Latest Reviews

  • Perspective |

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is increasing worldwide. Here, the authors consider the potential benefits and harms of screening for RCC and discuss whether enough evidence is available to begin a clinical trial of RCC screening.

    • Juliet Usher-Smith
    • , Rebecca K. Simmons
    • , Sabrina H. Rossi
    •  & Grant D. Stewart
  • Review Article |

    Complicated UTI (cUTI) incidence and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among uropathogens are increasing. Here, the authors discuss different cUTI classification systems, describe current understanding of the aetiology of cUTIs and outline clinical studies of novel antibiotics in patients with cUTIs or pyelonephritis and the use of UTI as a model for other infection types in clinical studies.

    • Florian M. E. Wagenlehner
    • , Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen
    • , Tommaso Cai
    • , Bela Koves
    • , Jennifer Kranz
    • , Adrian Pilatz
    •  & Zafer Tandogdu
  • Viewpoint |

    The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly put a strain on relationships. For some couples, lockdown has meant long periods of separation, whereas for others, lockdown has resulted in months of isolation together. In this Viewpoint, three experts consider the effects of the pandemic on relationships and suggest ways in which lockdown can become a positive experience for couples making love in the time of corona.

    • Marieke Dewitte
    • , Chantelle Otten
    •  & Lauren Walker
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Aydin et al. discuss our current knowledge of the genomic, molecular and immunological make-up of penile squamous cell carcinoma and the findings of research studies to explore future therapeutic approaches in this disease.

    • Ahmet Murat Aydin
    • , Jad Chahoud
    • , Jacob J. Adashek
    • , Mounsif Azizi
    • , Anthony Magliocco
    • , Jeffrey S. Ross
    • , Andrea Necchi
    •  & Philippe E. Spiess
  • Review Article |

    Sharpley et al. describe the prevalence and effects of depression in men with prostate cancer and explore the causes and factors contributing to depression. They discuss depression definitions applicable to this patient population, how depression can be identified in the clinical setting and treatment considerations.

    • Christopher F. Sharpley
    • , David R. H. Christie
    •  & Vicki Bitsika
  • Consensus Statement
    | Open Access

    The Movember global Landscape Analysis Committee (LAC) was established to act as an independent group of experts across urology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, radiology, pathology, translational research, health economics and patient advocacy to identify the highest priority research needs across the prostate cancer biomedical research domain. Findings from the landscape analysis illustrate the research priorities in prostate cancer and will enable Movember to focus on specific needs, with particular investment in research to reduce disease progression and improve therapies for advanced prostate cancer.

    • Michelle M. Kouspou
    • , Jenna E. Fong
    • , Nadine Brew
    • , Sarah T. F. Hsiao
    • , Seanna L. Davidson
    • , Peter L. Choyke
    • , Tony Crispino
    • , Suneil Jain
    • , Guido W. Jenster
    • , Beatrice S. Knudsen
    • , Jeremy L. Millar
    • , Nicole Mittmann
    • , Charles J. Ryan
    • , Bertrand Tombal
    •  & Mark Buzza
  • Perspective |

    Here, the authors describe the characteristics of an ideal screening test for prostate cancer and examine why PSA fails to meet these attributes. They discuss whether an abbreviated MRI protocol could be an alternative or additional screening test for prostate cancer and explore its inherent challenges and potential solutions.

    • David Eldred-Evans
    • , Henry Tam
    • , Heminder Sokhi
    • , Anwar R. Padhani
    • , Mathias Winkler
    •  & Hashim U. Ahmed
  • Perspective |

    The precise mechanism of action by which BCG acts in bladder cancer therapy is unclear. BCG induces a non-specific enhancement of the biological function of innate immune cells, creating an immunological memory known as trained immunity. In this Perspective, the authors propose that trained immunity could be an important mechanism mediating BCG immunotherapy and could contribute to a personalized approach to BCG therapy in patients with bladder cancer.

    • Jelmer H. van Puffelen
    • , Samuel T. Keating
    • , Egbert Oosterwijk
    • , Antoine G. van der Heijden
    • , Mihai G. Netea
    • , Leo A. B. Joosten
    •  & Sita H. Vermeulen
  • Review Article |

    Lacerda Mariano and Ingersoll discuss how bacterial urinary tract infection affects the bladder, focusing on the development of immune responses and the cells and pathways that mediate immunity. They also highlight therapeutic approaches to bladder infection that are currently under development.

    • Livia Lacerda Mariano
    •  & Molly A. Ingersoll
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Jackson and colleagues discuss the critical role of the urothelium in both normal urinary tract development and in congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract. Urothelial remodelling in congenital obstructive uropathy is also discussed.

    • Ashley R. Jackson
    • , Christina B. Ching
    • , Kirk M. McHugh
    •  & Brian Becknell
  • Viewpoint |

    On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease, COVID-19, a global pandemic. Across the world, governments took action to slow the spread and hospitals rushed to accommodate an influx of patients with this highly infectious and lethal disease. The urology departments in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, and Herlev and Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark — which are linked by the pre-existing CopMich Collaborative — had to respond with massive changes to the organization, staffing and workload of their teams. In this Viewpoint, authors from different urological subspecialties and at different career stages reflect on their experiences during the pandemic. Although their countries’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic differed radically, the similarities between the responses in Copenhagen and Michigan demonstrate the universal characteristics of medicine and the value of teamwork, flexibility and collaboration.

    • Juan J. Andino
    • , James M. Dupree
    • , Christian F. S. Jensen
    • , Ganesh S. Palapattu
    • , Jens Sønksen
    •  & Daniela Wittmann
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Perera et al. explain the concept and schedule protocols of intermittent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for patients with prostate cancer and discuss current evidence on safety, feasibility and benefits of intermittent ADT compared with continuous ADT.

    • Marlon Perera
    • , Matthew J. Roberts
    • , Laurence Klotz
    • , Celestia S. Higano
    • , Nathan Papa
    • , Shomik Sengupta
    • , Damien Bolton
    •  & Nathan Lawrentschuk
  • Author Correction |

    • Muhammad Imran Omar
    • , Monique J. Roobol
    • , Maria J. Ribal
    • , Thomas Abbott
    • , Paul-Michael Agapow
    • , Sonia Araujo
    • , Alex Asiimwe
    • , Charles Auffray
    • , Irina Balaur
    • , Katharina Beyer
    • , Chiara Bernini
    • , Anders Bjartell
    • , Alberto Briganti
    • , John-Edward Butler-Ransohoff
    • , Riccardo Campi
    • , Marinel Cavelaars
    • , Bertrand De Meulder
    • , Zsuzsanna Devecseri
    • , Marc Dietrich Voss
    • , Konstantinos Dimitropoulos
    • , Susan Evans-Axelsson
    • , Billy Franks
    • , Louise Fullwood
    • , Denis Horgan
    • , Emma Jane Smith
    • , Amit Kiran
    • , Kati Kivinummi
    • , Mark Lambrecht
    • , Doron Lancet
    • , Peter Lindgren
    • , Sara MacLennan
    • , Steven MacLennan
    • , Maria Manuela Nogueira
    • , Fredrik Moen
    • , Maxim Moinat
    • , Kishore Papineni
    • , Christian Reich
    • , Kristin Reiche
    • , Stijn Rogiers
    • , Claudio Sartini
    • , Kees van Bochove
    • , Femke van Diggelen
    • , Mieke Van Hemelrijck
    • , Hein Van Poppel
    • , Jihong Zong
    • , James N’Dow
    • , Emelie Andersson
    • , Heidi Arala
    • , Anssi Auvinen
    • , Chris Bangma
    • , Danny Burke
    • , Antonella Cardone
    • , Joaquin Casariego
    • , Guido Cuperus
    • , Saeed Dabestani
    • , Francesco Esperto
    • , Nicola Fossati
    • , Adam Fridhammar
    • , Giorgio Gandaglia
    • , Delila Gasi Tandefelt
    • , Friedemann Horn
    • , Johannes Huber
    • , Jonas Hugosson
    • , Henkjan Huisman
    • , Andreas Josefsson
    • , Olavi Kilkku
    • , Markus Kreuz
    • , Michael Lardas
    • , Joe Lawson
    • , Florence Lefresne
    • , Stephane Lejeune
    • , Elaine Longden-Chapman
    • , Gordon McVie
    • , Lisa Moris
    • , Nicolas Mottet
    • , Teemu Murtola
    • , Charlie Nicholls
    • , Karl H. Pang
    • , Katie Pascoe
    • , Marta Picozzi
    • , Karin Plass
    • , Pasi Pohjanjousi
    • , Matthew Reaney
    • , Sebastiaan Remmers
    • , Paul Robinson
    • , Jack Schalken
    • , Max Schravendeel
    • , Thomas Seisen
    • , Angela Servan
    • , Kirill Shiranov
    • , Robert Snijder
    • , Carl Steinbeisser
    • , Nesrine Taibi
    • , Kirsi Talala
    • , Derya Tilki
    • , Thomas Van den Broeck
    • , Zdravko Vassilev
    • , Olli Voima
    • , Eleni Vradi
    • , Reg Waldeck
    • , Ward Weistra
    • , Peter-Paul Willemse
    • , Manfred Wirth
    • , Russ Wolfinger
    •  & Nazanin Zounemat Kermani
  • Review Article |

    The introduction of dedicated diagnostic guidelines for compulsive sexual behaviour disorder in the ICD-11 provides an opportunity to improve diagnosis and research into the disorder’s aetiology, assessment and therapy. For patients who consider their sexual behaviour uncontrollable, the interplay between excitatory and inhibitory factors could be in dysbalance. In this Review, Briken describes the aetiology and background of this often misunderstood disorder and provides a comprehensive approach to diagnosis and treatment.

    • Peer Briken
  • Review Article |

    Postoperative sexual function is most often unchanged or improved after treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Nevertheless, some women experience sexual disorders and/or de novo dyspareunia after repair. Patient counselling is emerging as an important step before surgical prolapse repair.

    • Brigitte Fatton
    • , Renaud de Tayrac
    • , Vincent Letouzey
    •  & Stéphanie Huberlant
  • Review Article |

    Kidney stone disease is common and can be associated with alterations in urinary solute composition. Here, the authors outline general approaches for stone prevention, describe current understanding of the genetic influences underlying kidney stone formation and discuss the implications of a correct diagnosis for the clinical management of recurrent stone formers.

    • Sarah A. Howles
    •  & Rajesh V. Thakker
  • Perspective |

    Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Enhancement Through the Power of Big Data in Europe (PIONEER) is a European network of excellence for big data in prostate cancer, consisting of 32 private and public stakeholders from 9 countries across Europe. In this Perspectives article, the authors introduce the PIONEER project and describe its aims and plans for ultimately improving prostate cancer care through the use of big data.

    • Muhammad Imran Omar
    • , Monique J. Roobol
    • , Maria J. Ribal
    • , Thomas Abbott
    • , Paul-Michael Agapow
    • , Sonia Araujo
    • , Alex Asiimwe
    • , Charles Auffray
    • , Irina Balaur
    • , Katharina Beyer
    • , Chiara Bernini
    • , Anders Bjartell
    • , Alberto Briganti
    • , John-Edward Butler-Ransohoff
    • , Riccardo Campi
    • , Marinel Cavelaars
    • , Bertrand De Meulder
    • , Zsuzsanna Devecseri
    • , Marc Dietrich Voss
    • , Konstantinos Dimitropoulos
    • , Susan Evans-Axelsson
    • , Billy Franks
    • , Louise Fullwood
    • , Denis Horgan
    • , Emma Jane Smith
    • , Amit Kiran
    • , Kati Kivinummi
    • , Mark Lambrecht
    • , Doron Lancet
    • , Peter Lindgren
    • , Sara MacLennan
    • , Steven MacLennan
    • , Maria Manuela Nogueira
    • , Fredrik Moen
    • , Maxim Moinat
    • , Kishore Papineni
    • , Christian Reich
    • , Kristin Reiche
    • , Stijn Rogiers
    • , Claudio Sartini
    • , Kees van Bochove
    • , Femke van Diggelen
    • , Mieke Van Hemelrijck
    • , Hein Van Poppel
    • , Jihong Zong
    • , James N’Dow
    • , Emelie Andersson
    • , Heidi Arala
    • , Anssi Auvinen
    • , Chris Bangma
    • , Danny Burke
    • , Antonella Cardone
    • , Joaquin Casariego
    • , Guido Cuperus
    • , Saeed Dabestani
    • , Francesco Esperto
    • , Nicola Fossati
    • , Adam Fridhammar
    • , Giorgio Gandaglia
    • , Delila Gasi Tandefelt
    • , Friedemann Horn
    • , Johannes Huber
    • , Jonas Hugosson
    • , Henkjan Huisman
    • , Andreas Josefsson
    • , Olavi Kilkku
    • , Markus Kreuz
    • , Michael Lardas
    • , Joe Lawson
    • , Florence Lefresne
    • , Stephane Lejeune
    • , Elaine Longden-Chapman
    • , Gordon McVie
    • , Lisa Moris
    • , Nicolas Mottet
    • , Teemu Murtola
    • , Charlie Nicholls
    • , Karl H. Pang
    • , Katie Pascoe
    • , Marta Picozzi
    • , Karin Plass
    • , Pasi Pohjanjousi
    • , Matthew Reaney
    • , Sebastiaan Remmers
    • , Paul Robinson
    • , Jack Schalken
    • , Max Schravendeel
    • , Thomas Seisen
    • , Angela Servan
    • , Kirill Shiranov
    • , Robert Snijder
    • , Carl Steinbeisser
    • , Nesrine Taibi
    • , Kirsi Talala
    • , Derya Tilki
    • , Thomas Van den Broeck
    • , Zdravko Vassilev
    • , Olli Voima
    • , Eleni Vradi
    • , Reg Waldeck
    • , Ward Weistra
    • , Peter-Paul Willemse
    • , Manfred Wirth
    • , Russ Wolfinger
    •  & Nazanin Zounemat Kermani
  • Review Article |

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for men with prostate cancer, particular in combination with androgen deprivation. However, various factors can limit the dose of radiation that can be administered, so the effect might be suboptimal. In this Review, the authors discuss how radiotherapy could be optimized by combining with other treatments in a multimodal approach, particularly in the setting of oligometastatic disease.

    • Yiannis Philippou
    • , Hanna Sjoberg
    • , Alastair D. Lamb
    • , Philip Camilleri
    •  & Richard J. Bryant
  • Review Article |

    SPOP is involved in tumorigenesis by promoting ubiquitination and degradation of its substrates in human cancers. Wang et al. describe the regulation of expression and function of SPOP and discuss its roles in prostate and kidney cancers, focusing on various SPOP substrate proteins. They also highlight SPOP targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy.

    • Zhiwei Wang
    • , Yizuo Song
    • , Miaomiao Ye
    • , Xiaoming Dai
    • , Xueqiong Zhu
    •  & Wenyi Wei
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Meeks et al. summarize heterogeneity in bladder cancer and how it affects tumour biology and clinical care. They describe current knowledge of tumour evolution, genomic heterogeneity and different tumour subtypes, as well as morphological heterogeneity seen in variant bladder cancer histology. They also discuss the influence of heterogeneity on treatment decision making, drug development and clinical trial design.

    • Joshua J. Meeks
    • , Hikmat Al-Ahmadie
    • , Bishoy M. Faltas
    • , John A. Taylor III
    • , Thomas W. Flaig
    • , David J. DeGraff
    • , Emil Christensen
    • , Benjamin L. Woolbright
    • , David J. McConkey
    •  & Lars Dyrskjøt
  • Review Article |

    Liquid biopsy techniques, especially the use of plasma circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) analysis, are a convenient, fast and non-invasive approach to the diagnosis and monitoring of urological cancers, and could enable selection of targeted therapy before clinical and radiographic changes occur. In this Review, the authors discuss the uses of liquid biopsy and plasma ctDNA analysis in particular, and consider how it could be used in clinical practice now and in the future.

    • Manuel Caitano Maia
    • , Meghan Salgia
    •  & Sumanta K. Pal
  • Review Article |

    Management strategies used to treat prostate cancer often lead to treatment resistance, which can arise via a mechanism of cellular rewiring, whereby the tumour cell alters its signalling to escape the effects of therapy. Understanding these mechanisms could enable the development of improved and combination treatment regimens, to minimize treatment failures and improve outcomes.

    • Marc Carceles-Cordon
    • , W. Kevin Kelly
    • , Leonard Gomella
    • , Karen E. Knudsen
    • , Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo
    •  & Josep Domingo-Domenech
  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors discuss embryonic microRNAs that are highly expressed in testicular germ cell tumours, critically assess the clinical utility of monitoring these microRNAs in the circulation and compare their diagnostic performance with the classic serum tumour markers.

    • Kristian Almstrup
    • , João Lobo
    • , Nina Mørup
    • , Gazanfer Belge
    • , Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts
    • , Leendert H. J. Looijenga
    •  & Klaus-Peter Dieckmann
  • Review Article |

    Bader and McGuire review the current understanding of cancer metabolism with a focus on prostate cancer and the subversion of androgen receptor-driven metabolic programming to fuel oncogenic growth. They highlight diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities for clinical translation and future research directions.

    • David A. Bader
    •  & Sean E. McGuire
  • Perspective |

    In this Perspectives, a pioneer in the field of robotic radical prostatectomy describes the history of the technique and changing indications for its use, from an operation once considered useless, to one offered to almost all patients with low-risk disease, to a procedure that now has a role in advanced disease as part of a multimodal approach.

    • Anthony J. Costello
  • Review Article |

    The female reproductive tract (FRT) harbours a site-specific microbiome. When dysbiosis of the FRT occurs, altered immune and metabolic signalling might lead to gynaecological cancer. In this Review, the authors discuss how dysbiosis could lead to malignancy and how cancer and its treatment can, in turn, affect the FRT microbiome. Finally, they consider how modulation of the microbiome might prove useful in improving responsiveness to cancer treatment and quality of life in women with gynaecological cancers.

    • Paweł Łaniewski
    • , Zehra Esra Ilhan
    •  & Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Chan and colleagues discuss the need for improved management options for hypospadias and describe advances in urethral tissue engineering and barriers to clinical application of tissue-engineered constructs in hypospadias repair.

    • Yvonne Y. Chan
    • , Matthew I. Bury
    • , Emily M. Yura
    • , Matthias D. Hofer
    • , Earl Y. Cheng
    •  & Arun K. Sharma
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Xu et al. provide an overview of mechanisms of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) therapy and its clinical development in patients with kidney cancer, discuss combination ICI strategies and review future directions for ICI in kidney cancer encompassing biomarker and therapeutic target research.

    • Wenxin Xu
    • , Michael B. Atkins
    •  & David F. McDermott
  • Review Article |

    Urethral injection of bulking agents or stem cell formulations are minimally invasive approaches to stress urinary incontinence. Hillary and colleagues summarize data on the efficacy and safety of bulking agents compared with conventional treatments, and discuss current knowledge of the use of stem cell formulations and acellular, stimulatory injection-based therapies for the treatment of this disorder.

    • Christopher J. Hillary
    • , Sabiniano Roman
    • , Sheila MacNeil
    • , Wilhelm K. Aicher
    • , Arnulf Stenzl
    •  & Christopher R. Chapple
  • Review Article |

    An energetic interplay between tumour and immune cells leads to metabolic competition in the tumour ecosystem, an effect that could be targeted to boost immune checkpoint inhibition. In this Review, the authors discuss cancer cell and immune cell metabolism and consider the potential therapeutic targets within these processes.

    • Julieta Afonso
    • , Lúcio L. Santos
    • , Adhemar Longatto-Filho
    •  & Fátima Baltazar
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors describe the current evidence showing the stimulatory effect of tumour innervation and neurosignalling in prostate cancer. They discuss the clinical and epidemiological evidence and the potential of using nerves and neurosignalling for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

    • Brayden March
    • , Sam Faulkner
    • , Phillip Jobling
    • , Allison Steigler
    • , Alison Blatt
    • , Jim Denham
    •  & Hubert Hondermarck
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Siva and colleagues discuss the uses of (PSMA)–positron emission tomography (PET) beyond its role in conventional prostate cancer imaging. PSMA could have utility in other genitourinary malignancies and oligometastatic prostate cancer, theranostics, selection and guidance of radiotherapy fields, as well as the assessment of response to treatment.

    • Shankar Siva
    • , Cristian Udovicich
    • , Ben Tran
    • , Homi Zargar
    • , Declan G. Murphy
    •  & Michael S. Hofman
  • Review Article |

    Here, Linxweiler and Junker provide an update on our understanding of the functional role of extracellular vesicles in urological malignancies and discuss their applicability as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the three most prevalent urological cancers.

    • Johannes Linxweiler
    •  & Kerstin Junker
  • Review Article |

    Imber et al. summarize current knowledge of the risks of financial toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer, proposing a framework of contributing factors, and discuss emerging assessment strategies to inform future research efforts.

    • Brandon S. Imber
    • , Melissa Varghese
    • , Behfar Ehdaie
    •  & Daniel Gorovets
  • Review Article |

    Emerging evidence suggests that the seminal microbiome has implications for the reproductive health of men, their partner, and even the health of their offspring. In this Review, the authors describe the current evidence for a seminal microbiome and consider what the future holds for this field of research.

    • Signe Altmäe
    • , Jason M. Franasiak
    •  & Reet Mändar
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Morris et al. summarize the mechanisms through which 223Ra exerts its biological effects in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, discuss potential 223Ra combination therapies and provide future perspectives for targeted alpha-particle therapy.

    • Michael J. Morris
    • , Eva Corey
    • , Theresa A. Guise
    • , James L. Gulley
    • , William Kevin Kelly
    • , David I. Quinn
    • , Arne Scholz
    •  & George Sgouros
  • Review Article |

    Despite improved surgical techniques and the development of transplants, therapeutic options for men who have penile disorders or who have sustained trauma to the penis are limited and erectile function can rarely be rescued. In this Review, the authors discuss regenerative approaches to tissue engineering the tunica and corpora to improve outcomes in these patients.

    • Tom W. Andrew
    • , Muholan Kanapathy
    • , Log Murugesan
    • , Asif Muneer
    • , Deepak Kalaskar
    •  & Anthony Atala
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Narayan and Dahm summarize innovations in clinical trial design that have led to practice-changing developments in the treatment of urological cancers and offer a perspective on improving trial design in the future.

    • Vikram M. Narayan
    •  & Philipp Dahm
  • Review Article |

    The molecular mechanisms involved in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) development and drug resistance are diverse. In this Review, the authors summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to currently used therapies in pRCC and make recommendations for future preclinical and clinical studies.

    • Anna Brodziak
    • , Paweł Sobczuk
    • , Ewa Bartnik
    • , Michał Fiedorowicz
    • , Camillo Porta
    • , Cezary Szczylik
    •  & Anna M. Czarnecka
  • Review Article |

    A number of targetable molecular alterations and resistance mechanisms have been identified in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). As our understanding of the genomic landscape of mCRPC increases, biomarker-driven clinical trials investigating targeted therapies will enable an increasingly personalized approach to its treatment.

    • Sheng-Yu Ku
    • , Martin E. Gleave
    •  & Himisha Beltran
  • Review Article |

    Urogenital tuberculosis can be easily overlooked owing to non-specific symptoms, varying manifestations and a lack of awareness of the disease. In this Review, Muneer and colleagues provide a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and management of this disease.

    • Asif Muneer
    • , Bruce Macrae
    • , Sriram Krishnamoorthy
    •  & Alimuddin Zumla
  • Perspective |

    In this timeline, the authors describe the evolution of the use of polypropylene mesh in female pelvic floor surgery. They detail how the material properties of mesh relate to the occurrence of complications and discuss approaches to developing new materials and tissue engineering techniques.

    • Naşide Mangir
    • , Betül Aldemir Dikici
    • , Christopher R. Chapple
    •  & Sheila MacNeil
  • Review Article |

    Schneider et al. review the multifaceted immunoregulatory responses in the pathophysiology and treatment of bladder cancer, focusing on immune checkpoints and the various immune cells of the tumour microenvironment. They discuss alterations of these immune regulators, their clinical relevance and therapeutic targeting strategies.

    • Anna K. Schneider
    • , Mathieu F. Chevalier
    •  & Laurent Derré
  • Review Article |

    Intravesical chemotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer; however, the biology of the bladder means that intravesical therapy is limited by washout of the agent during voiding and systemic effects caused by absorption through the bladder wall. In this Review, the authors consider novel approaches to improving the pharmacokinetics of intravesical chemotherapy, such as chemohyperthermia, sustained release devices, and nanoparticle conjugation.

    • Gregory A. Joice
    • , Trinity J. Bivalacqua
    •  & Max Kates
  • Review Article |

    The risk of pelvic nodal involvement in patients with high-risk prostate cancer has led to the development of whole-pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT); however, this approach remains controversial. In this Review, the authors discuss the mixed data surrounding WPRT and consider how advanced imaging techniques and ‘big data’ mining could improve patient selection and optimize WPRT by improving localization of subclinical disease.

    • Hannah Tharmalingam
    • , Ananya Choudhury
    • , Marcel Van Herk
    • , Alan McWilliam
    •  & Peter J. Hoskin
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Stabile and colleagues describe the current status of the role of mpMRI in prostate cancer diagnosis, its clinical application and consider its future direction in this disease.

    • Armando Stabile
    • , Francesco Giganti
    • , Andrew B. Rosenkrantz
    • , Samir S. Taneja
    • , Geert Villeirs
    • , Inderbir S. Gill
    • , Clare Allen
    • , Mark Emberton
    • , Caroline M. Moore
    •  & Veeru Kasivisvanathan
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors discuss the molecular and histopathological evidence supporting pathology-driven therapy for advanced bladder cancer, including rare histological subtypes of urothelial carcinoma and non-urothelial carcinomas, and highlight novel molecular taxonomies, relevant biomarkers and promising future therapies.

    • Constantine Alifrangis
    • , Ursula McGovern
    • , Alex Freeman
    • , Thomas Powles
    •  & Mark Linch