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Volume 13 Issue 3, March 2017

Cover image supplied by David Fernandes-Cabral, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. The corticospinal tract of the human brain on high-definition fibre tracking. The corticospinal tract, the longest white matter tract in the CNS, originates from the primary motor cortex, and crosses the internal capsule, brainstem and, finally, the spinal cord. Lesions such as brain tumours, arteriovenous malformations and strokes can displace, disrupt or infiltrate this tract. Advanced fibre tracking methods allow precise reconstruction of the tract, which can help improve outcomes after neurosurgical procedures.

Research Highlight

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In Brief

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Research Highlight

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News & Views

  • A European working group has provided a new set of recommendations for the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in the diagnostic evaluation of Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. These recommendations represent an important step towards the implementation of CSF biomarker tests in the clinic, but several challenges remain.

    • Douglas R. Galasko
    • Leslie M. Shaw
    News & Views
  • Patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who lack structural abnormalities on MRI constitute a challenge in presurgical work-up. A longitudinal single-centre study of long-term seizure outcomes in patients with nonlesional epilepsy showed that 59% of the cohort was free from disabling seizures 10 years after resective epilepsy surgery. These results are encouraging and valuable for patient counselling.

    • Kristina Malmgren
    • David Krýsl
    News & Views
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Review Article

  • Research into the mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy have focused on neurons, but evidence is accumulating that Schwann cells have a central role. In this Review, the authors consider how Schwann cell dysfunction and the interactions of these cells with neurons and microvessels contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropathy in diabetes.

    • Nádia P. Gonçalves
    • Christian B. Vægter
    • Troels S. Jensen
    Review Article
  • Stroke is associated with an increased risk of dementia, but efforts to develop treatments that prevent dementia in survivors of stroke have thus far been unsuccessful. Here, Mok and colleagues review the mechanisms underlying early-onset and delayed-onset poststroke dementia, and highlight promising future strategies for the development of preventive treatments.

    • Vincent C. T. Mok
    • Bonnie Y. K. Lam
    • Lawrence K. S. Wong
    Review Article
  • Altered brain network connectivity might underlie the deficits in social cognition that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here, Modi and Sahin discuss the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by sensory and social stimuli to assess network connectivity in humans with ASD and in animal models, and consider the potential for ERPs to provide a translational biomarker of social dysfunction.

    • Meera E. Modi
    • Mustafa Sahin
    Review Article
  • Neuroinflammation can cause acute secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and has been linked to chronic neurodegenerative diseases; however, anti-inflammatory agents have failed to improve TBI outcomes in clinical trials. In this Review, the authors propose a new framework for targeted immunomodulation after TBI.

    • Dennis W. Simon
    • Mandy J. McGeachy
    • Patrick M. Kochanek
    Review Article
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