Latest Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), characteristic features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), are a requirement for disease classification and trial enrolment. In this Review, the authors re-examine the role of ANAs in SLE and discuss changing attitudes towards using ANAs as biomarkers.

    • David S. Pisetsky
    •  & Peter E. Lipsky
  • Review Article |

    Fibroblast growth factor signalling pathways have crucial roles in the development and maintenance of healthy cartilage. In this Review, the authors discuss strategies for targeting these pathways in osteoarthritis and cartilage repair.

    • Yangli Xie
    • , Allen Zinkle
    • , Lin Chen
    •  & Moosa Mohammadi
  • Review Article |

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are heterogeneous, interrelated diseases. This Review outlines current evidence on the monitoring and long-term management of patients with GCA and PMR, including the tapering of treatment and the handling of complications.

    • Dario Camellino
    • , Eric L. Matteson
    • , Frank Buttgereit
    •  & Christian Dejaco
  • Review Article |

    The DNA methylation profile of various cells types are altered in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Particular DNA methylation profiles are associated with the prognosis, subtype, progression and/or treatment responses of various rheumatic diseases and hence have potential as clinical biomarkers.

    • Esteban Ballestar
    • , Amr H. Sawalha
    •  & Qianjin Lu
  • Perspective |

    A subset of patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) develop a thrombotic disorder that resembles a virally induced, complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy. Here, the authors present the theory and evidence for this disease model and discuss important considerations for treatment.

    • Joan T. Merrill
    • , Doruk Erkan
    • , Jerald Winakur
    •  & Judith A. James
  • Review Article |

    Digital health technologies (DHTs) have a variety of interesting current and possible future applications in rheumatology. In this article, the authors describe some of the key barriers that prevent DHT integration into rheumatology care and discuss ways in which these barriers could be addressed.

    • Daniel H. Solomon
    •  & Robert S. Rudin
  • Review Article |

    Various core and adjunctive therapies are available for osteoarthritis (OA) that can have beneficial effects on the well-being of the individual; however, challenges remain in implementing best-evidence, high-value care.

    • Jocelyn L. Bowden
    • , David J. Hunter
    • , Leticia A. Deveza
    • , Vicky Duong
    • , Krysia S. Dziedzic
    • , Kelli D. Allen
    • , Ping-Keung Chan
    •  & Jillian P. Eyles
  • Review Article |

    In this article, the authors summarize the latest clinical and basic research on gut inflammation in spondyloarthritis and highlight important questions to address in future research.

    • Eric Gracey
    • , Lars Vereecke
    • , Dermot McGovern
    • , Mareike Fröhling
    • , Georg Schett
    • , Silvio Danese
    • , Martine De Vos
    • , Filip Van den Bosch
    •  & Dirk Elewaut
  • Review Article |

    Various types of programmed cell death, including necroptosis, pyroptosis, NETosis and apoptosis, contribute to acute and chronic inflammation, and dysregulation of these pathways is implicated in rheumatic diseases. Understanding the mechanisms and overlap between cell death pathways might lead to new therapies.

    • Holly Anderton
    • , Ian P. Wicks
    •  & John Silke
  • Review Article |

    Biomarkers help in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease, but robust biomarkers can be difficult to discover and validate. This Review explores the state of biomarker discovery for axial spondyloarthritis and suggests future developments to advance this field.

    • Matthew A. Brown
    • , Zhixiu Li
    •  & Kim-Anh Lê Cao
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective article explores similarities in the inflammatory processes underlying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and rheumatoid arthritis, including the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the potential of anti-cytokine therapies to treat COVID-19, as well as the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on rheumatology.

    • Georg Schett
    • , Bernhard Manger
    • , David Simon
    •  & Roberto Caporali
  • Review Article |

    Gout is a chronic crystal deposition disorder in which sustained hyperuricaemia leads to formation and deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints. The prevalence and incidence of gout are increasing globally, which may be related to changes in the prevalence of gout risk factors (such as obesity) and comorbidities.

    • Mats Dehlin
    • , Lennart Jacobsson
    •  & Edward Roddy
  • Review Article |

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this Review, Semb and colleagues outline atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk management and prevention for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    • Anne Grete Semb
    • , Eirik Ikdahl
    • , Grunde Wibetoe
    • , Cynthia Crowson
    •  & Silvia Rollefstad
  • Review Article |

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis have an aggressive phenotype caused, in part, by epigenetic imprinting, which contributes to various pathological processes. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the cell abnormalities and phenotypes, including their spatial and temporal differences, could lead to new therapies.

    • Gyrid Nygaard
    •  & Gary S. Firestein
  • Review Article |

    Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) citrullinate proteins, thereby creating the targets of the autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis; yet, in some individuals, PADs themselves can be the targets of immune responses. The mechanisms behind this complex relationship are unravelled in this Review.

    • Ashley M. Curran
    • , Pooja Naik
    • , Jon T. Giles
    •  & Erika Darrah
  • Perspective |

    In this Perspective article, the authors recount the earliest stages of translational research into IL-6 biology and the subsequent development of therapeutic IL-6 pathway inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune rheumatic diseases and potentially numerous other indications.

    • Ernest H. Choy
    • , Fabrizio De Benedetti
    • , Tsutomu Takeuchi
    • , Misato Hashizume
    • , Markus R. John
    •  & Tadamitsu Kishimoto
  • Review Article |

    Emerging data on the interactions between epigenetic mechanisms and genetic risk loci are providing insights into the underlying mechanisms of osteoarthritis that could identify novel and exploitable therapeutic targets

    • Sarah J. Rice
    • , Frank Beier
    • , David A. Young
    •  & John Loughlin
  • Review Article |

    The concept of autoinflammation has evolved to include multifactorial conditions and disorders with autoimmune and immunodeficiency components. An appreciation of the contributions of various molecular mechanisms and systems could improve our understanding and treatment of the systemic autoinflammatory diseases.

    • Sinisa Savic
    • , Emily A. Caseley
    •  & Michael F. McDermott
  • Review Article |

    Raynaud phenomenon and digital ulcers are some of the most common and difficult to treat manifestations of systemic sclerosis. In this Review, the authors outline how to assess and treat these conditions, and also discuss unmet clinical needs.

    • Michael Hughes
    • , Yannick Allanore
    • , Lorinda Chung
    • , John D. Pauling
    • , Christopher P. Denton
    •  & Marco Matucci-Cerinic
  • Review Article |

    Mechanical loading is an important factor in the development of tendon and ligament disorders. In this Review, the authors discuss the evidence for the known role of mechanical loading in tendinopathy and its potential role in inflammatory arthritis.

    • Eric Gracey
    • , Arne Burssens
    • , Isabelle Cambré
    • , Georg Schett
    • , Rik Lories
    • , Iain B. McInnes
    • , Hiroshi Asahara
    •  & Dirk Elewaut
  • Perspective |

    Glucocorticoids have been used to treat patients with rheumatic diseases for more than 70 years, but have been controversial owing to their safety record. Are we now entering an age when opinions about their use in rheumatology clinics are converging?

    • Frank Buttgereit
  • Perspective |

    Breakthroughs in the field of rheumatology have transformed the management of rheumatic diseases and improved patient outcomes, but clinical challenges remain. Looking back at ‘older’ drugs could provide new lessons for future drug strategies and development.

    • S. A. Kerrigan
    •  & I. B. McInnes
  • Review Article |

    Methotrexate can suppress inflammation via multiple mechanisms that can differ across different cell types. Understanding these mechanisms might enable better understanding of the disease and prediction of treatment responses.

    • Bruce N. Cronstein
    •  & Thomas M. Aune
  • Review Article |

    Mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine and tacrolimus are conventional DMARDs that originate in the field of transplantation medicine. This Review discusses the history, mechanisms, current indications and future prospects of these drugs in the field of rheumatology.

    • Jasper C. A. Broen
    •  & Jacob M. van Laar
  • Review Article |

    Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory therapies commonly used in rheumatology, but have wide-ranging adverse effects. Understanding the pharmacokinetic properties and mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids could inform in the development of novel therapies with fewer adverse effects.

    • Rowan S. Hardy
    • , Karim Raza
    •  & Mark S. Cooper
  • Review Article |

    Repurposing of drugs for and among rheumatic autoimmune inflammatory diseases can introduce promising new treatments. New knowledge about these diseases and the development of data-driven techniques are identifying new pathways and targets for repurposing.

    • Kathryn M. Kingsmore
    • , Amrie C. Grammer
    •  & Peter E. Lipsky
  • Review Article |

    Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia precedes and potentially contributes to the development of gout and other chronic diseases. This review summarizes what is known about the effects of uric acid on pro-inflammatory responses.

    • Leo A. B. Joosten
    • , Tania O. Crişan
    • , Petter Bjornstad
    •  & Richard J. Johnson
  • Perspective |

    Behavioural economics uses psychological and economical insights to explain decision making by individuals to understand the predictable way in which individuals behave irrationally. Concepts from this field can be applied to promote healthy behaviours and could be applicable to rheumatology.

    • Alexis Ogdie
    •  & David A. Asch
  • Review Article |

    Myofibroblasts are important mediators of wound healing but can also perpetuate fibrosis in diseases such as systemic sclerosis by evading apoptosis. Therapeutic targeting of the survival mechanisms used by these cells in fibrotic disease holds promise for the reversal of fibrosis.

    • Boris Hinz
    •  & David Lagares
  • Review Article |

    A number of core pathways and mechanisms of fibrosis, outlined in this Review, are shared across different tissues and might therefore present targets for general antifibrotic strategies. Organ-specific and disease-specific differences in fibrotic diseases could also provide insights for drug development efforts.

    • Jörg H. W. Distler
    • , Andrea-Hermina Györfi
    • , Meera Ramanujam
    • , Michael L. Whitfield
    • , Melanie Königshoff
    •  & Robert Lafyatis
  • Review Article |

    Chemokines have an important function in the recruitment and positioning of immune cells, and multiple chemokines are implicated in various rheumatic diseases. Blocking the chemokine system has therapeutic promise for the treatment of these diseases but requires further optimization.

    • Yoshishige Miyabe
    • , Jeffrey Lian
    • , Chie Miyabe
    •  & Andrew D. Luster
  • Review Article |

    This Review outlines several genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that could explain sex bias in rheumatic diseases, including X chromosome inactivation, sex chromosome aneuploidy and microchimerism, considering evidence from clinical and experimental studies.

    • Nathalie C. Lambert
  • Review Article |

    Palindromic rheumatism has similarities with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its prodromes but also has distinct features. This Review explores the concept of palindromic rheumatism as part of the RA continuum and outlines an updated paradigm for this unique syndrome.

    • Kulveer Mankia
    •  & Paul Emery
  • Review Article |

    Different imaging modalities, such as radiography, MRI and CT, have different advantages and can help the clinician with different aspects in assessing axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). This Review covers imaging aspects relating to the diagnosis, classification and management of axSpA.

    • Walter P. Maksymowych
  • Review Article |

    Therapies targeting IL-23 have failed in clinical trials in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), despite the importance of the IL-23–IL-17 pathway in axSpA pathogenesis. This Review explores whether IL-17 production might be uncoupled from IL-23 in axSpA.

    • Joachim Sieper
    • , Denis Poddubnyy
    •  & Pierre Miossec
  • Review Article |

    Cytokines from the IL-1 family perform important functions in innate immune reactions, but can also be involved in chronic inflammatory diseases. This Review highlights the roles of IL-1 family members in rheumatic diseases and potential therapeutic approaches to targeting them.

    • Charles Anthony Dinarello
  • Review Article |

    Data from clinical trials of novel targeted therapies for psoriatic arthritis and other autoimmune diseases, which have produced sometimes surprising results, can inform our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of these diseases and help to identify the most relevant therapeutic targets.

    • Arlene Bravo
    •  & Arthur Kavanaugh
  • Review Article |

    Chikungunya can be a mild and self-limiting disease, but can also involve a complex spectrum of atypical, severe and/or chronic rheumatic manifestations that place a considerable burden on individuals. New strategies are under development to help treat and prevent this disease.

    • Andreas Suhrbier