Reviews & Analysis

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  • Clinical boundaries between neurology and psychiatry hamper understanding of disorders with phenotypes that span these disciplines. In this Review, Peall et al. discuss rare genetic brain disorders with neurological and psychiatric phenotypes, and consider common underlying mechanisms that could be therapeutic targets.

    • Kathryn J. Peall
    • Michael J. Owen
    • Jeremy Hall
    Review Article
  • A new study indicates that African American people with multiple sclerosis have higher markers of humoral disease pathology than white people with multiple sclerosis. However, apparent differences in pathophysiology between ethnic groups cannot be fully interpreted without more comprehensive studies that examine the effects of social inequality on disease.

    • Christopher M. Orlando
    • Lilyana Amezcua
    News & Views
  • Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer disease. In this Review, the authors examine the potential of key molecules in the pathophysiology as biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia and consider the challenges of clinical translation.

    • Satoshi Hosoki
    • Gurpreet K. Hansra
    • Perminder S. Sachdev
    Review Article
  • The incidence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension is rapidly rising in line with global obesity rates. This Review summarizes evidence suggesting that the condition is not idiopathic but is instead related to systemic metabolic and hormonal perturbations and should thus be considered a metabolic disease.

    • Andreas Yiangou
    • Susan P. Mollan
    • Alexandra J. Sinclair
    Review Article
  • This Review describes the emerging landscape of diagnostic, categorical and pharmacodynamic biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and considers the role of these biomarkers in the rapidly evolving landscape of new therapeutics for this condition.

    • Roisin McMackin
    • Peter Bede
    • Orla Hardiman
    Review Article
  • New guidelines for designing controlled clinical trials for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) have been published. The design of such trials remains a challenge, as the heterogeneity of IIH necessitates different outcome measures for specific clinical presentations.

    • Valérie Biousse
    • Nancy J. Newman
    News & Views
  • The limited success of amyloid-β-targeting therapies for Alzheimer disease has led to a shift in focus towards the tau protein. This Review provides an update on the initial trials of tau-targeting therapies, focusing particularly on immunotherapies, and considers future directions for these therapies.

    • Erin E. Congdon
    • Changyi Ji
    • Einar M. Sigurdsson
    Review Article
  • The underlying cause of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) remains enigmatic, but an increased risk among spouses of people with AD has led to speculation of transmissibility. A mouse study now suggests that the transfer of microbiota could underlie this potential transmissibility, but the findings leave many questions unanswered.

    • Kristina Endres
    • Karl-Herbert Schäfer
    News & Views
  • Understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying cerebral malaria remains incomplete despite intense scrutiny. Hadjilaou et al. discuss potential treatment strategies targeting pathogen replication and clearance, host–pathogen interactions at the cerebrovasculature or leveraging host innate and adaptive immunity.

    • Alexandros Hadjilaou
    • Johannes Brandi
    • Thomas Jacobs
    Review Article
  • Here, the authors discuss evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in Parkinson disease. They cover the anatomical connections between the cerebellum and basal ganglia and how functional and connectivity alterations observed in the cerebellum of people with the disease relate to specific clinical symptoms.

    • Tianbai Li
    • Weidong Le
    • Joseph Jankovic
    Review Article
  • A new study indicates that although men and women are equally likely to experience cognitive impairment after acute ischaemic stroke, there are sex differences in particular cognitive domains. Whether these differences are directly linked to biological sex is uncertain, as many factors, including age and pre-stroke factors, could contribute to cognitive outcomes.

    • Louise D. McCullough
    News & Views
  • The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis exposome is the lifetime accumulation of environmental exposures that increase disease risk and affect progression. This Review summarizes the literature that has sought to characterize aspects of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis exposome and considers potential mechanisms of exposure-induced toxicity.

    • Stephen A. Goutman
    • Masha G. Savelieff
    • Eva L. Feldman
    Review Article
  • The TRACK-TBI LONG study has shown that outcomes are highly variable in the 7 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although many patients remain stable, almost one-third experience declines in cognitive, psychiatric and functional state. These findings suggest that TBI is a chronic disease and that its management should change accordingly.

    • David J. Sharp
    • Neil S. N. Graham
    News & Views
  • Endemic parkinsonism occurs only in specific locations or populations. Here, Menšíková et al. describe clusters of endemic parkinsonism and highlight that those linked to neurotoxic environmental factors seem to be disappearing, while genetically determined clusters persist.

    • Katerina Menšíková
    • John C. Steele
    • Petr Kaňovský
    Review Article
  • Two recent studies leverage the same French population-based disease registry to describe real-world medication prescription patterns, patient characteristics and treatment effectiveness in people with schizophrenia. These studies also identify disparities in the health care and outcomes of these individuals compared with those of the general population.

    • Marco Solmi
    • Christoph U. Correll
    News & Views
  • Results from the phase III trials of the amyloid-targeting antibodies donanemab and solanezumab add further evidence that amyloid pathology is a key driver of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. The mixed results highlight important considerations for future trials and clinical practice.

    • Wiesje M. van der Flier
    • Betty M. Tijms
    News & Views
  • Cholesterol has diverse roles in the brain, and precise regulation of cholesterol production and catabolism is essential for healthy brain function. This Review summarizes cholesterol regulation and function in the brain and discusses evidence of cholesterol dyshomeostasis in age-related neuropathology and a number of neurological diseases. In particular, the authors focus on Huntington disease and insights from rodent models.

    • Marta Valenza
    • Giulia Birolini
    • Elena Cattaneo
    Review Article
  • Understanding of the psychiatric and behavioural consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains limited. In this Review, Li and colleagues highlight ways to progress research in this field and discuss neuropsychiatric sequelae of TBI that affect long-term health outcomes and functional recovery.

    • Lucia M. Li
    • Alan Carson
    • Kristen Dams-O’Connor
    Review Article