Review Articles

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  • In this Review, the authors discuss the unique challenges involved in performing genetic testing for primary mitochondrial diseases and consider the value of advanced approaches such as long-read sequencing, RNA sequencing and the interpretation of transfer RNA variants.

    • William L. Macken
    • Jana Vandrovcova
    • Robert D. S. Pitceathly
    Review Article
  • Biomarkers of epileptogenesis would enable identification of individuals who are risk of developing epilepsy after an insult or as a result of a genetic defect. In this article, Simonato et al. review progress towards such biomarkers and set out a five-phase roadmap to facilitate their development.

    • Michele Simonato
    • Denes V. Agoston
    • Karen S. Wilcox
    Review Article
  • Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) is a complication of preterm birth associated with neurodevelopmental sequelae. Here, Ballabh and de Vries review the mechanisms underlying IVH-induced white matter injury, focusing on its effects on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, and discuss promising novel treatments for IVH-induced white matter injury.

    • Praveen Ballabh
    • Linda S. de Vries
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Chard and colleagues consider the effects that multiple sclerosis pathology has on brain networks and discuss the ways in which knowledge of brain network changes could inform the targeting of treatments for the condition.

    • Declan T. Chard
    • Adnan A. S. Alahmadi
    • H. Vrenken
    Review Article
  • The identification of pathogenic targets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis means that effective therapies are increasingly likely. In this Review, Kiernan et al. discuss advances towards therapy and the innovations needed in clinical trials to facilitate the translation into treatments for patients.

    • Matthew C. Kiernan
    • Steve Vucic
    • Martin R. Turner
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Wolf et al. provide an overview of the hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and discuss how identification of the genes involved in these disorders have provided insight into the clinical presentations of these disorders and into myelin biology.

    • Nicole I. Wolf
    • Charles ffrench-Constant
    • Marjo S. van der Knaap
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss recent progress in the detection and prediction of recovery of consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness caused by severe brain injuries. They describe the ongoing development of pharmacological and electrophysiological therapies designed to enhance recovery.

    • Brian L. Edlow
    • Jan Claassen
    • David M. Greer
    Review Article
  • Accumulating evidence indicates important roles for microglial activation and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, Leng and Edison describe the interplay between microglial activation and AD-related pathologies and discuss how microglial priming and activation might influence the trajectory of AD.

    • Fangda Leng
    • Paul Edison
    Review Article
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure that allows targeted circuit-based neuromodulation and has become a standard of care in a range of movement disorders. This Review discusses the evolution and current status of DBS technology and anticipates future advances.

    • Joachim K. Krauss
    • Nir Lipsman
    • Andres M. Lozano
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss how technological advances are enabling clinical genetic testing for various dementia disorders. Additionally, they consider which types of test are appropriate for which patients and address the ethical issues that can be raised by genetic testing in these disorders.

    • Carolin A. M. Koriath
    • Joanna Kenny
    • Simon Mead
    Review Article
  • Current medications used for pain management can have dose-limiting adverse effects. In this Review, Waxman et al. discuss compounds designed to target peripheral sodium channels for pain relief and highlight the challenges and future potential of this therapeutic strategy.

    • Matthew Alsaloum
    • Grant P. Higerd
    • Stephen G. Waxman
    Review Article
  • Focused ultrasound (FUS) offers the ability to non-invasively and precisely intervene in key circuits that underlie common and challenging brain disorders. This Review provides a comprehensive update of FUS applications in the brain, including thermoablation, blood–brain barrier opening and neuromodulation.

    • Ying Meng
    • Kullervo Hynynen
    • Nir Lipsman
    Review Article
  • The anti-seizure medications used to treat patients with epilepsy can improve symptoms but do not address the underlying cause of the condition. In this Review, the authors discuss the ongoing shift towards personalized treatments for specific epilepsy aetiologies.

    • Rima Nabbout
    • Mathieu Kuchenbuch
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss how new therapies are changing the field of spinal muscular atrophy. They consider the effects of treatment at different stages of the disease, what treatment effects tell us about the disease and the challenges facing the field in the treatment era.

    • Eugenio Mercuri
    • Maria Carmela Pera
    • Francesco Muntoni
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Dalakas et al. discuss the complement system, the role it plays in autoimmune neurological disease and neurodegenerative disease, and provide an overview of the latest therapeutics that target complement and that can be used for or have potential in neurological disorders.

    • Marinos C. Dalakas
    • Harry Alexopoulos
    • Peter J. Spaeth
    Review Article
  • Drug repositioning and repurposing can enhance traditional drug development efforts and could accelerate the identification of new treatments. In this Review, Ballard and colleagues highlight priority compounds for repurposing for the treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    • Clive Ballard
    • Dag Aarsland
    • Janet Sultana
    Review Article
  • This Review outlines the advances of molecular treatment of brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. Substantial improvements in survival have been achieved in patients with molecular subgroups whose alterations can be targeted with specific molecular compounds.

    • Riccardo Soffietti
    • Manmeet Ahluwalia
    • Roberta Rudà
    Review Article
  • Imaging-based assessment is becoming increasingly important in the management of acute stroke, but processing and interpretation of images in clinical practice is challenging. In this Review, Parsons and colleagues explore the potential of artificial intelligence to provide treatment decision support.

    • Andrew Bivard
    • Leonid Churilov
    • Mark Parsons
    Review Article