100 years of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin immunotherapy: from cattle to COVID-19

Key milestones in the 100-year history of BCG and its potential role in the COVID-19 pandemic



  • Malnutrition is a potentially modifiable factor that is associated with considerable morbidity and is prevalent in patients with bladder cancer who are treated with radical cystectomy. Studies suggest a role for immuno-nutrition in optimizing patients’ nutritional status before undergoing this procedure, with the goal of improving patient outcomes.

    • Muhannad Alsyouf
    • Hooman Djaladat
    • Siamak Daneshmand
  • Prostate cancer disproportionately affects Black men; the reason for this phenomenon is unclear. The role of the health-care provider is important in screening for prostate cancer, advising on treatment and ensuring completeness of therapy. Cultural competency is necessary in health-care providers as, for most men in Europe, Australasia and the USA, the ethnicity and/or race of the urologist will be discordant with that of the patient.

    • Francis I. Chinegwundoh
  • Focus on quality of life after prostate cancer is vital to improve patient care. Improved assessment and proactive management of post-treatment functional outcomes is essential. Many aspects of the patients’ aftercare need to be improved in order to set up a clear path following prostatectomy. These improvements will enable a timely and efficient escalation of treatment and ameliorate patients’ survivorship experience.

    • Findlay MacAskill
    • Arun Sahai
    • Sachin Malde