Sperm with a clock face and the globe

Spatiotemporal trends in human semen quality

In this in-depth Review, the authors discuss the data surrounding discussion of spatiotemporal trends in semen parameters and consider how these trends and the factors promoting them interact.


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  • Across health care, clinicians are increasingly using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to give a voice to patients and to help standardize the assessment of patients for comparison purposes. With this increasing use, the limitations of these PROMs should not be underestimated within the diverse population that we treat.

    • Findlay MacAskill
    • Arun Sahai
    • Tet Yap
  • Although gynaecology is a specialty responsible for women’s health, the field was historically male-dominated and its science remains biased towards male perceptions of women’s health. In light of the changing social climate in our society and the changing gender composition of the specialty, a number of steps can be taken to make gynaecology more women-centred.

    • Netta Avnoon
  • Transition from child-centred to adult-centred care is a crucial step for patients with a congenital urological disease. The aims are clear: preserving kidney function, continence, sexuality and fertility. No universal model for this process has been defined, but, while research continues, attention to individual patient’s needs will ensure the best results.

    • Alessandro Morlacco
    • Marta Bianco
    • Fabrizio Dal Moro
    Clinical Outlook