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Model of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue infection

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Model of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue infection
Antibody (Ab)-dependent enhancement of infection occurs when preexisting antibodies present in the body from a primary (first) dengue virus (DENV) infection bind to an infecting DENV particle during a subsequent infection with a different dengue serotype. The antibodies from the primary infection cannot neutralize the virus. Instead, the Ab–virus complex attaches to receptors called Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on circulating monocytes. The antibodies help the virus infect monocytes more efficiently. The outcome is an increase in the overall replication of the virus and a higher risk of severe dengue.

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Dengue viral infections can result in a range of symptoms. Some people show no symptoms or only have mild signs of the disease. Other people develop severe complications. How does the body respond to a dengue infection? What factors put some people at a greater risk of severe dengue illnesses than other people? The human body's immune system is the primary defense against the dengue virus. When someone is infected with dengue, the body's innate and adaptive immune responses work together to fight the virus. B cells from the immune system produce antibodies that recognize and neutralize dengue viral particles, and cytotoxic T cells recognize and kill cells that are infected with the virus. People who are infected a subsequent time with a different type of the dengue virus may experience something called "antibody-dependent enhancement" in which the body's immune response actually makes the clinical symptoms of dengue worse and increases a person's risk of developing severe dengue.


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