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  • Immune system activation is necessary for BCG-mediated tumour immunity in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, mounting evidence supports the notion that dysfunctional activation, in the form of immune exhaustion, might contribute to BCG failure. Thus, an exhaustion signature, arising in treated tumours, could act as a predictive marker for BCG therapy.

    • Molly A. Ingersoll
    News & Views
  • In this Review, the authors provide a comprehensive overview of various in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models of prostate cancer and discuss their respective advantages and limitations in the context of current needs and challenges in prostate cancer research and therapy.

    • Verena Sailer
    • Gunhild von Amsberg
    • Achim Aigner
    Review Article
  • The treatment landscape for localized prostate cancer is rapidly evolving to achieve oncological disease control, simultaneously preserving gastrointestinal and genitourinary function. Focal therapy using cryoablation is an emerging treatment for prostate cancer. Short-term and intermediate-term clinical data on focal cryoablation therapy in prostate cancer have shown promising oncological and functional outcomes.

    • Wei Phin Tan
    • James S. Wysock
    • Herbert Lepor
    Clinical Outlook
  • In this Perspective, the authors present clinical scenarios in which prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer overlap, with a specific focus on holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). Variables associated with incidental prostate cancer detection at HoLEP and prostate cancer development after HoLEP, as well as the role of HoLEP in patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, are also discussed.

    • Matthew S. Lee
    • Mark A. Assmus
    • Amy E. Krambeck
    Perspective
  • Growing evidence suggests that urinary and sexual functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer differ based on race, with Black men experiencing worse outcomes. Alongside efforts to improve quality and equity, incorporating patient-reported outcomes measures into patient care could improve equity in treatment outcomes for men with prostate cancer.

    • Alexander P. Cole
    • Mara Koelker
    • Caroline M. Moore
    Comment
  • The approval of immunotherapy agents to treat patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma revolutionized the therapeutic landscape for this disease, but a large number of patients still do not experience objective and durable response, and biomarkers to identify response to immunotherapy are urgently needed. In this Review, the authors describe strength and limitations of currently available prognostic and predictive biomarkers in metastatic renal cell carcinoma and discuss emerging promising biomarkers that deserve further investigation.

    • Matteo Rosellini
    • Andrea Marchetti
    • Francesco Massari
    Review Article
  • Adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) disrupt multiple steps of the metastatic cascade. Results from clinical trials to assess adjuvant treatment with immunotherapeutic agents in patients with resected clear cell RCC were promising, but the utility of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in this setting was not clearly shown. In this Perspective, the authors provide an overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials for adjuvant treatment of RCC, highlighting future directions and challenges in the field.

    • Kelly N. Fitzgerald
    • Robert J. Motzer
    • Chung-Han Lee
    Perspective
  • Here, Goss et al. explore the diagnostic potential of male reproductive small extracellular vesicles and the practical approaches of implementing point-of-need and multianalyte diagnostics in infertility treatment, detailing microfluidic small extracellular vesicle isolation and analysis as an accessible and effective approach to achieving this outcome.

    • Dale M. Goss
    • Steven A. Vasilescu
    • Majid E. Warkiani
    Review Article
  • Despite the high prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome, its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Twin studies offer a unique opportunity for studying the genetics of this disorder, but trials are limited by heterogeneous patient populations. Improved understanding of genetic factors in OAB will be vital to developing targeted management.

    • Nicholas Raison
    • Sachin Malde
    • Arun Sahai
    Comment
  • PSA dynamics and conventional imaging methods currently used to assess biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after definitive treatment with radiotherapy are insufficient, especially considering that different salvage options are available. Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) is a novel imaging method that was shown to be more accurate than conventional imaging in prostate cancer staging, and can have a role in detecting disease recurrence after radiotherapy.

    • Omar Alghazo
    • Michael O’Callaghan
    Clinical Outlook
  • Androgen deprivation therapy potentiates cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which is the most common cause of non-cancer-related death in patients with prostate cancer. Whether the mode of testosterone suppression affects the risk of cardiovascular adverse events is unclear, especially as the 2021 PRONOUNCE trial — which aimed to compare the cardiovascular risks of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists with GnRH agonists — was prematurely terminated.

    • Kerem Atalar
    • Prabhakar Rajan
    Clinical Outlook
  • In this Perspective, the authors provide an overview of the roles of three genes, PBRM1, SETD2 and BAP1, which are commonly lost with chromosome 3p deletion in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The authors discuss the implication of these genes in cancer-related pathways and how an improved understanding of these mechanisms might help to develop potential new therapies in ccRCC.

    • Joseph Walton
    • Keith Lawson
    • Laurie Ailles
    Perspective