Reviews & Analysis

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  • Individuals with anorexia nervosa persistently exert effortful behaviour such as restrictive eating that most individuals find aversive. In this Perspective, Haynos et al. propose a novel mechanistic account for why such behaviours persist from the social psychology theory of learned industriousness.

    • Ann F. Haynos
    • Emily Koithan
    • Kelsey E. Hagan
  • Conspiracy theories have the potential to undermine governments, promote racism, ignite extremism and threaten public health efforts. In this Review, Hornsey et al. synthesize the literature on factors that shape conspiracy beliefs at the individual, intergroup and national level.

    • Matthew J. Hornsey
    • Kinga Bierwiaczonek
    • Karen M. Douglas
    Review Article
  • The majority of methods in psychology rely on averaging group data to draw conclusions. In this Perspective, Nickels et al. argue that single case methodology is a valuable tool for developing and extending psychological theories, with applied benefits of understanding neuropsychological deficits and developing interventions.

    • Lyndsey Nickels
    • Simon Fischer-Baum
    • Wendy Best
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder frequently co-occur, and this combination is more difficult to treat than either disorder alone. In this Review, Kline and colleagues discuss effective treatments for this combination, focusing on trauma-focused treatments, and provide recommendations to improve treatment response and reduce dropout.

    • Alexander C. Kline
    • Kaitlyn E. Panza
    • Sonya B. Norman
    Review Article
  • People feel lonely when their social needs are not met, which can lead to long-term health issues. In this Review, Luhmann et al. summarize empirical findings on differences in the prevalence of loneliness across time and space and consider macro-level factors that might account for these differences.

    • Maike Luhmann
    • Susanne Buecker
    • Marilena Rüsberg
    Review Article
  • Remembering to execute in the future an intention that cannot be fulfilled when formed in the present is an essential cognitive skill. In this Review, Rummel and Kvavilashvili discuss how well theories of prospective memory account for the cognitive processes involved.

    • Jan Rummel
    • Lia Kvavilashvili
    Review Article
  • Retrieving information from memory influences memory in complex ways. In this Review, Roediger and Abel describe positive and negative effects of three facets of memory retrieval and the influence of context on each.

    • Henry L. Roediger III
    • Magdalena Abel
    Review Article
  • Human social groups depend on processes that enable social interactions. In this Review, Ristic and Capozzi present three attentional mechanisms that are flexibly and dynamically used to facilitate social interactions between individual group members as a function of the size of the social group.

    • Jelena Ristic
    • Francesca Capozzi
    Review Article
  • Perceptual learning, or performance improvements after training on perceptual tasks, is a widespread phenomenon in visual perception. In this Review, Lu and Dosher describe findings regarding the specificity and transfer of perceptual learning, mechanisms of learning and key applications in visual rehabilitation.

    • Zhong-Lin Lu
    • Barbara Anne Dosher
    Review Article
  • Debates about human emotion traditionally pit biological and cultural influences against one another. In this Perspective, Lindquist et al. suggest that emotions are underpinned by neural mechanisms linked to physiological and action regulation, but discrete emotion categories are cultural artefacts that evolved through social transmission.

    • Kristen A. Lindquist
    • Joshua Conrad Jackson
    • Maria Gendron
  • The focus on functional deficits in conventional autism research constrains understanding of autistic lives. In this Review, Pellicano et al. appraise research on autistic adulthood through a capabilities lens to identify areas where autistic adults thrive, and where more research and services are needed to enhance their quality of life.

    • Elizabeth Pellicano
    • Unsa Fatima
    • Marc Stears
    Review Article
  • Dual- and single-process theories have been proposed to explain how attitudes arise from stimulus co-occurrence via evaluative conditioning. In this Review, Hütter appraises these theoretical views in light of the empirical evidence and considers how dual- and single-process accounts can be integrated.

    • Mandy Hütter
    Review Article
  • People often look for objects in their immediate environment, engaging in a behaviour known as visual search. In this Review, Lleras and colleagues discuss how visual processing influences visual search, focusing on theories that incorporate constraints from peripheral vision.

    • Alejandro Lleras
    • Simona Buetti
    • Zoe Jing Xu
    Review Article
  • A key factor that instigates and perpetuates intergroup conflict is people’s support for violence against the outgroup. In this Review, Saguy and Reifen-Tagar consider the sources of support for violent conflict: basic cognitive-motivational roots, personal inclinations, group-level influences, situational influences and post-hoc justifications of violence.

    • Tamar Saguy
    • Michal Reifen-Tagar
    Review Article
  • Decades of research have uncovered effective learning strategies to support student learning. In this Review, Carpenter et al. summarize the literature on spaced learning and retrieval practice strategies, and describe how metacognition guides strategy use in realistic learning situations.

    • Shana K. Carpenter
    • Steven C. Pan
    • Andrew C. Butler
    Review Article
  • A variety of mindfulness-specific psychological mechanisms have been proposed to account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness-based interventions. In this Perspective, Goldberg argues that emphasizing the commonalities rather than differences between mindfulness-based interventions and other treatments might help to guide future research.

    • Simon B. Goldberg
  • Democracy is at risk when citizens become so polarized that an ‘us versus them’ mentality dominates. In this Review, Jost et al. provide a conceptual framework that integrates scientific knowledge about cognitive–motivational mechanisms that influence political polarization and the social-communicative contexts in which they are enacted.

    • John T. Jost
    • Delia S. Baldassarri
    • James N. Druckman
    Review Article
  • Social psychology often emphasizes social categories as the unit of explanation. In this Perspective, Cikara et al. argue that the primacy of categories leads to neglect of contextual features that shape behaviour; they describe alternative frameworks for incorporating context into social psychology theorizing.

    • Mina Cikara
    • Joel E. Martinez
    • Neil A. Lewis Jr
  • Intellectual humility involves acknowledging the limitations of one’s knowledge and that one’s beliefs might be incorrect. In this Review, Porter and colleagues synthesize concepts of intellectual humility across fields and describe the complex interplay between intellectual humility and related individual and societal factors.

    • Tenelle Porter
    • Abdo Elnakouri
    • Igor Grossmann
    Review Article