Adverse effects

Adverse effects are the unintended outcomes, caused by a medical intervention, that have a negative impact on an individual's health or well-being. Common adverse effects include nausea, headaches, and tiredness. Investigators in clinical trials often distinguish between serious adverse events and those that do not substantially affect the individual's well-being.


Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have dramatically improved the survival of patients with certain forms of cancer; however, these agents also have adverse effects that are often quite different to those of more traditional cancer therapies. In this Review, the authors describe the epidemiology, treatment and management of the various immune-related adverse events that can occur in patients receiving ICIs.

    • Filipe Martins
    • , Latifyan Sofiya
    • , Gerasimos P. Sykiotis
    • , Faiza Lamine
    • , Michel Maillard
    • , Montserrat Fraga
    • , Keyvan Shabafrouz
    • , Camillo Ribi
    • , Anne Cairoli
    • , Yan Guex-Crosier
    • , Thierry Kuntzer
    • , Olivier Michielin
    • , Solange Peters
    • , Georges Coukos
    • , Francois Spertini
    • , John A. Thompson
    •  & Michel Obeid
  • Reviews |

    As a result of surgery or radiotherapy as treatment for cancer, functional components of the lymphatic system are partially removed or damaged, resulting in lymphoedema (accumulation of extracellular fluid in tissues). This Primer discusses this important adverse effect of cancer treatment that has substantial effects on the quality of life of patients.

    • Stanley G. Rockson
    • , Vaughan Keeley
    • , Sharon Kilbreath
    • , Andrzej Szuba
    •  & Anna Towers
  • Reviews |

    Immunotherapy with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is a new pillar in the treatment of cancer but can a have range of immune-related adverse effects, including some rare neurological toxicities that constitute paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs). In this Review, the authors provide an overview of PNSs, the associations of these conditions with ICI therapy and recommendations for the prevention and management of ICI-associated PNSs.

    • Francesc Graus
    •  & Josep Dalmau
  • Reviews |

    Patients with lymphoma typically receive chemotherapy as the first-line treatment. However, patients who fail to respond or develop relapsed disease often have poor outcomes. In this Review, the authors summarize the available data on therapeutics designed to modulate epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, in patients with lymphoma and describe the most promising directions of future research.

    • David Sermer
    • , Laura Pasqualucci
    • , Hans-Guido Wendel
    • , Ari Melnick
    •  & Anas Younes

News and Comment