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  • In this Review, the authors provide an overview of currently available diagnostic liquid biopsy biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma, comparing clinical potential and limitations of the three most promising liquid biomarkers: circulating tumour cells, extracellular vesicles and cell-free DNA.

    • Richard C. Zieren
    • Patricia J. Zondervan
    • Adriaan D. Bins
    Review Article
  • In this Expert Recommendation, the authors provide a standardized nomenclature to improve the Human Phenotype Ontology tree with regard to the classification of non-syndromic male infertility. The implications of introducing this vocabulary in promoting communication across disciplines and institutions and in discovering novel genetic causes of non-syndromic male infertility are also discussed.

    • Margot J. Wyrwoll
    • Godfried W. van der Heijden
    • Frank Tüttelmann
    Expert Recommendation
  • Rare male sexual disorders — including post-finasteride syndrome, restless genital syndrome, post-orgasmic illness syndrome, post-SSRI sexual dysfunction, hard–flaccid syndrome, sleep-related painful erections and post-retinoid sexual dysfunction — are under-recognized and under-treated, leading to considerable morbidity, with adverse effects on individuals’ sexual health and relationships. The literature surrounding such disorders is scarce and their aetiology has not been fully elucidated. In this Review, the authors discuss possible aetiologies of these disorders, as well as the need for clinician awareness and large-scale studies to better understand how to best serve patients.

    • Murat Gül
    • Mikkel Fode
    • Ege Can Serefoglu
    Review Article
  • Positive surgical margins are an independent risk factor for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. However, the identification of residual cancer by eye is highly limited, and frozen sections are not always available or possible for all margins. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted fluorescence guidance might close this gap and enhance the surgeon’s eye.

    • Fabian Falkenbach
    • Tobias Maurer
    News & Views
  • In this Review, we summarize preclinical evidence of antitumour effects upon CTLA4 inhibition. We also describe the clinical development of anti-CTLA4 in urothelial cancer. Ongoing phase III trials could establish the efficacy of anti-CTLA4 therapy and change current urothelial cancer guidelines.

    • Chantal F. Stockem
    • Matthew D. Galsky
    • Michiel S. van der Heijden
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors provide an overview of the main bioinformatics tools available for urologists. The main applications of bioinformatics in the field of urological oncology, as well as in benign urological disease, are discussed, with a special focus on molecular characterization of disease physiopathology and response to treatment. Challenges and future perspectives in the field are also discussed.

    • Ali Hashemi Gheinani
    • Jina Kim
    • Rosalyn M. Adam
    Review Article
  • Bladder cancer outcomes are considered worse for women than for men, whereas incidence is three to four times higher in men than in women. Understanding biological phenomena and health-system factors driving these differences is essential to improve outcomes and develop novel treatment approaches.

    • Paul Toren
    • Anna Wilkins
    • Richard T. Bryan
  • Oligometastatic bladder cancer, defined as a cancer with limited metastases, is a potential target for curative metastasis-directed therapy in a multidisciplinary framework. The consensus definition of oligometastatic bladder cancer is a valuable starting point for clinical trials, but challenges remain in accurately characterizing metastatic burden with current imaging modalities and determining optimal strategies to treat patients with lymph node involvement.

    • Laura S. Mertens
    • Sarah P. Psutka
    • Maria Carmen Mir
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen-PET has become a valuable diagnostic tool. The second version of the Prostate Cancer Molecular Imaging Standardized Evaluation framework is the next step towards a standardized evaluation and reporting system from primary staging to reassessment of advanced prostate cancer.

    • Daniel Koehler