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Volume 12 Issue 8, August 2016

Cover image supplied by Arnulf H. Koeppen and Joseph E. Mazurkiewicz, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA. The dorsal root ganglion in Friedreich ataxia. In this condition, IBA1-positive monocytes breach the S100α-positive satellite cell barrier and penetrate into neurons. These observations support the conclusion that the dorsal root ganglia lesion in Friedreich ataxia includes an inflammatory component.

Research Highlight

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In Brief

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Research Highlight

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News & Views

  • A recent study demonstrates that amyloid-β (Aβ) can function as an antimicrobial peptide, and additional data show that bacteria and yeast can seed Aβ deposition into amyloid. These data suggest a complex interplay between the normal function of Aβ, its accumulation in the brain, and host immune defence.

    • Todd E. Golde
    News & Views
  • A new meta-analysis, which evaluated individual patient data from randomized trials of aspirin in patients with non-disabling acute brain ischaemia, found this drug to be much more efficacious at reducing early stroke recurrence than was previously estimated.

    • Robert G. Hart
    • John W. Eikelboom
    News & Views
  • Recently published findings from the ENDORSE study provide 5 years of randomized safety and efficacy data for two doses of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in multiple sclerosis. The report complements results from the pivotal CONFIRM and DEFINE trials; however, postmarketing data from clinical practice is needed to complete the risk–benefit profile of DMF.

    • Mar Tintoré
    • Jaume Sastre-Garriga
    News & Views
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Review Article

  • The archetypal vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, arose in evolution as a signal affecting neural cells, and was subsequently co-opted to regulate vascular function. Here, the authors review the roles of the VEGF family as both aetiological factors and therapeutic targets in neurological disease.

    • Christian Lange
    • Erik Storkebaum
    • Peter Carmeliet
    Review Article
  • About 2% of the general population and 8% of people with migraine have chronic migraine, defined as ≥15 headache days per month. The condition can be disabling and has a severe impact on quality of life, yet it receives little attention. This Review summarizes the current understanding of the risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine chronification, and discusses strategies to prevent and treat the disorder.

    • Arne May
    • Laura H. Schulte
    Review Article
  • Cognitive and behavioural comorbidities are common in children with epilepsy, and correlate with worse quality of life, increased behavioural and language problems and worse social skills, all of which adversely affect long-term psychosocial functioning. This review outlines the most common cognitive comorbidities in different types of epilepsy, and outlines the current understanding of the pathophysiology of epilepsy-associated cognitive and neurodevelopmental problems in children with epilepsy. Moreover, the authors provide suggestions for screening for cognitive comorbidity in this patient group.

    • Katherine C. Nickels
    • Michael J. Zaccariello
    • Elaine C. Wirrell
    Review Article
  • The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is widely recommended as an outcome measure after traumatic brain injury. Following the 40thanniversary of its original publication, McMillan and colleagues review the development of the GOS and its extension and refinement over the past four decades, and consider how it can contribute to further understanding of brain injury.

    • Tom McMillan
    • Lindsay Wilson
    • Michael Bond
    Review Article
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Opinion

  • Participants in collision sports show a high incidence of concussion and can have deleterious long-term consequences for brain function. Here, Rebekah Mannix and colleagues discuss the benefits and risks associated with the practice of contact sports and examine how this balance affects policies regarding the practice of collision sports.

    • Rebekah Mannix
    • William P. Meehan III
    • Alvaro Pascual-Leone
    Opinion
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