Bladder with immune cells and microbes

Bladder cancer, inflammageing and microbiomes

The complex links among ageing, inflammation and dysbiosis in the pathology of bladder cancer.


  • Two women converse in front of a laptop

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  • Controversies over how, why and when pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) should be performed persist. Available data suggest that a limited number of patients will experience a curative benefit from PLND, but it remains the most tried and tested diagnostic tool for staging. New techniques aim to improve noninvasive detection of diseased nodes.

    • Gallus B. Ineichen
    • Fiona C. Burkhard
    Clinical Outlook
  • Some chemotherapeutic agents can induce distinct mutational signatures in healthy cells in patients with cancer. The effect of such mutational signatures on spermatogenesis is not fully understood but is of great clinical importance for counselling patients diagnosed with cancer planning to start a family after treatment.

    • Ari P. Bernstein
    • Justin Loloi
    • Ranjith Ramasamy
    Clinical Outlook
  • Prostate cancer recurrence is common after radical radiotherapy and the increasing use of novel, minimally invasive salvage treatments means that accurate detection and localization of radiorecurrent disease is vital in treatment planning and delivery. PET–CT is increasingly used to detect metastatic disease; however, data regarding its value for identifying and accurately characterizing intraprostatic recurrence need improvement.

    • Alexander Light
    • Hashim U. Ahmed
    • Taimur T. Shah