Clinical Outlook

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  • Buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction can be absent or insufficient in patients with failed urethral reconstruction, lichen sclerosus, alterations of the oral cavity and other contraindications. For these patients, the main alternatives are lingual, bladder and rectal mucosa grafts, and multidisciplinary teams worked to set up minimally invasive technologies to reduce morbidity and complications in donor sites.

    • Angie Lopez Sánchez
    • Herney Andrés García-Perdomo
    • Jaime Andres Robayo
    Clinical Outlook
  • The treatment landscape for localized prostate cancer is rapidly evolving to achieve oncological disease control, simultaneously preserving gastrointestinal and genitourinary function. Focal therapy using cryoablation is an emerging treatment for prostate cancer. Short-term and intermediate-term clinical data on focal cryoablation therapy in prostate cancer have shown promising oncological and functional outcomes.

    • Wei Phin Tan
    • James S. Wysock
    • Herbert Lepor
    Clinical Outlook
  • PSA dynamics and conventional imaging methods currently used to assess biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after definitive treatment with radiotherapy are insufficient, especially considering that different salvage options are available. Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) is a novel imaging method that was shown to be more accurate than conventional imaging in prostate cancer staging, and can have a role in detecting disease recurrence after radiotherapy.

    • Omar Alghazo
    • Michael O’Callaghan
    Clinical Outlook
  • Androgen deprivation therapy potentiates cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which is the most common cause of non-cancer-related death in patients with prostate cancer. Whether the mode of testosterone suppression affects the risk of cardiovascular adverse events is unclear, especially as the 2021 PRONOUNCE trial — which aimed to compare the cardiovascular risks of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists with GnRH agonists — was prematurely terminated.

    • Kerem Atalar
    • Prabhakar Rajan
    Clinical Outlook
  • Transition from child-centred to adult-centred care is a crucial step for patients with a congenital urological disease. The aims are clear: preserving kidney function, continence, sexuality and fertility. No universal model for this process has been defined, but, while research continues, attention to individual patient’s needs will ensure the best results.

    • Alessandro Morlacco
    • Marta Bianco
    • Fabrizio Dal Moro
    Clinical Outlook
  • The treatment landscape of renal cell carcinoma is rapidly evolving, especially with the introduction and approval of immune checkpoint inhibitor combination therapies. Clinical trial data show substantial improvements in patient outcomes, and now results in the real-world setting support the use of these combinations.

    • Yasser Ged
    • Mark C. Markowski
    • Steven P. Rowe
    Clinical Outlook
  • Controversies over how, why and when pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) should be performed persist. Available data suggest that a limited number of patients will experience a curative benefit from PLND, but it remains the most tried and tested diagnostic tool for staging. New techniques aim to improve noninvasive detection of diseased nodes.

    • Gallus B. Ineichen
    • Fiona C. Burkhard
    Clinical Outlook
  • Some chemotherapeutic agents can induce distinct mutational signatures in healthy cells in patients with cancer. The effect of such mutational signatures on spermatogenesis is not fully understood but is of great clinical importance for counselling patients diagnosed with cancer planning to start a family after treatment.

    • Ari P. Bernstein
    • Justin Loloi
    • Ranjith Ramasamy
    Clinical Outlook