Accumulating Glitches How have organisms become what we see today? This blog focuses on the process of evolution and the richly diverse, intricately interconnected world of species it has generated. Goodbye! After 127 posts spread over more than two years, Sarah Jane and I have decided t... Mon, 01 Feb 2016 15:50:43 GMT 2016-02-01T15:50:43Z A Fungus-farming Bee A couple of years ago, I wrote about fungus-farming ants . These ants are a fam... Mon, 18 Jan 2016 06:53:22 GMT 2016-01-18T06:53:22Z When The Going Gets Tough, The Tough Become Babies A version of this article was originally published in The Scorpion and the F... Mon, 04 Jan 2016 17:13:01 GMT 2016-01-04T17:13:01Z Adapting to a Cheesy Lifestyle With the gift-giving season upon us, I thought it might be nice to write about a... Mon, 21 Dec 2015 22:26:07 GMT 2015-12-21T22:26:07Z Are GMO Fish Safe for the Environment? The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved the first geneti... Mon, 07 Dec 2015 17:44:59 GMT 2015-12-07T17:44:59Z Divide and conquer: coaxing cheaters to battle bacteria Bacteria are responsible for many human diseases, but rather than striving to ki... Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:13:55 GMT 2015-11-16T13:13:55Z Body Armor is Not Always for Protection When we see an animal covered in scales and plates, we assume that it has evolve... Mon, 02 Nov 2015 15:51:39 GMT 2015-11-02T15:51:39Z Pre-adapting to Evolve A common misconception imagines evolution as an artisan, honing species to their... Mon, 19 Oct 2015 15:19:44 GMT 2015-10-19T15:19:44Z How Fungus Makes Ant Zombies The parasitic fungus, Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu latu ( O. unilateralis... Mon, 05 Oct 2015 16:55:52 GMT 2015-10-05T16:55:52Z Learning from Lice To most people, lice are just parasites to be exterminated, but their parasitic ... Mon, 28 Sep 2015 12:12:21 GMT 2015-09-28T12:12:21Z An Incredibly Complete Tree of (Part of) Life This remarkable image greeted me when I opened my Twitter feed yesterday morning... Mon, 21 Sep 2015 08:42:12 GMT 2015-09-21T08:42:12Z Humans Evolved to Enjoy Songs and Music Humans are remarkably talented musicians. We can recognize a tune despite when i... Mon, 14 Sep 2015 09:08:42 GMT 2015-09-14T09:08:42Z Dogs Have Co-opted Our Physiology to Win Our Hearts Why do we feel genuine love and friendship for our dogs? The social relationship... Mon, 07 Sep 2015 14:10:46 GMT 2015-09-07T14:10:46Z A Life of Ice and Clouds A while ago I wrote about how bacteria make their way into clouds, where they a... Mon, 31 Aug 2015 08:11:39 GMT 2015-08-31T08:11:39Z Evolving by Alternative Splicing Creatures of various species often look far more different than the similarity o... Mon, 24 Aug 2015 08:44:58 GMT 2015-08-24T08:44:58Z Of Moss and Microarthropods Mosses were among the first plants to colonize land over 400 million years ago, ... Mon, 17 Aug 2015 11:33:03 GMT 2015-08-17T11:33:03Z The origins of kin discrimination—telling kith from kin Last week Sarah Jane explained the evolutionary advantage of helping out family... Mon, 10 Aug 2015 11:44:45 GMT 2015-08-10T11:44:45Z Cooperating for Selfish Reasons This article was originally published in The Scorpion and the Frog . To see... Mon, 03 Aug 2015 17:39:59 GMT 2015-08-03T17:39:59Z Tinkering with Fins Last year, I wrote about the adipose fin found in some fish, which researchers... Mon, 27 Jul 2015 10:01:25 GMT 2015-07-27T10:01:25Z How We Know the Colors of Prehistoric Animals Through their studies of bones, fossils, and geology, paleontologists have uncov... Mon, 20 Jul 2015 18:05:02 GMT 2015-07-20T18:05:02Z An Introduction to Sexual Selection Sexual selection is an important mechanism of natural selection which may not ge... Mon, 13 Jul 2015 16:32:19 GMT 2015-07-13T16:32:19Z Song Battles With Other Species Can Change Your Tune Many animals defend territories from members of their own species for mating, br... Mon, 06 Jul 2015 14:19:40 GMT 2015-07-06T14:19:40Z Was the Jurassic World a Dinosaur's World? Our perception of the past is coloured by phrases like “the age of the dinosaurs... Mon, 29 Jun 2015 13:26:31 GMT 2015-06-29T13:26:31Z The Evolution of Suicidal Sex Although most species breed repeatedly over their lifetimes , a select few inve... Mon, 22 Jun 2015 20:58:46 GMT 2015-06-22T20:58:46Z Warning Signals Evolved From Other Functions Some of the most strikingly colored animals are also quite deadly, their conspic... Mon, 15 Jun 2015 17:47:37 GMT 2015-06-15T17:47:37Z Jumping Jaws Help Ants Escape From Pit Monster Trap-jaw ants snap their mandibles shut with one of the fastest movements in the... Tue, 09 Jun 2015 00:42:36 GMT 2015-06-09T00:42:36Z Mind-Manipulating Slave-Making Ants! This article was originally published in The Scorpion and the Frog . An e... Mon, 01 Jun 2015 15:58:08 GMT 2015-06-01T15:58:08Z Shape Matters for Gene Expression In 2011, researchers described how the mutation of a single gene is sufficient t... Mon, 25 May 2015 14:29:28 GMT 2015-05-25T14:29:28Z How Dogs and Humans Grew Together Dogs are commonly called our best friends and truest companions, but what makes ... Mon, 18 May 2015 15:25:01 GMT 2015-05-18T15:25:01Z A Dinosaur That Flew on Bat-like Wings In one sense, the dinosaurs never went extinct. While you're not going to run i... Mon, 11 May 2015 14:48:54 GMT 2015-05-11T14:48:54Z Counting Chicks It's probably not a surprise that humans aren't the only animals with a sense o... Mon, 04 May 2015 10:45:54 GMT 2015-05-04T10:45:54Z A Groovy Cervix Helps Sperm Swim While the labyrinthine vaginas and spiralling penises of ducks have become fam... Mon, 27 Apr 2015 12:55:31 GMT 2015-04-27T12:55:31Z What Drove the Great Dying? As long ago as forever and as far away as home, life was withering away wherever... Mon, 20 Apr 2015 14:00:49 GMT 2015-04-20T14:00:49Z The pan-genome of Emiliania huxleyi Emiliania huxleyi has more going for it than just a beautiful name. Despite bei... Mon, 13 Apr 2015 17:32:27 GMT 2015-04-13T17:32:27Z Behavioral Transplants Twelve Canadian scientists accomplished something we've only heard about in scie... Mon, 06 Apr 2015 14:14:27 GMT 2015-04-06T14:14:27Z Drug resistance evolves in inbred parasites It all starts with a mosquito bite. When a hungry mosquito pierces someone’s ski... Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:36:47 GMT 2015-03-30T12:36:47Z What did the earliest skulls on land look like? As one of the earliest tetrapods, Acanthostega gunnari can tell us a lot about... Mon, 23 Mar 2015 20:31:03 GMT 2015-03-23T20:31:03Z The Oldest Jewelry in Europe Over a century ago, excavation workers discovered ancient human remains near the... Mon, 16 Mar 2015 19:05:54 GMT 2015-03-16T19:05:54Z The Evolution of Human Cortical Development Of all the traits that separate humans from their cousins, few draw as much fasc... Mon, 09 Mar 2015 15:37:51 GMT 2015-03-09T15:37:51Z Choosing Mates Wisely Is All The More Important When They Try To Eat You Choosing our mates is among the most important decisions of our lives. We agoniz... Mon, 02 Mar 2015 15:30:39 GMT 2015-03-02T15:30:39Z Evolutionary Constraints from Regulatory Gene Networks Evolutionary biology is full of great stories about why life on Earth is the way... Mon, 23 Feb 2015 15:12:32 GMT 2015-02-23T15:12:32Z Tracking Down the Genes Behind Speciation The 'species' concept is one of the most important in biology, providing the fra... Mon, 16 Feb 2015 10:15:49 GMT 2015-02-16T10:15:49Z Duelling Genitals Although chastity belts are a fixture of the popular conception of medieval Eu... Mon, 09 Feb 2015 15:52:55 GMT 2015-02-09T15:52:55Z Melatonin is Not a Magic Pill Many animals undergo seasonal physiological changes in order to ensure that thei... Mon, 02 Feb 2015 14:57:22 GMT 2015-02-02T14:57:22Z What Snakes Teach Us About the Mouse Body Plan Make your way along the length of a vertebrate and it becomes pretty clear that ... Mon, 26 Jan 2015 17:53:45 GMT 2015-01-26T17:53:45Z For bone-eating worms, smaller is better In 2002, researchers discovered a genus of quirky little deep-sea worms in Monte... Mon, 19 Jan 2015 17:24:14 GMT 2015-01-19T17:24:14Z Collective Personality and Our Environment We are all familiar with the concept of the personality of an individual. We a... Mon, 12 Jan 2015 15:00:17 GMT 2015-01-12T15:00:17Z The Bone-house Wasp This brief post will be the last of the year on Accumulating Glitches. We're tak... Mon, 22 Dec 2014 14:15:12 GMT 2014-12-22T14:15:12Z How and When Did Humans Start Consuming Alcohol? As winter deepens (in the North — hello, summery South!), many people's minds ar... Mon, 15 Dec 2014 16:43:09 GMT 2014-12-15T16:43:09Z Why Do Mosquitoes Bite Humans? The mosquito Aedes aegypti , which preys on humans in tropical and subtropical ... Mon, 08 Dec 2014 10:42:34 GMT 2014-12-08T10:42:34Z Crocodilians Hunt With Tools! What would happen to mankind if crocodiles and alligators were to develop enough... Mon, 01 Dec 2014 17:23:00 GMT 2014-12-01T17:23:00Z What Makes a Cat? Cats have always been a part of my life. One of my earliest memories is of follo... Mon, 24 Nov 2014 19:03:13 GMT 2014-11-24T19:03:13Z Treehoppers have wings on their heads Treehoppers are a group of insects distinguished by their impressive head orname... Mon, 17 Nov 2014 14:42:46 GMT 2014-11-17T14:42:46Z The Meaning of Fitness Thanks to the phrase “survival of the fittest”, fitness is quite a prominent ide... Mon, 10 Nov 2014 14:32:28 GMT 2014-11-10T14:32:28Z The Evolution of War and Peace Syria and Iraq . Ukraine . The Gaza Strip. People are dying in large numbers at... Mon, 03 Nov 2014 16:23:36 GMT 2014-11-03T16:23:36Z The Giant Kangaroos That Didn't Hop Ask anyone to describe a kangaroo and the word 'hopping' is likely to feature in... Mon, 27 Oct 2014 15:14:05 GMT 2014-10-27T15:14:05Z What Do Whales Taste? Taste is so important that it's wheedled its way deep into our language. We call... Mon, 20 Oct 2014 21:04:05 GMT 2014-10-20T21:04:05Z The Plants That Died with the Dinosaurs When a meteor impacted with the Earth 65 million years ago, it did more than jus... Mon, 13 Oct 2014 13:10:54 GMT 2014-10-13T13:10:54Z Scientists Discover Mushroom-like Animals, Possibly a New Phylum Nearly 30 years ago, a research vessel off the southeast coast of Australia drag... Mon, 06 Oct 2014 17:42:59 GMT 2014-10-06T17:42:59Z Island Biogeography in the Era of Humans In some ways, islands provide a ready-made laboratory for studying evolution. Th... Mon, 29 Sep 2014 13:54:47 GMT 2014-09-29T13:54:47Z From chimps to chickens: how a little DNA can make a lot of difference I've written before about how epigenetic differences enable very similar genome... Mon, 22 Sep 2014 06:46:23 GMT 2014-09-22T06:46:23Z How Wolbachia Learned to Help Bedbugs Wolbachia , Wolbachia , Wolbachia ! Though these ubiquitous insect symbionts a... Mon, 15 Sep 2014 15:06:53 GMT 2014-09-15T15:06:53Z How Some Critters Evolved to Eat Poison Since plants generally can’t move around, they have to rely on other strategie... Mon, 08 Sep 2014 09:56:24 GMT 2014-09-08T09:56:24Z How Starvation Causes Heritable Changes A growing body of evidence is pointing towards unknown inheritance mechanisms th... Mon, 01 Sep 2014 10:05:31 GMT 2014-09-01T10:05:31Z The Need for Speed Constrains Evolution in Mammals Despite the seemingly limitless potential of mutation and selection, evolution i... Mon, 25 Aug 2014 12:34:44 GMT 2014-08-25T12:34:44Z How Tibetans' Ancestors Adapted to High Altitudes In response to low oxygen conditions, our body produces extra red blood cells in... Mon, 18 Aug 2014 11:33:35 GMT 2014-08-18T11:33:35Z Horizontal Gene Transfer Promotes Altruism The origin of altruism is one of the enduring mysteries of evolutionary biology.... Mon, 11 Aug 2014 10:15:41 GMT 2014-08-11T10:15:41Z Does Biology Have Laws? Science is our way of trying to understand the universe, to make sense of the ... Mon, 04 Aug 2014 13:02:55 GMT 2014-08-04T13:02:55Z The Language of DNA One of the striking things about the genetic code is the remarkable way it twi... Mon, 28 Jul 2014 10:53:26 GMT 2014-07-28T10:53:26Z Friends Are Genetically Similar You and your friends are surprisingly genetically similar, according to a study ... Mon, 21 Jul 2014 08:51:56 GMT 2014-07-21T08:51:56Z Of Mice & Microbiomes: Evolving Gut Bacteria in Mammals The microbiome, the microbial community that lives in our gut, has been a tremen... Mon, 14 Jul 2014 08:32:11 GMT 2014-07-14T08:32:11Z The give-and-take between mothers and their offspring This is a story about a gene which makes nursing mice produce more nutritious ... Mon, 07 Jul 2014 18:03:37 GMT 2014-07-07T18:03:37Z The First Animal Reefs Sandwiched between two deserts, the dry landscapes of Namibia see less rainfall ... Mon, 30 Jun 2014 12:54:21 GMT 2014-06-30T12:54:21Z Spiders Hunt Fish! Since I'm a biologist, friends and relatives sometimes assume I know a lot about... Tue, 24 Jun 2014 02:14:05 GMT 2014-06-24T02:14:05Z One Year On! This week (yesterday, in fact) marks one year since Accumulating Glitches laun... Fri, 23 May 2014 17:49:49 GMT 2014-05-23T17:49:49Z Evolving Separate Tasks — How Somatic and Germ Cells Parted Ways The distinction between somatic and germ cells is fundamental to multicellular l... Mon, 19 May 2014 14:23:25 GMT 2014-05-19T14:23:25Z Evolutionary Biologists Should Study Female Genitalia More Evolutionary biologists are unduly interested in male genitalia and don't pay en... Mon, 12 May 2014 20:56:26 GMT 2014-05-12T20:56:26Z Reservoirs for Retrovirus Evolution Retroviruses are a family of viruses that use RNA instead of DNA as their geneti... Mon, 05 May 2014 19:46:16 GMT 2014-05-05T19:46:16Z The Viruses That Made Us Most people's probably associate viruses mainly with disease, a reputation that ... Mon, 28 Apr 2014 15:08:54 GMT 2014-04-28T15:08:54Z Unravelling How Planaria Regenerate Planarian flatworms are one of nature's little wonders. Although their 'cross-ey... Mon, 21 Apr 2014 17:11:27 GMT 2014-04-21T17:11:27Z The Yeasts That Make Lager Around 500 years ago, a group of stowaways crossed the Atlantic to begin an illu... Mon, 14 Apr 2014 14:32:56 GMT 2014-04-14T14:32:56Z Speciation in Reverse Darwin's finches have become a textbook example in evolutionary biology, specia... Mon, 07 Apr 2014 16:42:08 GMT 2014-04-07T16:42:08Z Fossils of Early Stick Insects Stick insects are fascinating and beautiful creatures, exquisitely mimicking lea... Mon, 31 Mar 2014 17:27:45 GMT 2014-03-31T17:27:45Z The Evolution of Body Plans: A TALE of two proteins A group of genes known as homeobox (Hox) genes control embryonic development of ... Mon, 24 Mar 2014 09:24:44 GMT 2014-03-24T09:24:44Z Where Do Genes Come From? Mutations may be the grist of evolution, but we usually imagine them as modifyin... Mon, 17 Mar 2014 21:56:21 GMT 2014-03-17T21:56:21Z The Evolution of Adipose Fins A couple of weeks ago, I wrote about research into the evolution of tetrapod li... Mon, 10 Mar 2014 15:11:05 GMT 2014-03-10T15:11:05Z Invasion of the Crazy Ants A war is being waged across the southern US. Over a decade ago, the invaders est... Mon, 03 Mar 2014 22:19:50 GMT 2014-03-03T22:19:50Z Evolution and Development of Leaf Shape Leaves come in a dizzying array of shapes, from simple, single bladed leaves to ... Mon, 24 Feb 2014 22:11:16 GMT 2014-02-24T22:11:16Z How Limbs Evolved From Fins Around 400 million years ago a group of creatures made their way onto land to fo... Mon, 17 Feb 2014 16:30:08 GMT 2014-02-17T16:30:08Z Dogs are not Domesticated Wolves At some point long ago, our ancestors domesticated dogs and we've been constant ... Mon, 10 Feb 2014 08:45:10 GMT 2014-02-10T08:45:10Z Sex and sociality: the genetics of being different An international team of researchers studying fire ants have discovered the fi... Mon, 03 Feb 2014 18:24:35 GMT 2014-02-03T18:24:35Z Why is there so much plant diversity in a tropical forest? spacer Reference s Bagchi, R. et al. Pathogens and insect herbivores drive ra... Mon, 27 Jan 2014 22:27:59 GMT 2014-01-27T22:27:59Z We Are Each A Community In our world of antibacterial soaps, we have learned that bacteria are evil, dir... Mon, 20 Jan 2014 20:37:06 GMT 2014-01-20T20:37:06Z A Balancing Act for Wolbachia Wolbachia , which I briefly mentioned in an earlier post, are pretty neat little... Mon, 13 Jan 2014 14:49:57 GMT 2014-01-13T14:49:57Z The Secrets of the Snake Genome I kept snakes as pets for most of my graduate career. It started with a pair of ... Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:14:15 GMT 2014-01-06T11:14:15Z Metabolism and Body Size Influence the Perception of Movement and Time When we watch TV or a movie, we are essentially watching a series of still image... Mon, 30 Dec 2013 14:48:15 GMT 2013-12-30T14:48:15Z How the Cavefish Lost its Eyes In the 1990s, Suzanne Rutherford and Susan Lindquist discovered that mutation of... Mon, 23 Dec 2013 10:41:49 GMT 2013-12-23T10:41:49Z The Regulation of Recombination Genetic variation is the raw material of natural selection. Mutation is one sour... Mon, 16 Dec 2013 15:09:33 GMT 2013-12-16T15:09:33Z Personality and the Spread of Disease Studies of the spread of infectious diseases have shown that behavior plays a st... Mon, 09 Dec 2013 16:24:01 GMT 2013-12-09T16:24:01Z The Genetics of Speciation Herbivorous insects that switch to eating a different kind of plant are evolutio... Tue, 03 Dec 2013 00:14:25 GMT 2013-12-03T00:14:25Z The Making of Sex Chromosomes Many animals use a special pair of chromosomes to determine their sex during dev... Mon, 25 Nov 2013 22:04:48 GMT 2013-11-25T22:04:48Z What Cetaceans Can Teach Us About Cultural Evolution We often think of culture as being food dishes, music, dance, and clothing that ... Mon, 18 Nov 2013 15:33:57 GMT 2013-11-18T15:33:57Z Suicidal Reproduction In Mammals Some spiders get eaten by their mates , and male salmon famously fight to the d... Mon, 11 Nov 2013 11:43:39 GMT 2013-11-11T11:43:39Z These feet were made for walking, but what about climbing? [Note: This article is adpated from a post on Inspiring Science . I'm very bu... Mon, 04 Nov 2013 14:56:55 GMT 2013-11-04T14:56:55Z The Mimic Octopus: Master of Disguise Different animal species have evolved a number of ways to hide in their environ... Mon, 28 Oct 2013 15:12:28 GMT 2013-10-28T15:12:28Z Constraints on Evolution Mutation provides grist for the mill of evolution, but these genetic changes are... Mon, 21 Oct 2013 18:10:12 GMT 2013-10-21T18:10:12Z Selfish Genes & Emergent Properties [Note: This was originally posted as part of a series about natural selection ... Mon, 14 Oct 2013 14:44:04 GMT 2013-10-14T14:44:04Z Honeybees Can Avoid Deadlock When Making Group Decisions, So Why Can't We? **Note: This article was adapted in part from previous posts written on group de... Mon, 07 Oct 2013 15:33:10 GMT 2013-10-07T15:33:10Z Epigenetics and Evolution We share most of our genome with our closest relatives, the other great apes, an... Mon, 30 Sep 2013 15:35:18 GMT 2013-09-30T15:35:18Z Antibiotics and Applied Evolution The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become a textbook example... Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:13:32 GMT 2013-09-23T14:13:32Z Hiding in Plain Sight Sometimes the best place to hide is right under everybody's nose. If you look li... Mon, 16 Sep 2013 16:24:03 GMT 2013-09-16T16:24:03Z Tracking the Evolution of a Virus Most of the articles on this blog have talked about evolution as though it were ... Mon, 09 Sep 2013 12:52:37 GMT 2013-09-09T12:52:37Z Viral Genes In Our Brain How did a gene from a virus end up in our brain? That's just one of the interest... Mon, 02 Sep 2013 15:07:08 GMT 2013-09-02T15:07:08Z Some City Birds Are Changing Their Tune The human world population has climbed to over 7.1 billion people and for the ... Mon, 26 Aug 2013 12:38:08 GMT 2013-08-26T12:38:08Z Shaping the Balance of the Sexes We tend to think that offspring are just as likely to be male as female, but tha... Mon, 19 Aug 2013 13:06:56 GMT 2013-08-19T13:06:56Z Forewarned is Fore-armed: Crickets Exposed to Predators Have More Cautious Offspring Organisms respond to their environment in a variety of ways, and natural selecti... Mon, 12 Aug 2013 12:26:31 GMT 2013-08-12T12:26:31Z In the Evolution of a Signal, What Comes First: The Signal or the Response? Finding and attracting a mate is tricky business for most species. It can be qui... Mon, 05 Aug 2013 13:57:03 GMT 2013-08-05T13:57:03Z Attraction gone wrong: butterfly mating and habitat choice Leptidea sinapis and L. juvernica , two similar-looking species of Wood White ... Mon, 29 Jul 2013 15:38:48 GMT 2013-07-29T15:38:48Z How the Rhino Beetle Got its Horn For some beetles, size definitely matters. Male Japanese rhinoceros beetles ( A... Mon, 22 Jul 2013 17:19:24 GMT 2013-07-22T17:19:24Z The Laws of Attraction: Mangrove Killifish Style In the game of love, we typically think of males as being the showy courting sex... Mon, 15 Jul 2013 15:35:09 GMT 2013-07-15T15:35:09Z The first forests Sometime around 500 million years ago, green algae floating in shallow coastal w... Mon, 08 Jul 2013 20:06:51 GMT 2013-07-08T20:06:51Z An example of convergent evolution in whales and bats The sun bathes the world around us in light, and we use the reflected light to ... Mon, 01 Jul 2013 17:08:00 GMT 2013-07-01T17:08:00Z The Evolution of Personality " Evolutionary biologists have long been interested in individual differences (D... Mon, 24 Jun 2013 22:16:16 GMT 2013-06-24T22:16:16Z Agriculture in Ants and Humans I thought I'd try something a bit different in this post. I wanted to write abo... Mon, 17 Jun 2013 23:30:36 GMT 2013-06-17T23:30:36Z Seeing is believing — the visual interface Tell all the truth but tell it slant Success in circuit lies, Too bright for our... Mon, 10 Jun 2013 16:39:03 GMT 2013-06-10T16:39:03Z Cicadian Rhythms: Why Does the 17-Year Cicada Emerge Like Clockwork? The 2013 Swarmageddon is here! After years of their absence, cicadas are overrun... Mon, 03 Jun 2013 13:36:25 GMT 2013-06-03T13:36:25Z Ancient Life in Ancient Water? All of the amazing riches of biodiversity we see around us exists in just a thin... Mon, 27 May 2013 14:45:09 GMT 2013-05-27T14:45:09Z Do Species Really Exist? " Nor shall I here discuss the various definitions which have been given of the ... Wed, 22 May 2013 15:27:23 GMT 2013-05-22T15:27:23Z