Review Articles

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  • The unfolded protein response has an important role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Here, the authors discuss its involvement in prostate cancer development and progression, interactions with androgen receptor signalling, and the therapeutic implications for the treatment of metastatic disease.

    • Claire M. de la Calle
    • Kevin Shee
    • Hao G. Nguyen
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors analyse all the steps of the multiparametric MRI-guided prostate cancer diagnostic pathway, focusing on quality assurance systems to minimize variation in performance and discussing quality control measures to assess and mitigate poor quality throughout the process.

    • Tristan Barrett
    • Maarten de Rooij
    • Anwar R. Padhani
    Review Article
  • Evidence has suggested that the intestinal microbiome might have a role in maintaining oxalate homeostasis and kidney stone disease and that the urinary microbiome might also influence the induction of crystal formation and stone growth directly in the kidney. In this Review, the authors discuss the mechanisms by which these microbial populations contribute to stone disease and how they might be therapeutically targeted.

    • Aaron W. Miller
    • Kristina L. Penniston
    • Dirk Lange
    Review Article
  • Stage I testicular germ cell tumour is restricted to the testicle and can be mostly cured by orchiectomy; however, many patients experience tumour relapse. In this Review, the authors describe advantages and limitations of the currently available predictive biomarkers of relapse in germ cell tumours, and discuss the need to identify new biomarkers to avoid patient overtreatment.

    • Peter Lesko
    • Michal Chovanec
    • Michal Mego
    Review Article
  • Premature ejaculation is a male disorder causing distress, bother, frustration and/or avoidance of sexual intimacy. Currently available therapies are not lasting and only mildly effective. In this Review, the authors summarize currently available approved and off-label treatments for premature ejaculation, and comprehensively discuss emerging therapeutic options.

    • Murat Gul
    • Kadir Bocu
    • Ege Can Serefoglu
    Review Article
  • Several studies over the past few decades have suggested that sperm quality varies by geographical region and might be subject to a temporal decline worldwide. However, the data supporting these conclusions have come from studies of various methodologies and heterogeneous populations, making them unreliable. In this in-depth Review, Chevrier and colleagues discuss the data surrounding discussion of spatiotemporal trends in semen parameters and consider how these trends and the factors promoting them interact.

    • Jacques Auger
    • Florence Eustache
    • Bernard Jégou
    Review Article
  • Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) is a common complication of diabetes. Hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress is thought to mediate functional changes in organs and tissues affected by DBD. In this Review, the authors provide an overview of mechanisms and consequences of oxidative stress, focusing on the role of diabetes-induced oxidative stress in generating dysfunctions at the level of the urothelium, smooth muscle contractility and nerve structures involved in DBD pathogenesis.

    • Qi-Xiang Song
    • Yi Sun
    • Margot S. Damaser
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Joshi and colleagues describe the immune landscape of penile cancer, examine existing and novel immune-based therapeutic targets, and discuss the future directions of immune-based therapies in penile cancer based on preclinical and clinical studies.

    • Vidhu B. Joshi
    • Philippe E. Spiess
    • Jad Chahoud
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the current evidence for the use of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET and whole-body (WB) MRI, consider the evolving use of PSMA PET-derived and WB MRI-derived quantitative biomarkers and make recommendations for future clinical trials of these modalities.

    • Yishen Wang
    • Joao R. Galante
    • Veeru Kasivisvanathan
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors summarize current advances in our understanding of the roles of stroma and associated extracellular matrix during bladder cancer development, describing the bladder tumour microenvironment and introducing the concept of the metastatic tumour microenvironment.

    • Yu-Cheng Lee
    • Hung-Ming Lam
    • Keith Syson Chan
    Review Article
  • Hyperactivation of innate immunity is a disease determinant in urinary tract infections (UTIs). Modulation of innate immunity has promise as a therapy for UTIs. In this Review, the authors discuss potential mechanisms and immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies in UTIs.

    • Daniel Butler
    • Ines Ambite
    • Catharina Svanborg
    Review Article
  • Standard-of-care management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) relies on surgery for low-risk localized disease and systemic treatment for poor-prognosis metastatic tumours, but patients with high-risk localized tumours and with metastatic disease that has a good-to-intermediate prognosis are in a grey area for treatment. In this Review, the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on surgery and systemic treatment in the management of metastatic and localized RCC.

    • Alexandre Ingels
    • Riccardo Campi
    • Alexandre de la Taille
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Russo and Giri describe and discuss germline testing criteria, genetic testing strategies, genetically informed screening, precision management, delivery of genetic counselling or alternative genetic services and special considerations for men with prostate cancer.

    • Jessica Russo
    • Veda N. Giri
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors describe our current knowledge of the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the urogenital system, discussing urological symptoms and damage to organs of the genitourinary tract induced by COVID-19 infection. Moreover, the effects of COVID-19 on male fertility and sexual health are discussed.

    • Benedikt Ebner
    • Yannic Volz
    • Giuseppe Magistro
    Review Article
  • Active surveillance is recommended for low-risk and favourable intermediate-risk prostate cancer management, but active monitoring using imaging or biopsy is necessary to compensate for initial undergrading of the tumour or to detect early progression without missing the opportunity to provide curative therapy. In this Review, the authors discuss the potential for MRI-based active monitoring for active surveillance and consider how this approach might affect patient care.

    • Guillaume Ploussard
    • Olivier Rouvière
    • Raphaële Renard-Penna
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Teoh et al. describe different mechanisms of early and late disease recurrence in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and discuss potential treatment options. In addition, the authors discuss the potential of molecular classification and treatment with immunotherapy and novel therapeutic agents in the future management of bladder cancer.

    • Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh
    • Ashish M. Kamat
    • Marek Babjuk
    Review Article
  • Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have become an important tool for understanding the adverse effects of radical prostate cancer treatment and have been widely integrated into clinical practice. In this Review, the authors discuss the available PROMs for use in prostate cancer care and consider how data collection, interpretation, standardization and reporting will be crucial for the continued implementation of PROM instruments in prostate cancer pathways.

    • Udit Singhal
    • Ted A. Skolarus
    • Daniela A. Wittmann
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Baures et al. discuss prostate luminal progenitor cells, covering their functional properties and potential role in prostate pathology. In addition, the authors describe different approaches to classifying these cells, and unify multiple identifiers that have been used to define prostate luminal progenitor cells.

    • Manon Baures
    • Charles Dariane
    • Vincent Goffin
    Review Article
  • The placebo effect is partly the result of positive expectations of the recipient on the state of health. Conversely, a nocebo effect is when negative expectations from a substance lead to poor treatment outcomes and/or adverse events. In this Review, the authors describe and discuss the placebo and nocebo effects in selected benign urological diseases.

    • Hadi Mostafaei
    • Sandra Jilch
    • Sakineh Hajebrahimi
    Review Article