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Volume 12 Issue 2, February 2016

Research Highlight

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Year in Review

  • Important advances in Parkinson disease (PD) in 2015 included a revision of its clinical diagnostic criteria and a proposal for research criteria defining prodromal PD. Research published in the past year has also continued to expand our understanding of the roles of Lewy pathology and α-synuclein in the pathobiology of PD.

    • Lorraine V. Kalia
    • Anthony E. Lang
    Year in Review
  • The past year has seen practice-changing findings in stroke research. Strong evidence now supports endovascular thrombectomy as the new gold standard of care in acute ischaemic stroke, and a pragmatic trial raised concerns over early intensive mobilization after stroke. Moreover, new insights were gained into the trajectory of stroke-associated cognitive decline.

    • Alejandro A. Rabinstein
    Year in Review
  • Gliomas are the most common form of malignant primary brain tumour. In the past year, substantial progress has been made in the classification and treatment of lower-grade gliomas (WHO grades II and III), and the FDA has approved a new therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastomas.

    • Patrick Y. Wen
    • David A. Reardon
    Year in Review
  • The application of imaging biomarkers has provided new insights into the mechanisms of damage in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the risk of MS development and progression. The goal of eliminating all disease activity requires a timely escalation of treatment. This increasing complexity is compounded by the need to treat comorbidities.

    • Olga Ciccarelli
    • Alan Thompson
    Year in Review
  • Tau protein abnormalities are key pathogenic features of Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. In 2015, new studies of the less common tauopathies, including progressive supranuclear palsy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, have identified in vivo biomarkers and mechanisms that initiate tau pathology.

    • Julio C. Rojas
    • Adam L. Boxer
    Year in Review
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Review Article

  • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, and extrahepatic manifestations, including various types of neurological injury, have also been reported in individuals with HEV infection. The most common neurological manifestations are Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), neuralgic amyotrophy, and encephalitis and/or myelitis. In this article, the authors review the reported cases of HEV-associated neurological injury, discuss the possible pathogenic mechanisms, and outline future directions and research questions.

    • Harry R. Dalton
    • Nassim Kamar
    • Bart C. Jacobs
    Review Article
  • 2015 saw the publication of five randomized controlled trials of endovascular treatment for acute stroke caused by vascular occlusion, with huge implications for the future of patient management. Mokin and colleagues consider the findings of these trials in the context of their designs, in particular the criteria for patient selection, and their likely impact on future management of acute stroke.

    • Maxim Mokin
    • Haydy Rojas
    • Elad I. Levy
    Review Article
  • The chemokine receptor CCR5 is thought to have a role in several CNS inflammatory diseases and infections. The role of CCR5 in HIV has already led to the development of effective and well-tolerated CCR5 antagonists, which could offer a readily available option for the treatment of CNS diseases. In this Review, Martin-Blondel et al. consider the evidence for a role of CCR5 in several CNS diseases and the rationale for use of CCR5 anatagonists in these conditions.

    • Guillaume Martin-Blondel
    • David Brassat
    • Roland S. Liblau
    Review Article
  • Psychiatric and neurological comorbidities are relatively common in epilepsy, affecting 30–50% of patients. Neurologists should be able to treat psychiatric comorbidities in patients with epilepsy and identify patients at risk of adverse events from psychotropic medications, because psychiatric care is not available to all patients. In this Review, Andres Kanner discusses the complex relationship between epilepsy and psychiatric and neurological comorbidities, and provides considerations for selection of antiepileptic and psychotropic drugs in patients with epilepsy.

    • Andres M. Kanner
    Review Article
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Opinion

  • Suspected non-Alzheimer disease pathophysiology (SNAP) is a biomarker-based concept that applies to individuals with normal levels of amyloid-β biomarkers in the brain, but in whom biomarkers of neurodegeneration are abnormal. Clinically normal and mildly impaired individuals with SNAP are at increased risk of poor clinical and cognitive outcomes. In this Perspectives article, Clifford Jack and colleagues describe the available data on SNAP and address topical controversies in the field.

    • Clifford R. Jack Jr
    • David S. Knopman
    • Stephanie J. B. Vos
    Opinion
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