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Volume 12 Issue 3, March 2016

Cover image supplied by Arnulf H. Koeppen and Joseph E. Mazurkiewicz, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA. The dorsal root ganglion in Friedreich ataxia. In this condition, IBA1-positive monocytes breach the S100α-positive satellite cell barrier and penetrate into neurons. These observations support the conclusion that the dorsal root ganglia lesion in Friedreich ataxia includes an inflammatory component.

Research Highlight

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In Brief

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Research Highlight

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News & Views

  • A recent study that applied new criteria for diagnosing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders in the absence of serum aquaporin 4 antibodies highlights difficulties with clinical application of these criteria. Classification on the basis of molecular markers might offer a more practical alternative.

    • Sean J. Pittock
    News & Views
  • A new study suggests that the application of uniform diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) substantially reduces variation in MCI prevalence estimates. Refinement and harmonization of clinical and research criteria are essential milestones towards improved testing of therapeutic interventions aimed at curbing the epidemic of MCI and dementia.

    • Harald Hampel
    • Simone Lista
    News & Views
  • Epilepsy surgery is the standard of care for focal drug-resistant epilepsy, but it is underutilized. Knowledge gaps and attitudes toward epilepsy surgery are partly responsible, and a new study explores whether the health-care infrastructure in developed countries influences access to and utilization of epilepsy surgery.

    • Samuel Wiebe
    News & Views
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Review Article

  • In auditory neuropathy, sensory transduction and amplification is preserved, but abnormal neural encoding of sound stimuli impairs speech comprehension severely, beyond what would be expected on the basis of increased threshold of audibility. Here, Moser and Starr provide an overview of the mechanisms of auditory neuropathy, including auditory synaptopathy. Moreover, the authors provide a brief guide to physiological and psychophysical tests for the clinical diagnosis of the disorders, discuss the strategies for hearing rehabilitation, and provide an outlook on future therapies.

    • Tobias Moser
    • Arnold Starr
    Review Article
  • Tinnitus, prevalent in up to 15% of the world population, is typically linked to noise-associated hearing loss, but the relationship between noise exposure and tinnitus is not straightforward: not all humans or model animals develop tinnitus after noise-associated cochlear damage, and the mechanisms involved in tinnitus involve central auditory system and nonauditory brain areas. This Review provides an overview of current understanding of neural mechanisms of tinnitus, which is essential for developing effective treatments for this disorder.

    • Susan E. Shore
    • Larry E. Roberts
    • Berthold Langguth
    Review Article
  • Access to the brain remains a challenge in surgical and drug treatment of neurological disorders, but therapeutic use of ultrasound offers a realistic alternative to overcome the challenges. In this Review, the authors provide an overview of how ultrasound can be used for neurosurgery to ablate pathological tissue, for drug delivery by opening the blood–brain barrier, and for neuromodulation.

    • Gerhard Leinenga
    • Christian Langton
    • Jürgen Götz
    Review Article
  • Frontotemporal dementia often presents with a variety of movement disorders, and several genetic mutations have been associated with the various presentations. In this Review, Baizabal-Carvallo and Jankovic characterize the clinical and pathological phenotypes of frontotemporal dementia, and discuss the genetic correlates of these phenotypes.

    • José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo
    • Joseph Jankovic
    Review Article
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