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  • The body is intrinsic to our sense of self and as such, any theoretical account of the self should also include contributions of the body. This Collection incorporates a series of papers that demonstrate the inextricable relationship between body and self. The papers include studies of body illusions and studies of observed differences in bodily experience in participants with psychiatric and physical conditions. Papers in the Collection also address methodological issues, because measuring and manipulating the bodily self does not come without challenges; subjective experiences are difficult to capture empirically. Making progress on these methodological limitations is crucial to further develop experimental design and thus our understanding of self-body relations.

    • Morten Overgaard
    • Catherine Preston
    • Jane Aspell
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Vaccines have revolutionized modern medicine by preventing infectious diseases and safeguarding public health. This Collection showcases cutting-edge research on advancements in vaccine development and their impact on disease prevention. The papers presented here report various facets of vaccine efficacy, immunological responses, and design, providing insight into future immunization strategies. I believe this Collection will serve as a catalyst for further advancements in the field of vaccine research.

    • Timir Tripathi
    EditorialOpen Access
  • In the last decade, there has been an increased appreciation for mitochondria as central hubs in diverse processes, such as cellular energy, immunity, and signal transduction. As such, we have become aware that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies many diseases, including primary (mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial proteins) and secondary mitochondrial diseases (mutations in non-mitochondrial genes critical for mitochondrial biology), as well as complex diseases with mitochondrial dysfunction (chronic or degenerative diseases). Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may often precede other pathological signs in these disorders, further modulated by genetics, environment, and lifestyle.

    • Cecilia Giulivi
    • Kezhong Zhang
    • Hirofumi Arakawa
    EditorialOpen Access
  • The study of moral judgement and decision making examines the way predictions made by moral and ethical theories fare in real world settings. Such investigations are carried out using a variety of approaches and methods, such as experiments, modeling, and observational and field studies, in a variety of populations. The current Collection on moral judgments and decision making includes works that represent this variety, while focusing on some common themes, including group morality and the role of affect in moral judgment. The Collection also includes a significant number of studies that made theoretically driven predictions and failed to find support for them. We highlight the importance of such null-results papers, especially in fields that are traditionally governed by theoretical frameworks.

    • Uri Hertz
    • Fanli Jia
    • Kathryn B. Francis
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Perovskite solar cells must overcome the long-term stability problem in order to be put into practical use. Materials science, through the development of synthetic chemistry, materials characterization and device engineering can contribute to improvements in stability and scalability towards enabling large scale production. This Collection presents recent research efforts in stabilizing perovskite solar cells with three interconnected themes: characterizing instability, synthesizing stable perovskites and curing the interfaces.

    • Shuxia Tao
    • Lakshminarayana Polavarapu
    • Paola Vivo
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Our genomes are highly organized spatially in three-dimensions (3D). In interphase nuclei, the genome is anchored and regulated by various nuclear scaffolds and structures, including the nuclear lamina at the nuclear edge, and nucleoli located more internally within the nucleoplasm. Recently, great effort has been made to understand the intricacies of 3D genome organization and its relevance to genomic and nuclear function. Over the years, many concepts, mathematical models, visual and biochemical methods, and analysis pipelines have been presented to study various aspects of this organization in a multidisciplinary manner, such as is also reflected within this collection.

    • Asli Silahtaroglu
    • Joanna M. Bridger
    • Elissa P. Lei
    EditorialOpen Access
  • More than a century after the first description of amyloids by Alois Alzheimer, and despite the enormous research efforts since then, the field is still full of surprises. While searching for answers to questions for example on the driving force, mechanism, and regulation of amyloidogenesis, or on the structure, physiological and pathological roles of different amyloid aggregates, unexpected properties are regularly revealed, broadening their application possibilities. This Collection aims to focus on the beneficial sides of amyloid formation, primarily exploring the potential use of amyloids in material science, bioengineering, and synthetic chemistry.

    • Marianna Török
    EditorialOpen Access
  • High-throughput transcriptomics has revolutionised the field of transcriptome research by offering a cost-effective and powerful screening tool. Standard bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) enables characterisation of the average expression profiles for individual samples and facilitates identification of the molecular functions associated with genes differentially expressed across conditions. RNA-Seq can also be applied to disentangle splicing variants and discover novel transcripts, thus contributing to a comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome landscape. A closely related technique, single-cell RNA-Seq, has enabled the study of cell-type-specific gene expressions in hundreds to thousands of cells, aiding the exploration of cell heterogeneity. Nowadays, bulk RNA-Seq and single-cell RNA-Seq serve as complementary tools to advance and accelerate the development of transcriptome-based resources. This Collection illustrates how the current global research community makes use of these techniques to address a broad range of questions in life sciences. It demonstrates the usefulness and popularity of high-throughput transcriptomics and presents the best practices and potential issues for the benefit of future end-users.

    • Nunzio D’Agostino
    • Wenli Li
    • Dapeng Wang
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Recent advances in genome editing technologies have redefined our ability to probe and precisely edit the human genome and epigenome in vitro and in vivo. More specifically, RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas systems have revolutionized the field due to their simplicity in design and adaptability across biological systems. This Collection highlights results in CRISPR/Cas technology that increase the efficiency of precision genome editing, and allow genetic manipulation in model systems traditionally intractable to site-directed gene modification.

    • Maura McGrail
    • Tetsushi Sakuma
    • Leonidas Bleris
    EditorialOpen Access
  • The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises of components that exist within the immediate vicinity of tumor cells, including fibroblasts, immune cells, the extracellular matrix, and more. Significant advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of the components of TME and their mutual interactions. Part of the focus of this research has been on epigenetic events, which are increasingly being recognized for their importance in gene regulation and cancer progression. The Collection represents the gradual growth in our understanding of the overall process of how cancer progresses, along with the factors that play a decisive role in this progression. It features studies conducted on models representing many different cancers, and includes mechanistic reports conducted using appropriate in vitro models, studies that analyzed human cancer patients-derived specimens, clinical trials and, additionally, studies involving bioinformatics, metabolomics, chemical libraries screening, next-generation sequencing, and single-cell analysis approaches.

    • Aamir Ahmad
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Membrane transporters are an important group of proteins in physiology and disease. Their functions make them common drug targets, but their location in the lipid bilayers poses a tremendous challenge to researchers. The current stage of development of structural biology, in addition to new research tools, has largely facilitated the acquisition of knowledge about transporters and mechanisms. This Collection presents recent studies, covering bioenergetics, structure and functional characterization of various transporters, lipids-protein interactions, and novel research tool development.

    • Lan Guan
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a three-dimensional optical imaging technique, frequently (but not exclusively) used for retinal imaging, that was first reported in the early 1990s. Since this time the technological development of OCT has been strongly influenced by its potential as a medical imaging technique. The first clinical prototype for use in ophthalmology was completed in 1994, paving the way for the first commercially available ophthalmic OCT system to be released to the market in 1996. Since then, OCT has become a mainstay of ophthalmology. OCT is also widely used in research, in an array of biomedical applications, and increasingly in industrial settings. Although there is still much activity in advancing OCT technology, there has been an increased emphasis in applying OCT to translational research. One direction of this research is in the development of quantitative and computational techniques to aid in the retrieval of clinically useful information from OCT images. This Collection brings together original research articles, which exploit realistic mathematical models of OCT image formation and machine learning approaches to obtain insight not otherwise available from raw OCT images. This includes research for measuring clinically relevant parameters such as retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, fractional flow reserve, and corneal biomechanics, and for performing feature identification and image process tasks.

    • Peter Munro
    EditorialOpen Access
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has encouraged scientists and the general population to think more than ever before about how we interact with microbes in our indoor spaces. Research investigating transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has advanced our knowledge significantly in the last two years. However, indoor and built environment microbiomes are extremely complex polymicrobial systems. We have barely scratched the surface in our understanding of the microbial inhabitants of our indoor and urban spaces. The Microbes in the Built Environment Collection showcases recent research in this important topic around the globe.

    • Lena Ciric
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Taphonomical analysis allows us to understand the processes that underlie site formation, as well as provide insights into the modification and composition of studied fossil materials. Taphonomy has become crucial to many scientific fields, providing conceptual advances through a renewal of models, protocols, and paradigms. In these studies, trans-disciplinary approaches (geology, palaeontology, biology, ecology, archaeology) have been developed using a wide array of methodologies. In addition, experimental work on modern assemblages, focusing on specific geological and biological processes (‘actualism’), are used to make referential data and proxies. This Collection contributes to the field’s methodological development, while gathering research articles investigating Quaternary period bone assemblages, with special interest in the Pleistocene.

    • Ruth Blasco
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Advances in cognitive neuroscience and neurotechnology have increased our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes. This Collection brings together research in animal behaviour and cognition, with studies investigating their physiology, neural mechanisms, and genetic bases, in order to provide insight into the function and evolution of neurocognitive systems.

    • Elisa Frasnelli
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Scientific Reports launched in June 2011 with an inclusive ethos, and a mission to publish high-quality research without selecting papers based on perceived impact or significance. We reflect on our first 10 years, and thank our authors, reviewers and Editorial Board Members for their contributions to the success of the journal.

    EditorialOpen Access
  • The impaired brain is often difficult to restore, owing to our limited knowledge of the complex nervous system. Accumulating knowledge in systems neuroscience, combined with the development of innovative technologies, may enable brain restoration in patients with nervous system disorders that are currently untreatable. The Neuroprosthetics in Systems Neuroscience and Medicine Collection provides a platform for interdisciplinary research in neuroprosthetics.

    • Kenji Kansaku
    EditorialOpen Access
  • Mountains cover about a quarter of the world’s land surface, and directly support a significant proportion of the world’s population living within mountainous regions. Mountains provide water, timber and non-timber forest products, mineral resources, and many other food, fiber, and fuel products. Mountains also provide diverse ecosystems, in terms of both species and genetics, due to the topographic complexity in mountains increasing isolation and promoting speciation. Managing mountain regions for the sustainable delivery of critical goods and services requires an increasingly detailed understanding of mountain surface processes and regulation. The aim of this Guest Edited Collection is to provide a platform for interdisciplinary studies of mountain surface processes, and their responses to climate change and human activities.

    • Xuyang Lu
    EditorialOpen Access