Review Articles

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  • In this Review, the authors discuss age-related arthropathy and the similarities and differences between childhood loss of immune tolerance and adult development of immune-mediated arthritis, and develop three hypotheses describing age-related mechanisms that contribute to the onset of arthritis.

    • Yannick Degboe
    • Sebastiaan J. Vastert
    • Iain B. McInnes
    Review Article
  • This Review summarizes our understanding of sex- and gender-related differences in psoriatic arthritis, with a focus on disease progression and outcomes, underlying mechanisms and response to therapies.

    • Sanjana Tarannum
    • Ying-Ying Leung
    • Lihi Eder
    Review Article
  • Assessing systemic sclerosis (SSc) disease activity is challenging, and improved outcome measures are needed. This Review describes clinical and biochemical outcome measures of distinct features of SSc, with an emphasis on the dermatological manifestations and interstitial lung disease, including insights into biomarkers gained from single-cell RNA sequencing.

    • Robert Lafyatis
    • Eleanor Valenzi
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms of IL-1-mediated autoinflammation. They describe the epidemiological and clinical features of autoinflammatory diseases, challenges associated with diagnostics and disease management, and current and future therapies for targeting the IL-1 pathway.

    • Lori Broderick
    • Hal M. Hoffman
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the characterization of distinct synovial tissue macrophage (STM) populations and their functions in the context of the healthy and arthritic joint. They also describe how distinct STMs are specified, how they respond to danger signals and the clinical implications of understanding STM heterogeneity.

    • Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska
    • Stefano Alivernini
    Review Article
  • Intervertebral disc calcification is an often overlooked phenotype that can have considerable clinical consequences. In this article, the authors aim to raise awareness of intervertebral disc calcification and discuss its implications for the management and prognosis of degenerative spinal changes.

    • Uruj Zehra
    • Marianna Tryfonidou
    • Dino Samartzis
    Review Article
  • Ubiquitylation is involved in the regulation of most cellular systems, including the innate immune system. Here, the authors describe the molecular pathogenesis of disorders of ubiquitylation that result in innate immune overactivation and systemic autoinflammatory disease.

    • David B. Beck
    • Achim Werner
    • Ivona Aksentijevich
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss a comprehensive mechanistic concept of psoriatic arthritis, including discussion of the genetic, biomechanical, metabolic and microbial factors that contribute to the development of the disease as well as its manifestations and consequences.

    • Georg Schett
    • Proton Rahman
    • Jose U. Scher
    Review Article
  • Sphingosine 1-phosphate has essential roles in vascular barrier function, lymphocyte trafficking and differentiation, and inflammatory response in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; modulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling is a potential therapeutic approach in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis.

    • Nathalie Burg
    • Jane E. Salmon
    • Timothy Hla
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss how the inflammatory, hypoxic environment of joints in rheumatoid arthritis affects metabolism in fibroblasts, endothelial cells and immune cells. Understanding the competing requirements of these cells can enable effective therapeutic targeting of synovial metabolism.

    • Ursula Fearon
    • Megan M. Hanlon
    • Douglas J. Veale
    Review Article
  • Endothelial progenitor cells are essential for the maintenance of endothelial function, which in turn is crucial for cardiovascular physiology. The reduced function and numbers of endothelial progenitor cells in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus could contribute to the excessive cardiovascular disease mortality in this patient population.

    • Anselm Mak
    • Jerry Kok Yen Chan
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the challenges of multimorbidity, polypharmacy and geriatric syndromes in older patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. They note that individually tailored interventions are needed in this patient group in order to preserve patient independence and overall functioning.

    • Marloes van Onna
    • Annelies Boonen
    Review Article
  • The quality of life of patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis is greatly affected by progressive painful and itchy skin tightening. Here, Herrick, Assassi and Denton describe skin involvement, the prediction of progression, outcome measures, imaging techniques and best-practice management.

    • Ariane L. Herrick
    • Shervin Assassi
    • Christopher P. Denton
    Review Article
  • Axial spondyloarthritis, an immune-mediated inflammatory disease, is characterized by chronic back pain, joint stiffness and fatigue that can severely affect the quality of life. This Review summarizes the progress in the pharmacological management of this disease, including newly approved biologic DMARDs.

    • Abhijeet Danve
    • Atul Deodhar
    Review Article
  • Targeted therapies, including biologic DMARDs and Janus kinase inhibitors, can interfere with the mechanisms of pathological bone metabolism in inflammatory arthritis. In this Review, the authors discuss the effects of these therapies on local and generalized bone changes.

    • Boglárka Soós
    • Ágnes Szentpétery
    • Zoltán Szekanecz
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the biology of synovial inflammation, the cell types involved, their interactions and the role of synovitis in the development and progression of osteoarthritis.

    • Elsa Sanchez-Lopez
    • Roxana Coras
    • Monica Guma
    Review Article
  • Erosive hand osteoarthritis is an aggressive condition with poor outcomes. In this Review, the authors describe the clinical features and risk factors associated with erosive hand osteoarthritis, and summarize progress in the areas of biomarkers, imaging, classification criteria and treatment.

    • Marta Favero
    • Elisa Belluzzi
    • Roberta Ramonda
    Review Article