fields
    • , Breanna Ford
    • , Zhi Zhang
    • , Michelle S. Reid
    • , Daniel K. Nomura
    • , Robert A. Nissenson
    • , Stephanie M. Correa
    •  & Holly A. Ingraham
  • Article | | open

    Nephrogenesis ceases after postnatal day 2 in the mouse or after the 36th week of gestation in humans, but how this is regulated is unclear. Here, the authors identify a role for the RNA-binding protein Lin28 and suppression of let-7 microRNA in regulating the duration of nephrogenesis.

    • Alena V. Yermalovich
    • , Jihan K. Osborne
    • , Patricia Sousa
    • , Areum Han
    • , Melissa A. Kinney
    • , Michael J. Chen
    • , Daisy A. Robinton
    • , Helen Montie
    • , Dan S. Pearson
    • , Sean B. Wilson
    • , Alexander N. Combes
    • , Melissa H. Little
    •  & George Q. Daley
  • Article | | open

    Osteoarthritis is characterised by degeneration of joint cartilage. Here the authors show that the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L1 is upregulated in chondrocytes of humans and mice with osteoarthritis, and that its knockdown in mouse joints protects chondrocytes against apoptosis by modulating the function of heat shock proteins.

    • Young-Ok Son
    • , Hyo-Eun Kim
    • , Wan-Su Choi
    • , Churl-Hong Chun
    •  & Jang-Soo Chun
  • Article | | open

    CD1 proteins present lipid antigens to T cells via the T cell receptor. Here the authors describe T cell reactivity to human membrane lipid moieties and provide structural data to define a molecular mechanism of promiscuous recognition of self-derived phospholipids.

    • Adam Shahine
    • , Peter Reinink
    • , Josephine F. Reijneveld
    • , Stephanie Gras
    • , Mira Holzheimer
    • , Tan-Yun Cheng
    • , Adriaan J. Minnaard
    • , John D. Altman
    • , Steffi Lenz
    • , Jacques Prandi
    • , Joanna Kubler-Kielb
    • , D. Branch Moody
    • , Jamie Rossjohn
    •  & Ildiko Van Rhijn
  • Article | | open

    Protective antibody responses depend critically on proper B cell development and differentiation at multiple stages. Here the authors show that a protein arginine methyltransferase, Prmt5 uses multiples pathways to prevent death of immature B cells, yet modulates, in p53-independent manners, the survival and differentiation of mature B cells.

    • Ludivine C. Litzler
    • , Astrid Zahn
    • , Alexandre P. Meli
    • , Steven Hébert
    • , Anne-Marie Patenaude
    • , Stephen P. Methot
    • , Adrien Sprumont
    • , Thérence Bois
    • , Daisuke Kitamura
    • , Santiago Costantino
    • , Irah L. King
    • , Claudia L. Kleinman
    • , Stéphane Richard
    •  & Javier M. Di Noia
  • Article | | open

    The human stomach is divided into seven anatomically distinct regions but their protein composition is largely unknown. Here, the authors present a region-resolved map of the healthy human stomach mucosa as well as mucosa proteomes of tumor and tumor nearby tissue from gastric cancer patients.

    • Xiaotian Ni
    • , Zhaoli Tan
    • , Chen Ding
    • , Chunchao Zhang
    • , Lan Song
    • , Shuai Yang
    • , Mingwei Liu
    • , Ru Jia
    • , Chuanhua Zhao
    • , Lei Song
    • , Wanlin Liu
    • , Quan Zhou
    • , Tongqing Gong
    • , Xianju Li
    • , Yanhong Tai
    • , Weimin Zhu
    • , Tieliu Shi
    • , Yi Wang
    • , Jianming Xu
    • , Bei Zhen
    •  & Jun Qin
  • Article | | open

    Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a measure of kidney function used to define chronic kidney disease. Here, Morris et al. perform trans-ethnic genome-wide meta-analyses for eGFR in 312,468 individuals and identify novel loci and downstream putative causal genes.

    • Andrew P. Morris
    • , Thu H. Le
    • , Haojia Wu
    • , Artur Akbarov
    • , Peter J. van der Most
    • , Gibran Hemani
    • , George Davey Smith
    • , Anubha Mahajan
    • , Kyle J. Gaulton
    • , Girish N. Nadkarni
    • , Adan Valladares-Salgado
    • , Niels Wacher-Rodarte
    • , Josyf C. Mychaleckyj
    • , Nicole D. Dueker
    • , Xiuqing Guo
    • , Yang Hai
    • , Jeffrey Haessler
    • , Yoichiro Kamatani
    • , Adrienne M. Stilp
    • , Gu Zhu
    • , James P. Cook
    • , Johan Ärnlöv
    • , Susan H. Blanton
    • , Martin H. de Borst
    • , Erwin P. Bottinger
    • , Thomas A. Buchanan
    • , Sylvia Cechova
    • , Fadi J. Charchar
    • , Pei-Lun Chu
    • , Jeffrey Damman
    • , James Eales
    • , Ali G. Gharavi
    • , Vilmantas Giedraitis
    • , Andrew C. Heath
    • , Eli Ipp
    • , Krzysztof Kiryluk
    • , Holly J. Kramer
    • , Michiaki Kubo
    • , Anders Larsson
    • , Cecilia M. Lindgren
    • , Yingchang Lu
    • , Pamela A. F. Madden
    • , Grant W. Montgomery
    • , George J. Papanicolaou
    • , Leslie J. Raffel
    • , Ralph L. Sacco
    • , Elena Sanchez
    • , Holger Stark
    • , Johan Sundstrom
    • , Kent D. Taylor
    • , Anny H. Xiang
    • , Aleksandra Zivkovic
    • , Lars Lind
    • , Erik Ingelsson
    • , Nicholas G. Martin
    • , John B. Whitfield
    • , Jianwen Cai
    • , Cathy C. Laurie
    • , Yukinori Okada
    • , Koichi Matsuda
    • , Charles Kooperberg
    • , Yii-Der Ida Chen
    • , Tatjana Rundek
    • , Stephen S. Rich
    • , Ruth J. F. Loos
    • , Esteban J. Parra
    • , Miguel Cruz
    • , Jerome I. Rotter
    • , Harold Snieder
    • , Maciej Tomaszewski
    • , Benjamin D. Humphreys
    •  & Nora Franceschini
  • Article | | open

    The role of innate T cell subsets in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) is not well understood. Here, the authors examine the role of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) and γδ-T cells in SpA and show that disease-derived iNKT and γδ-T cells have unique and Th17-skewed phenotype and gene expression profiles within inflamed joints.

    • Koen Venken
    • , Peggy Jacques
    • , Céline Mortier
    • , Mark E. Labadia
    • , Tine Decruy
    • , Julie Coudenys
    • , Kathleen Hoyt
    • , Anita L. Wayne
    • , Robert Hughes
    • , Michael Turner
    • , Sofie Van Gassen
    • , Liesbet Martens
    • , Dustin Smith
    • , Christian Harcken
    • , Joseph Wahle
    • , Chao-Ting Wang
    • , Eveline Verheugen
    • , Nadia Schryvers
    • , Gaëlle Varkas
    • , Heleen Cypers
    • , Ruth Wittoek
    • , Yves Piette
    • , Lieve Gyselbrecht
    • , Serge Van Calenbergh
    • , Filip Van den Bosch
    • , Yvan Saeys
    • , Gerald Nabozny
    •  & Dirk Elewaut
  • Article | | open

    Tr1 cells are considered an immunosuppressive CD4 T cell population producing IL-10. Here the authors show that IL-10 is insufficient for Tr1 immunosuppression, define surface markers and transcriptional program of the immunosuppressive subset within Tr1, and reveal its deficiency in patients with IBD.

    • Leonie Brockmann
    • , Shiwa Soukou
    • , Babett Steglich
    • , Paulo Czarnewski
    • , Lilan Zhao
    • , Sandra Wende
    • , Tanja Bedke
    • , Can Ergen
    • , Carolin Manthey
    • , Theodora Agalioti
    • , Maria Geffken
    • , Oliver Seiz
    • , Sara M. Parigi
    • , Chiara Sorini
    • , Jens Geginat
    • , Keishi Fujio
    • , Thomas Jacobs
    • , Thomas Roesch
    • , Jacob R. Izbicki
    • , Ansgar W. Lohse
    • , Richard A. Flavell
    • , Christian Krebs
    • , Jan-Ake Gustafsson
    • , Per Antonson
    • , Maria Grazia Roncarolo
    • , Eduardo J. Villablanca
    • , Nicola Gagliani
    •  & Samuel Huber
  • Article | | open

    A decrease in the fraction of non-classical monocytes is a hallmark of chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Taking advantage of this abnormal situation, the authors identify a mechanistic link between miR-150 and TET3 as being involved in monocyte subset generation.

    • Dorothée Selimoglu-Buet
    • , Julie Rivière
    • , Hussein Ghamlouch
    • , Laura Bencheikh
    • , Catherine Lacout
    • , Margot Morabito
    • , M’boyba Diop
    • , Guillaume Meurice
    • , Marie Breckler
    • , Aurélie Chauveau
    • , Camille Debord
    • , Franck Debeurme
    • , Raphael Itzykson
    • , Nicolas Chapuis
    • , Christophe Willekens
    • , Orianne Wagner-Ballon
    • , Olivier A. Bernard
    • , Nathalie Droin
    •  & Eric Solary
  • Article | | open

    Ezh2 is an histone methyltransferase that catalyzes H3K27me3. Here the authors show that Ezh2 promotes T follicular helper (TFH) differentiation and helper activity, by cooperating with Tcf1 to activate Bcl6 transcription and epigenetically repressing p19Arf, an antagonist of Bcl6 function and TFH cell survival.

    • Fengyin Li
    • , Zhouhao Zeng
    • , Shaojun Xing
    • , Jodi A. Gullicksrud
    • , Qiang Shan
    • , Jinyong Choi
    • , Vladimir P. Badovinac
    • , Shane Crotty
    • , Weiqun Peng
    •  & Hai-Hui Xue
  • Article | | open

    Recruitment of myeloid cells can be regulated by integrin CD11b. Here the authors show that in the tumor microenvironment, CD11b is not essential for recruitment of myeloid cells but rather induces macrophage anti-tumorigenic polarization via stimulating let7a and NFκB signaling and that pharmacological activation of CD11b enhances survival in mouse models of cancer.

    • Michael C. Schmid
    • , Samia Q. Khan
    • , Megan M. Kaneda
    • , Paulina Pathria
    • , Ryan Shepard
    • , Tiani L. Louis
    • , Sudarshan Anand
    • , Gyunghwi Woo
    • , Chris Leem
    • , M. Hafeez Faridi
    • , Terese Geraghty
    • , Anugraha Rajagopalan
    • , Seema Gupta
    • , Mansoor Ahmed
    • , Roberto I. Vazquez-Padron
    • , David A. Cheresh
    • , Vineet Gupta
    •  & Judith A. Varner
  • Article | | open

    The pulvinar is involved in vision and attention, but its interactions with other brain regions are little-studied. Here, using fMRI the authors show that the human pulvinar has widespread functional coupling with cortical areas that reflects its intrinsic organization and the topographic layout of cortex.

    • Michael J. Arcaro
    • , Mark A. Pinsk
    • , Janice Chen
    •  & Sabine Kastner
  • Article | | open

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are developed in the thymus, and are essential for suppressing detrimental autoimmunity. Here the authors show, using mice with dampened interleukin 2 (IL-2) signaling, that IL-2 helps position the pioneer factor SATB1 to control genome-wide chromatin accessibility to facilitate Treg cell lineage commitment in the thymus.

    • Laurent Chorro
    • , Masako Suzuki
    • , Shu Shien Chin
    • , Tere M. Williams
    • , Erik L. Snapp
    • , Livia Odagiu
    • , Nathalie Labrecque
    •  & Grégoire Lauvau
  • Article | | open

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells rapidly enhance cytokine secretion and effector function following activation, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here the authors show that an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, inositol-requiring enzyme 1α, activates the p38 kinase to stabilize cytokine mRNA for enhanced iNKT functions.

    • Srinath Govindarajan
    • , Djoere Gaublomme
    • , Renée Van der Cruyssen
    • , Eveline Verheugen
    • , Sofie Van Gassen
    • , Yvan Saeys
    • , Simon Tavernier
    • , Takao Iwawaki
    • , Yehudi Bloch
    • , Savvas. N. Savvides
    • , Bart N. Lambrecht
    • , Sophie Janssens
    • , Dirk Elewaut
    •  & Michael B. Drennan
  • Article | | open

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells need to be differentiated into effector Treg (eTreg), with the transcription factor IRF4 implicated during this process. Here the authors show that an AP-1 family transcription factor, JunB, is expressed in eTreg to promote the IRF4 transcription program, and regulate eTreg homeostasis and function.

    • Shin-ichi Koizumi
    • , Daiki Sasaki
    • , Tsung-Han Hsieh
    • , Naoyuki Taira
    • , Nana Arakaki
    • , Shinichi Yamasaki
    • , Ke Wang
    • , Shukla Sarkar
    • , Hiroki Shirahata
    • , Mio Miyagi
    •  & Hiroki Ishikawa
  • Article | | open

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important for maintaining immune homeostasis by suppressing immune cell activation, but how the Treg cell pool is maintained is still unclear. Here the authors show that a kinase, Lkb1, operates in dendritic cells (DC) to inhibit Treg cell expansion and immunosuppression via mechanisms involving NF-kB/OX40L signalling.

    • Song Chen
    • , Lijun Fang
    • , Wei Guo
    • , Yushan Zhou
    • , Gang Yu
    • , Wenwen Li
    • , Kui Dong
    • , Jingru Liu
    • , Yuechen Luo
    • , Bing Wang
    • , Zhonglong Li
    • , Chunxiao Zhao
    • , Zhina Sun
    • , Yue Shen
    • , Qibing Leng
    • , Dongming Zhou
    • , Zhongchao Han
    • , Huifang Huang
    • , He Ren
    • , Guogang Xu
    •  & Xiaoming Feng
  • Article | | open

    Optogenetics is a promising alternative approach for restoration of neuromuscular function. Here the authors establish a closed-loop functional optogenetic stimulation for the control of limb joint angle in murine models, which demonstrates improved control and less fatigue than electrical stimulation systems.

    • Shriya S. Srinivasan
    • , Benjamin E. Maimon
    • , Maurizio Diaz
    • , Hyungeun Song
    •  & Hugh M. Herr
  • Article | | open

    Dendritic cells (DC) are important regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, but how the DC pool is homeostatically maintained in vivo is unclear. Here the authors show that combined deficiency of FLT3 and CSF1R impedes the differentiation of spleen macrophages of embryonic origin that are required for DC homeostasis.

    • Gulce Itir Percin
    • , Jiri Eitler
    • , Andrea Kranz
    • , Jun Fu
    • , Jeffrey W. Pollard
    • , Ronald Naumann
    •  & Claudia Waskow
  • Article | | open

    Cubilin and the transmembrane protein amnionless (AMN) form the endocytic receptor cubam that is essential for intestinal vitamin B12 uptake. Here the authors present the 2.3 Å crystal structure of AMN in complex with the amino-terminal region of cubilin and discuss cubam architecture and disease causing mutations.

    • Casper Larsen
    • , Anders Etzerodt
    • , Mette Madsen
    • , Karsten Skjødt
    • , Søren Kragh Moestrup
    •  & Christian Brix Folsted Andersen