Ageing

  • Article
    | Open Access

    The transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO mediates a wide variety of aging-preventive responses by driving the expression of stress resistance and longevity promoting genes. Here the authors show that transcriptional initiation at many DAF-16/FOXO target genes requires the dephosphorylation of SPT-5 by Protein Phosphatase 4.

    • Ilke Sen
    • , Xin Zhou
    •  & Christian G. Riedel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Intestinal aging is associated with declines in structure and absorption of nutrients. Here, the authors show that aging related intestinal decline is mediated by activation of the mTORC1-p38MAPK-p53 pathway in intestinal stem cells and can be ameliorated by abrogating mTORC1 or p38MAPK activity.

    • Dan He
    • , Hongguang Wu
    •  & Baojie Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength associated with physical disability during ageing. Here, the authors analyse muscle biopsies from 119 patients with sarcopenia and age-matched controls of different ethnic groups and find transcriptional signatures indicating mitochondrial dysfunction, associated with reduced mitochondria numbers and lower NAD+ levels in older individuals with sarcopenia.

    • Eugenia Migliavacca
    • , Stacey K. H. Tay
    •  & Jerome N. Feige
  • Article
    | Open Access

    C. elegans is a commonly used model organism in the study of ageing, and differences in genetic background can result in varying strain longevity. Here the authors demonstrate that a background mutation in fln-2 affects life-limiting pharyngeal infection and that in the mutant background the beneficial effect of sir-2.1 over-expression is suppressed.

    • Yuan Zhao
    • , Hongyuan Wang
    •  & David Gems
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY) is associated with age and smoking but also genetic factors play a role. Here, Terao et al. perform GWAS for mLOY in 95,380 Japanese men and identify 46 loci that overlap with hematopoietic stem cell enhancers and transcription factor binding sites critical for hematopoiesis.

    • Chikashi Terao
    • , Yukihide Momozawa
    •  & Yoichiro Kamatani
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Age-related tissue alterations have been associated with a decline in stem cell number and function. Here the authors report a single cell multi-omics study of mouse muscle stem cells, combining single cell transcriptome and DNA methylome profiling and find that aged cells have a global increase of uncoordinated transcriptional heterogeneity biased towards genes regulating cell-niche interactions.

    • Irene Hernando-Herraez
    • , Brendan Evano
    •  & Wolf Reik
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Genome-wide association studies have only revealed a handful of genetic loci for longevity. Here, in a case–control design based on phenotype definitions of individuals surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th and 99th survival percentile, the authors report two additional loci located in the APOE locus and near GPR78.

    • Joris Deelen
    • , Daniel S. Evans
    •  & Joanne M. Murabito
  • Article
    | Open Access

    DGCR8 is a component of the canonical microprocessor complex for microRNA biogenesis. Here the authors implicate DGCR8 in heterochromatin maintenance and aging attenuation independent of its miRNA-processing activity through Lamin B1, KAP1 and HP1 interaction. DGCR8 overexpression can alleviate aging and senescence

    • Liping Deng
    • , Ruotong Ren
    •  & Guang-Hui Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Microbiota impacts all major aspects of physiology, but little is known about its effects on age-related changes in immune responses. Here the authors show that gut microbiota transfer between adult and old mice increases local but not systemic germinal centre responses regardless of age directionality.

    • Marisa Stebegg
    • , Alyssa Silva-Cayetano
    •  & Michelle A. Linterman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Senescent cells increase with ageing and may cause inflammatory conditions, but how this accumulation is mediated is still unclear. Here the authors show that senescent cells express HLA-E to suppress NKG2A-mediated natural killer and CD8 T cell activation to avoid targeted elimination, while blocking NKG2A helps promote immunity against senescent cells.

    • Branca I. Pereira
    • , Oliver P. Devine
    •  & Arne N. Akbar
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Different sensory experiences can affect longevity in Drosophila. Here the authors find that exposure of Drosophila directly to dead conspecifics affects longevity via a serotonergic mechanism, and that Drosophila exposed to dead conspecifics also become an aversive stimulus to naïve choosers.

    • Tuhin S. Chakraborty
    • , Christi M. Gendron
    •  & Scott D. Pletcher
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Post-translational protein modifications can affect lifespan and aging but age-dependent ubiquitylation changes have not yet been systematically characterized. Here, the authors analyze age-related proteome and ubiquitylome dynamics in Drosophila and identify increasing H2A ubiquitylation as a conserved aging marker.

    • Lu Yang
    • , Zaijun Ma
    •  & Yaoyang Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sociality explains substantial variation in ageing across species, but less is known about this relationship within species. Here, the authors show that female dominant Seychelles warblers with helpers at the nest have higher late-life survival and lower telomere attrition and the probability of having helpers increases with age.

    • Martijn Hammers
    • , Sjouke A. Kingma
    •  & David S. Richardson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Protein homeostasis maintenance (proteostasis) is critical for cell function, but declines during aging. Here the authors detail a proteostatic checkpoint in Drosophila intestinal stem cells coordinating cell cycle arrest with protein aggregate clearance, along with its role in aging related intestinal dysfunction.

    • Imilce A. Rodriguez-Fernandez
    • , Yanyan Qi
    •  & Heinrich Jasper
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Aging impacts lung functionality and makes it more susceptible to chronic diseases. Combining proteomics and single cell transcriptomics, the authors chart molecular and cellular changes in the aging mouse lung, discover aging hallmarks, and predict the cellular sources of regulated proteins.

    • Ilias Angelidis
    • , Lukas M. Simon
    •  & Herbert B. Schiller
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed to cardiomyocytes, but reprogramming is less efficient for adult compared to embryonic fibroblasts. Here, the authors find that inhibition of inflammation and Cox-2-prostaglandin-cAMP-IL-1β signaling enhances reprogramming efficiency of adult, but not embryonic fibroblasts.

    • Naoto Muraoka
    • , Kaori Nara
    •  & Masaki Ieda
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Although ageing is the most important risk factor for chronic ailments, effective interventions remain rare. Here, the authors identify the flavonoid 4,4’-dimethoxychalcone and demonstrate that it extends lifespan and promotes health in multiple organisms by inducing autophagy.

    • Didac Carmona-Gutierrez
    • , Andreas Zimmermann
    •  & Frank Madeo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    While human lifespan is only moderately heritable, “getting old” runs in families. Here, van den Berg et al. study mortality data from three-generation cohorts to define a threshold for longevity and find that individuals have an increasing survival advantage with each additional relative in the top 10% survivors of their birth cohort.

    • Niels van den Berg
    • , Mar Rodríguez-Girondo
    •  & P. Eline Slagboom
  • Article
    | Open Access

    While young muscle faithfully regenerates damaged myofibers, aged muscle is impaired. Here the authors show the “anti-aging” protein α-Klotho is upregulated in young muscle after damage via promoter demethylation and this regulation is lost in aging, resulting in mitochondrial damage and an impaired healing response.

    • A. Sahu
    • , H. Mamiya
    •  & F. Ambrosio
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO is a downstream effector of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling and plays an important role in stress resistance and longevity. Here, the authors show that DAF-16/FOXO can form a complex with HLH-30/TFEB to synergistically regulate transcription of target genes in response to certain stress stimuli.

    • Xin-Xuan Lin
    • , Ilke Sen
    •  & Christian G. Riedel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ageing causes an inability to replace damaged tissue. Here, the authors perform proteomics analyses of human haematopoietic stem cells and other cells in the bone marrow niche at different ages and show changes in central carbon metabolism, reduced bone marrow niche function, and enhanced myeloid differentiation.

    • Marco L. Hennrich
    • , Natalie Romanov
    •  & Anthony D. Ho
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome is characterized by premature aging with cardiovascular disease being the main cause of death. Here the authors show that inhibition of the NAT10 enzyme enhances cardiac function and fitness, and reduces age-related phenotypes in a mouse model of premature aging.

    • Gabriel Balmus
    • , Delphine Larrieu
    •  & Stephen P. Jackson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Declining NAD+ levels have been linked to aging-associated pathologies. Here the authors present results of a double-blind, randomized crossover trial on 30 healthy middle-aged individuals to show that nicotinamide riboside effectively elevates NAD+ levels in humans, appears to be well tolerated, and may have potential to improve cardiovascular parameters.

    • Christopher R. Martens
    • , Blair A. Denman
    •  & Douglas R. Seals
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The nematode C. elegans is known to alter its behavior in response to UV light. Here, the authors show that visible light triggers photo-oxidative stress and a wider stress response in C. elegans, suggesting that light exposure during routine laboratory handling may influence the outcome of lifespan experiments.

    • C. Daniel De Magalhaes Filho
    • , Brian Henriquez
    •  & Andrew Dillin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Aging skeletal muscle shows declining numbers and activity of satellite cells. Here, Franco et al. show that in satellite cells of the human leg muscle vastus lateralis, somatic mutations accumulate with age and that these mutations become enriched in exons and promoters of genes involved in muscle function.

    • Irene Franco
    • , Anna Johansson
    •  & Maria Eriksson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ageing is associated with a pronounced shift in mortality from cancer to degenerative diseases. Here, the authors show that in concordance with this shift, conserved transcriptional alterations during ageing across four vertebrates align with degenerative diseases but are opposite to those in cancer.

    • Peer Aramillo Irizar
    • , Sascha Schäuble
    •  & Christoph Kaleta
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Non-circulating, tissue-resident T cells have been reported for non-lymphoid organs, but their characterization and regulation in secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) are still lacking. Here the authors show that age and microbiota both exert SLO-specific effects for the various tissue-resident T cell subsets.

    • Aurélie Durand
    • , Alexandra Audemard-Verger
    •  & Bruno Lucas
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Activation of autophagy, via the transcription factor TFEB, is a promising strategy to treat metabolic diseases. Here, the authors report three novel classes of small molecules that promote TFEB nuclear translocation, and provide evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of these compounds in mice and worms.

    • Chensu Wang
    • , Hanspeter Niederstrasser
    •  & Michael A. White
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hydralazine is an FDA approved drug for the treatment of hypertension. Here, Dehghan et al. report that hydralazine triggers the cellular oxidative stress response by activating NRF2/SKN-1 signaling and extends C. elegans healthy lifespan, suggesting hydralazine may have potential to treat age-associated diseases more broadly.

    • Esmaeil Dehghan
    • , Yiqiang Zhang
    •  & Hamid Mirzaei
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Changes in chromatin structure have been linked to organismal ageing. Here the authors show that altered histone expression and mitochondrial stress during C. elegans development result in chromatin changes and a cytosolic stress response that affects organismal longevity, and depends on HSF-1 and the chromatin remodeller, ISW-1.

    • Olli Matilainen
    • , Maroun S. Bou Sleiman
    •  & Johan Auwerx
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The diet consumed during development can have long-lasting effects on adult physiology. Here, the authors show that developmental undernutrition in Drosophila extends lifespan by inhibiting the production of toxic lipids, called autotoxins, on the adult body surface.

    • M. Irina Stefana
    • , Paul C. Driscoll
    •  & Alex P. Gould
  • Article
    | Open Access

    KLF family transcription factors (KLFs) regulate many cellular processes, including proliferation, survival and stress responses. Here, the authors position KLFs as important regulators of autophagy and lifespan in C. elegans, a role that may extend to the modulation of age-associated vascular phenotypes in mammals.

    • Paishiun N. Hsieh
    • , Guangjin Zhou
    •  & Mukesh K. Jain
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Repeated cell divisions induce DNA damage in haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and telomeres are sensitive to this damage. Here, the authors show in murine HSCs that the telomere binding protein POT1a inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, and rejuvenated aged HSCs.

    • Kentaro Hosokawa
    • , Ben D. MacArthur
    •  & Fumio Arai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gene expression is a noisy process, but it is not known how noise in gene expression changes during the aging of single cells. Here the authors show that noise decreases during normal aging, and provide support for aging-associated increases in chromatin state transitions governing noise reduction.

    • Ping Liu
    • , Ruijie Song
    •  & Murat Acar
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Clarifying the source of proteins in mixed biological environments, such as after transplantation or parabiosis, remains a challenge. Here, the authors address this need with a mouse strain that incorporates a methionine derivate into proteins, allowing for their detection using click chemistry and antibody arrays.

    • Yan Liu
    • , Michael J. Conboy
    •  & Irina M. Conboy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Caloric restriction has been shown to increase lifespan in mammals. Here, the authors provide evidence that age-related methylation drift correlates with lifespan and that caloric restriction in mice and rhesus monkeys results in attenuation of age-related methylation drift.

    • Shinji Maegawa
    • , Yue Lu
    •  & Jean-Pierre J. Issa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The transcription factor Gcn4 is known to regulate yeast amino acid synthesis. Here, the authors show that Gcn4 also acts as a repressor of protein biosynthesis in a range of conditions that enhance yeast lifespan, such as ribosomal protein knockout, calorie restriction or mTOR inhibition.

    • Nitish Mittal
    • , Joao C. Guimaraes
    •  & Mihaela Zavolan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mitochondrial fission and fusion are important mechanisms to maintain mitochondrial function. Here, the authors report that middle-aged flies have more elongated, or ‘hyper-fused’ mitochondria, and show that induction of mitochondrial fission in midlife, but not in early life, extends the health and life of flies.

    • Anil Rana
    • , Matheus P. Oliveira
    •  & David W. Walker