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Gametes are an organism's reproductive cells. They are also referred to as sex cells. Female gametes are called ova or egg cells, and male gametes are called sperm. Gametes are haploid cells, and each cell carries only one copy of each chromosome. These reproductive cells are produced through a type of cell division called meiosis. During meiosis, a diploid parent cell, which has two copies of each chromosome, undergoes one round of DNA replication followed by two separate cycles of nuclear division to produce four haploid cells. These cells develop into sperm or ova. The ova mature in the ovaries of females, and the sperm develop in the testes of males. Each sperm cell, or spermatozoon, is small and motile. The spermatozoon has a flagellum, which is a tail-shaped structure that allows the cell to propel and move. In contrast, each egg cell, or ovum, is relatively large and non-motile. During fertilization, a spermatozoon and ovum unite to form a new diploid organism.

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