Year in Review

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  • This year, the COVID-19 pandemic has altered neurological care in many ways. However, evidence indicates that people from marginalized ethnic and socioeconomic groups have been affected by these changes more than others, highlighting and amplifying existing health-care disparities.

    • LaShyra Nolen
    • Nicte I. Mejia
    Year in Review
  • As the COVID-19 pandemic developed and neurological manifestations were reported, concern grew that SARS-CoV-2 might directly invade neuronal cells. However, research throughout the year to address this concern has revealed a different story with inflammatory processes at its centre.

    • Tom Solomon
    Year in Review
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique risks to people with Alzheimer disease and dementia. Research from 2020 has shown that these people have a relatively high risk of contracting severe COVID-19, and are also at risk of neuropsychiatric disturbances as a result of lockdown measures and social isolation.

    • Katya Numbers
    • Henry Brodaty
    Year in Review
  • From the interruption of clinical trials by shelter-in-place orders to the challenges involved in safely collecting biofluid samples, drug development for neurological disease was hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic this year. However, the field has responded with innovative solutions, and 2021 could see the therapeutic pipeline flowing again.

    • Gregory A. Jicha
    • Erin L. Abner
    Year in Review
  • Many neurologists have used telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies have shown that videolinks in acute care can save personal protective equipment and protect staff. Furthermore, the telephone can provide supra-hospital care in Parkinson disease and manage patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis well. The primacy of face-to face care has been dented.

    • Victor Patterson
    Year in Review
  • In the past few years the scientific community has witnessed a prodigious surge in research activity, publication of data and progress in understanding the mechanistic components of migraine. This renaissance is the result of efforts initiated decades ago that are finally being translated into benefits for individuals affected by this disease.

    • Cristina Tassorelli
    • Roberto De Icco
    Year in Review
  • In 2018, developments in Parkinson disease (PD) research yielded improved diagnostic criteria and provided evidence for the effects of some treatments, both old and new. These developments enrich the treatment options available for PD and are likely to change important guideline recommendations.

    • Günther Deuschl
    • Rob M. A. de Bie
    Year in Review
  • The past year saw progress in acute treatment of ischaemic stroke, but large inequalities in stroke services were revealed, warranting strategical initiatives to improve treatment access. Reclassification of stroke as a disease of the nervous system in the WHO International Classification of Diseases 11th revision is likely to help such initiatives.

    • Bo Norrving
    Year in Review
  • 2018 saw the failure of several large clinical trials that were based on the premise that reduction of amyloid-β levels is an effective treatment for symptomatic Alzheimer disease. Yet, over the same time period, good news also emerged about the diagnostic value of tau PET imaging.

    • David S. Knopman
    Year in Review
  • Publications on epilepsy in 2018 have shed light on the aetiology and management of the condition and raised new questions. Translation from mechanisms to clinical practice, driven by cooperation among multiple fields, will be crucial to further advances.

    • Dong Zhou
    Year in Review
  • In 2018, the distinguishing pathological features of white matter lesions in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) were refined, and serological and MRI biomarkers of clinical worsening and evolution to progressive MS were identified. We also saw therapeutic advances in progressive MS with the emergence of new neuroprotective strategies and putative markers of neurodegeneration.

    • Maria A. Rocca
    • Massimo Filippi
    Year in Review
  • In 2017, extensive research into multiple sclerosis (MS) resulted in improved diagnostic criteria, development of biomarkers that enable monitoring of disease evolution and treatment response over time, and identification of novel genetic markers of disease susceptibility. In addition, 2017 saw the first successful clinical trials of remyelination strategies and treatments for progressive MS.

    • Maria Trojano
    • Maria Pia Amato
    Year in Review
  • In 2017, dramatic advances have been made in the treatment of motor neuron diseases. New therapies have been approved for spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and a host of other therapies that are currently under development are showing promising results.

    • Matthew C. Kiernan
    Year in Review
  • 2017 saw the publication of new classifications for epilepsy and seizure types, which emphasize the importance of understanding the underlying disease mechanisms. This aetiology-based approach is already beginning to inform developments in therapies and trial design in the epilepsies.

    • Sameer M. Zuberi
    • Andreas Brunklaus
    Year in Review
  • The past year saw advances in endovascular treatment for acute stroke, speech therapy for aphasia after stroke, and cardiac disease management to prevent stroke. These treatments were characterized by more intensive or more extensive effects than standard care, necessitating thoughtful translation of the clinical trial findings into routine clinical practice.

    • Meng Lee
    • Bruce Ovbiagele
    Year in Review
  • 200 years after James Parkinson's An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, 2017 has seen important advances that are driving a shift towards a broader and more holistic understanding of Parkinson disease aetiology and progression. This shift might finally pave the way to entirely novel and more effective prevention and management strategies.

    • Walter Maetzler
    • Daniela Berg
    Year in Review
  • Brain tumours encompass a heterogeneous collection of neoplasms, traditionally classified by histopathological criteria. In 2016, the WHO published an updated classification that, for the first time, defines brain tumour types according to integrated histological and molecular parameters. Furthermore, clinical trial results were reported that inform therapeutic decision-making in diffuse gliomas.

    • Matthias Preusser
    • Christine Marosi
    Year in Review
  • In 2016, new highly active treatment options for relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) emerged. At the same time, large clinical trials in progressive MS highlighted the limitations of immune-directed therapies, and called for new strategies to treat disease progression in MS.

    • Bernhard Hemmer
    • Mark Mühlau
    Year in Review
  • The past 2 years have seen major breakthroughs in endovascular treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. As highlighted in 2016, we now need to refine the logistics for delivery of this treatment, including patient selection. We should not forget, however, that it is better to prevent strokes in the first place.

    • Ale Algra
    • Marieke J. H. Wermer
    Year in Review
  • In 2016, the literature on neurological infections was, understandably, dominated by Zika virus. However, we should not overlook important publications on the treatment of cryptococcal and bacterial meningitis.

    • Diederik van de Beek
    • Matthijs C. Brouwer
    Year in Review